Employee Motivation Total Project
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HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
1.1 INTRODUCTION:Human Resource Management (HRM) is a relatively new approach to managing people in any organisation. People are considered the key resource in this approach. it is concerned with the people dimension in management of an organisation. Since an organisation is a body of people, their acquisition, development of skills, motivation for higher levels of attainments, as well as ensuring maintenance of their level of commitment are all significant activities. These activities fall in the domain of HRM. Human Resource Management is a process, which consists of four main activities, namely, acquisition, development, motivation, as well as maintenance of human resources.Scott, Clothier and Spiegel have defined: Human Resource Management as that branch of management which is responsible on a staff basis for concentrating on those aspects of operations which are primarily concerned with the relationship of management to employees and employees to employees and with the development of the individual and the group. Human Resource Management is responsible for maintaining good human relations in the organisation. It is also concerned with development of individuals and achieving integration of goals of the organisation and those of the individuals. North considers human resource management as an extension of general management, that of prompting and stimulating every employee to make his fullest contribution to the purpose of a business. Human resource management is not something that could be separated from the basic managerial function. It is a major component of the broader managerial function.
1.1.1 Definitions: According to French Wendell, Human resource management as the recruitment, selection, development, utilisation, compensation and motivation of human resources by the organisation. According to Edwin B. Flippo, Human resource management is the planning, organising, directing and controlling of the procurement, development, resources to the end that individual and societal objectives are accomplished. This definition reveals that human resource (HR) management is that aspect of management, This deals with the planning, organising, directing and controlling the personnel functions of the enterprise.1.1.2 Objectives: The basic objective of human resource management is to contribute to the realisation of the organisational goals. However, the specific objectives of human resource management are as follows:To ensure effective utilisation of human resources, all other organisational resources will be efficiently utilised by the human resources.To establish and maintain an adequate organisational structure of relationship among all the members of an organisation by dividing of organisation tasks into functions, positions and jobs, and by defining clearly the responsibility, accountability, authority for each job and its relation with other jobs in the organisation.To generate maximum development of human resources within the organisation by offering opportunities for advancement to employees through training and education.To ensure respect for human beings by providing various services and welfare facilities to the personnel.To ensure reconciliation of individual or group goals with those of the organisation in such a manner that the personnel feel a sense of commitment and loyalty towards it.
1.1.3 FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT:The main functions of human resource management are classified into two categories:Managerial Functions and (b) Operative FunctionsManagerial Functions:
188.8.131.52 Following are the managerial functions of Human Resources Management. Planning: The planning function of human resource department pertains to the steps taken in determining in advance personnel requirements, personnel programmes, policies etc. After determining how many and what type of people are required, a personnel manager has to devise ways and means to motivate them.Organisation: Under organisation, the human resource manager has to organise the operative functions by designing structure of relationship among jobs, personnel and physical factors in such a way so as to have maximum contribution towards organisational objectives. In this way a personnel manager performs following functions :Preparation of task force;Allocation of work to individuals;Integration of the efforts of the task force;Coordination of work of individual with that of the department. Directing: Directing is concerned with initiation of organised action and stimulating the people to work. The personnel manager directs the activities of people of the organisation to get its function performed properly. A personnel manager guides and motivates the staff of the organisation to follow the path laid down in advance.Controlling: It provides basic data for establishing standards, makes job analysis and performance appraisal, etc. All these techniques assist in effective control of the qualities, time and efforts of workers. Operative function: The operative functions are those tasks or duties which are specifically entrusted to the human resource or personnel department. These are concerned with employment, development, compensation, integration and maintenance of personnel of the organisation.
The operative functions of human resource or personnel department are discussed below: 1. Employment: The first operative function of the human resource of personnel department is the employment of proper kind and number of persons necessary to achieve the objectives of the organisation. This involves recruitment, selection, placement, etc. of the personnel. Before these processes are performed, it is better to determine the manpower requirements both in terms of number and quality of the personnel. Recruitment and selection cover the sources of supply of labour and the devices designed to select the right type of people for various jobs. Induction and placement of personnel for their better performance also come under the employment or procurement function. 2. Development: Training and development of personnel is a follow up of the employment function. It is a duty of management to train each employee property to develop technical skills for the job for which he has been employed and also to develop him for the higher jobs in the organisation. Proper development of personnel is necessary to increase their skills in doing their jobs and in satisfying their growth need. For this purpose, the personnel departments will device appropriate training programs. There are several on- the-job and off-the-job methods available for training purposes. A good training program should include a mixture of both types of methods. It is important to point out that personnel department arranges for training not only of new employees but also of old employees to update their knowledge in the use of latest techniques.3. Compensation: This function is concerned with the determination of adequate and equitable remuneration of the employees in the organisation of their contribution to the organisational goals. The personnel can be compensated both in terms of monetary as well as non-monetary rewards. Factors which must be borne in mind while fixing the remuneration of personnel are their basic needs, requirements of jobs, legal provisions regarding minimum wages, capacity of the organisation to pay, wage level afforded by competitors etc. For fixing the wage levels, the personnel department can make use of certain techniques like job evaluation and performance appraisal.
4. Human Relations: Practicing various human resources policies and programmes like employment, development and compensation and interaction among employees create a sense of relationship between the individual worker and management, among workers and trade unions and the management. It is a process of interaction among human beings. Human relations is an rear of management in integrating people into work situations in a away that motivates them to work together productively co-operatively and with economic, psychological and social satisfaction. It includes: Understanding and applying the models of perception, personality, learning, intra and inter personnel relations, intra and inter group relations.Job satisfactionMotivating the employees Boosting employee moraleDeveloping communication skillsEmployee motivation
Employee motivationIntroduction: Motivation is one of the most important factors affecting human behaviour and performance. This is the one of the reason why managers attach great importance to motivation in organizational setting. Lipper has called motivation has the core of management. Effective directing leads to effectiveness, both at organizational and individuals levels. This requires the understanding of what individuals want from the organization. However, what individuals want from the organization has not been fully identified.Definition: motivation is the complex forces starting and keeping a person at work in an organization . Motivation is something that moves the person to action, and continues him in course of action already initiated. motivation refers to the way in which urges, drives, desires, aspirations, strives, or needs direct, control or explain the behaviour of human beings. Motivation can be defined in a variety of ways, depending on whom you ask. If you ask someone on the street, you may get a response like, its what drives us or motivation is what makes us to do the things we do . as far as a f