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Transcript of Engaging African American Students - NSSE Homensse.indiana.edu/.../2006/HBCU_Engagement.pdf ·...

  • Engaging African American StudentsCompare Student Engagement and Student Satisfaction at HBCUs and their Self-Identified PWIs using National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) Data

    Pu-Shih Daniel Chen

    Ted Ingram

    Lowell K. DavisIndiana University

    Center for Postsecondary Research

  • OVERVIEW

    Background Information Literature Review Methods Findings Applications for Institutions

  • Education for African Americans

    The citizenship status of African Americansin the American colonies were loosely

    defined during the country's infancy. Incolonial America, there were free blacks aswell as enslaved blacks. But as the colonies

    began to rely on a slave labor economy,education of blacks was restricted, and then

    outlawed.

    With the close of the Civil War 4.4 millionfree African Americans embark upon aneducational journey. Blacks, missionaries,

    and the federal government work togetherto create schools.

  • Current Status of HBCUs

    One hundred and seventy-two years after their inception, historically black colleges and universities stand at the crossroad, ready to take on the future.

    Affirmative Action

    Prepared for Greatness

  • Importance of Topic Historically Black College and

    Universities are compared with self selected peers

    We attempt to determine the relationship between engagement and student satisfaction

  • Definition of Related TermsSatisfaction- Based upon twoNSSE survey items

    How would you evaluate yourentire educational experience atthis institution? If you could start over again,would you go to the sameinstitution you are now attending?

    Student Engagement- a measurestudent behaviors and institutional actions that matter to student learningand success in college

    Reference: Annual Report 2005

  • Background of NSSE Measure effective educational

    practices Began in 2000 Surveyed more than 1000 four-year

    colleges and universities More than 528 colleges and

    universities participated in 2005 (17 HBCUs)

    Average response rate ~40%

  • Survey Administration How do undergraduates spend

    their time and what do they gain from attending college?

    Spring administration

    Survey items examine: student-faculty interaction, satisfaction, academic preparation and execution, out-of-class activities, etc.

  • NSSE Survey Administration Paper ,Web, Web+ Paper: Contact students by

    mail, students can respond by mail or web

    Web: Solely Electronic Communication

    Web+: Hardcopy paper survey is used to supplement web survey

    Student potentially contacted 5xs

  • Research Questions Do African American/Black

    students have the same level of education engagement at HBCUs vs. PWIs?

    Do African American students have the same level of satisfaction with their collegiate experience at HBCUs vs. PWIs?

    What factor may drive the differences, if any, in student satisfaction between HBCUs and PWIs?

  • Black student engagement at HBCUs

    More likely to be involved in student government (Sutton & Kimbrough, 2001)

    Spent more time utilizing campus facilities and participating in clubs and organizations (Watson & Kuh, 1996)

    Direct effects on self-reported gains in: understanding the arts and

    humanities Personal and social development Understanding science and

    technology Intellectual developing and writing

    skills (Flowers, 2002)

  • HBCU benefits continued

    HBCU offer significantly higher self-ratings in: psychosocial wellness, academic self-efficacy, and achievement orientation (Berger & Milem, 2000).

    African American men interact more frequently with faculty as compared to their female counterparts (Harper,Carini, Bridges, & Hayek; 2004)

  • Research Methods Sample:

    1,631 seniors from 17 HBCU 2,939 seniors from 246 PWI

    Instrument National Survey of Student

    Engagement (2005)

  • Research Methods (continued) Dependent Variables

    NSSE Benchmarks of Effective Educational Practices

    Deep Learning Scales Gain Scales Satisfaction Scale

    http://nsse.iub.edu/pdf/conference_presentations/2006/AIR2006DeepLearningFINAL.pdf

  • Dependent Variables NSSE Benchmarks of Effective

    Educational Practice

    Level of Academic Challenge

    Active and Collaborative Learning

    Student-Faculty Interaction

    Enriching Educational Experiences

    Supportive Campus Environment

  • Dependent Variables (continued) Deep Learning Scales

    Higher Order Learning Integrative Learning Reflective Learning

    Gain Scales Gain in General Education Gain in Social and Personal Development Gain in Practical Competence

    Satisfaction Scale

    http://nsse.iub.edu/pdf/conference_presentations/2006/AIR2006DeepLearningFINAL.pdf

  • Data Analysis Analysis of Covariance

    (ANCOVA) IV: HBCU Status DV: NSSE Scales Covariables:

    Public/private Student enrollment size Average faculty salary

  • Institutional Characteristics HBCU PWI Number of Institutions 17 246 African American Student Percentage 89% 8% Average Full-time Enrollment (FTE) 3,872 5,695 Average Percentage of Faculty with Terminal Degree 67% 80% Average salary equated to 9-month contracts of full-time instructional faculty - all ranks 54,064 56,458

    Carnegie Classifications (2000 version) Doctoral Extensive 0% 2% Doctoral Intensive 6% 10% Masters 65% 39% Baccalaureate Liberal Arts 0% 28% Baccalaureate General 29% 20% Institutional Control Public 82% 55% Private 18% 45%

  • 35

    40

    45

    50

    55

    60

    65

    HBCU

    PWI

    HBCU 56.28 58.9 49.63 43.05 58.41

    PWI 55.92 53.1 43.77 41.64 58.73

    Level ofAcademicChallenge

    Active &Collaborative

    Learning

    Student-Faculty

    Interaction

    EnrichingEducationalExperiences

    SupportiveCampus

    Environment

    NSSE Benchmarks

  • 58

    60

    62

    64

    66

    68

    70

    72

    74

    HBCU

    PWI

    HBCU 71.72 64.25 65.73

    PWI 69.96 60.91 63.67

    Higher Order Learning Integrative Learning Reflective Learning

    Deep Learning Scales

    http://nsse.iub.edu/pdf/conference_presentations/2006/AIR2006DeepLearningFINAL.pdf

  • 50

    55

    60

    65

    70

    75

    80

    HBCU

    PWI

    HBCU 74.71 64.62 72.54

    PWI 74.75 54.01 69.3

    Gain in General EducationGain in Personal and Social

    DevelopmentGain in Practical

    Competence

    Gains Scales

  • 55

    60

    65

    70

    75

    80

    85

    HBCU

    PWI

    HBCU 66.2 63.00 79.50 71.50

    PWI 69.92 69.00 83.70 75.80

    OverallSatisfaction

    Academic Advising Entire EducationalExperience

    Would you AttendAgain?

    Student Satisfaction

  • Data Analysis (continued) Correlational Analysis

    Satisfaction scale All NSSE Items

    ANCOVA IV: HBCU status DV: NSSE Items that have a

    correlation coefficient with satisfaction scale greater than .3

  • Factors that Affect Satisfaction Relationship with other students Relationship with faculty members Relationship with administrative

    personnel and offices Institution emphasizes in providing

    the support you need to help you succeed academically

    Institution emphasizes in encouraging contact among students from different economic, social, and racial or ethnic backgrounds

    Institution emphasizes in providing the support you need to thrive socially

  • 2

    2.5

    3

    3.5

    4

    4.5

    5

    5.5

    6

    HBCU

    PWI

    HBCU 5.78 5.35 4.21 2.9 2.45 2.36

    PWI 5.51 5.42 4.89 2.96 2.45 2.22

    Relationship withother students

    Relationship withfaculty members

    Relationship withadministrative

    personnel

    Institutionemphasis:

    academic support

    Institutionemphasis: diverse

    contacts

    Institutionemphasis: social

    support

    Factors that Affect Satisfaction

  • Applications for Institutions HBCUs are doing a good job in

    providing an educationally engaging environment for African American students

    Relationship with administrative personnel and offices play an important role in student satisfaction

  • Questions

    Engaging African American Students OVERVIEWEducation for African AmericansCurrent Status of HBCUsImportance of TopicDefinition of Related TermsBackground of NSSESurvey AdministrationNSSE Survey AdministrationResearch QuestionsBlack student engagement at HBCUsHBCU benefits continuedResearch MethodsResearch Methods (continued)Dependent VariablesDependent Variables (continued)Data AnalysisInstitutional CharacteristicsNSSE BenchmarksDeep Learning ScalesGains ScalesStudent SatisfactionData Analysis (continued)Factors that Affect SatisfactionFactors that Affect SatisfactionApplications for InstitutionsQuestions