Employee motivation 1

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  • 1.Learning Objectives 1. Characterize the nature of motivation, including its importance and basic historical perspectives. 2. Identify and describe the major content perspectives on motivation. 3. Identify and describe the major process perspectives on motivation. 4. Describe reinforcement perspectives on motivation. 5. Identify and describe popular motivational strategies. 6. Describe the role of organizational reward systems in motivation.

2. The Nature of Motivation Motivation The set of forces that cause people to behave in certain ways. The goal of managers is to maximize desired behaviors and minimize undesirable behaviors. The Importance of Motivation in the Workplace Determinants of Individual Performance Motivationthe desire to do the job. Abilitythe capability to do the job. Work environmentthe resources to do the job. 3. Figure 16.1: The Motivation Framework 4. Content Perspectives on Motivation Content Perspectives Approaches to motivation that try to answer the question, What factors in the workplace motivate people? Content Perspectives of Motivation Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Aldefers ERG Theory Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory McClellands Achievement, Power, and Affiliation Needs 5. Content Perspectives on Motivation (contd) The Need Hierarchy Approach Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Physiologicalbasic survival and biological function. Securitya safe physical and emotional environment. Belongingnesslove and affection. Esteempositive self-image/self-respect and recognition and respect from others. Self-actualizationrealizing ones potential for personal growth and development. Weakness of Maslows theory Five levels of need are not always present. Ordering or importance of needs is not always the same. Cultural differences. 6. Figure 16.2: Maslows Hierarchy of Needs 7. Content Perspectives on Motivation (contd) The ERG Theory Needs are grouped into three overlapping categories: Existence needsphysiological and security needs. Relatedness needsbelongingness and esteem by others. Growth needsself-esteem and self-actualization. ERG theory assumes that: Multiple needs can be operative at one time (there is no absolute hierarchy of needs). If a need is unsatisfied, a person will regress to a lower- level need and pursue that need (frustration-regression). 8. Content Perspectives on Motivation (contd) The Two-Factor Theory (Herzberg) Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are influenced by two independent sets of factors. Theory assumes that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are on two distinct continuums: Motivational factors (work content) are on a continuum that ranges from satisfaction to no satisfaction. Hygiene factors (work environment) are on a separate continuum that ranges from dissatisfaction to no dissatisfaction. 9. Content Perspectives on Motivation (contd) The Two-Factor Theory (contd) Theory posits that motivation is a two-step process: Ensuring that the hygiene factors are not deficient and not blocking motivation. Giving employees the opportunity to experience motivational factors through job enrichment. 10. Figure 16.3: The Two-Factor Theory of Motivation 11. Content Perspectives on Motivation (contd) Individual Human Needs (McClelland) The need for achievement The desire to accomplish a goal or task more effectively than in the past. The need for affiliation The desire for human companionship and acceptance. The need for power The desire to be influential in a group and to be in control of ones environment. Implications of the Content Perspectives Content (what causes motivation) Process (how motivation occurs) 12. Process Perspectives on Motivation Process Perspectives Approaches to motivation that focus on: Why people choose certain behavioral options to satisfy their needs How they evaluate their satisfaction after they have attained their goals. Process Perspectives of Motivation Expectancy Theory Porter-Lawler Extension of Expectancy Theory Equity Theory Goal-Setting Theory 13. Process Perspectives on Motivation (contd) Expectancy Theory Motivation depends on how much we want something and how likely we are to get it. Assumes that: Behavior is determined by personal and environmental forces. People make decisions about their behavior in organizations. People have different types of needs, desires, and goals. People choose among alternatives of behaviors in selecting one that that leads to a desired outcome. Motivation leads to effort that, when combined with ability and environmental factors, results in performance which leads to various outcomes that have value (valence) to employees. 14. Process Perspectives on Motivation (contd) Elements of Expectancy Theory Effort-to-Performance Expectancy The employees perception of the probability that effort will lead to a high level of performance. Performance-to-Outcome Expectancy The employees perception of the probability that performance will lead to a specific outcomethe consequence or reward for behaviors in an organizational setting. 15. Process Perspectives on Motivation (contd) Elements of Expectancy Theory (contd) Valence An index of how much an individual values a particular outcome. It is the attractiveness of the outcome to the individual. Attractive outcomes have positive valences and unattractive outcomes have negative valences. Outcomes to which an individual is indifferent have zero valences. For motivated behavior to occur: Both effort-to-performance expectancy and performance- to-outcome expectancy probabilities must be greater than zero. The sum of the valences must be greater than zero. 16. Figure 16.4: The Expectancy Model of Motivation 17. Process Perspectives on Motivation (contd) The Porter-Lawler Extension of Expectancy Theory Assumptions: If performance results in equitable and fair rewards, people will be more satisfied. High performance can lead to rewards and high satisfaction. Types of rewards: Extrinsic rewards are outcomes set and awarded by external parties (e.g., pay and promotions). Intrinsic rewards are outcomes internal to the individual (e.g., self-esteem and feelings of accomplishment). 18. Figure 16.5: The Porter-Lawler Extension of Expectancy Theory 19. Process Perspectives on Motivation (contd) Equity Theory People are motivated to seek social equity in the rewards they receive for performance. Equity is an individuals belief that the treatment he or she receives is fair relative to the treatment received by others. Individuals view the value of rewards (outcomes) and inputs of effort as ratios and make subjective comparisons of themselves to other people. outcomes (self) inputs (self) = outcomes (other) inputs (other) 20. Process Perspectives on Motivation (contd) Equity Theory (contd) Conditions of and reactions to equity comparisons: Feeling equitably rewarded. Maintain performance and accept comparison as fair estimate. Feeling under-rewardedtry to reduce inequity. Change inputs by trying harder or slacking off. Change outcomes by demanding a raise. Distort the ratios by altering perceptions of self or of others. Leave situation by quitting the job. Change comparisons by choosing another object person. Feeling over-rewarded. Increase or decrease inputs. Distort ratios by rationalizing. Help the object person gain more outcomes. 21. Process Perspectives on Motivation (contd) Goal-Setting Theory Assumptions Behavior is a result of conscious goals and intentions. Setting goals influence the behavior of people in organizations. Characteristics of Goals Goal difficulty Extent to which a goal is challenging and requires effort. People work harder to achieve more difficult goals. Goals should be difficult but attainable. Goal specificity Clarity and precision of the goal. Goals vary in their ability to be stated specifically 22. Process Perspectives on Motivation (contd) Characteristics of Goals (contd) Goal acceptance The extent to which persons accept a goal as their own. Goal commitment The extent to which an individual is personally interested in reaching a goal. Implications of the Process Perspectives If rewards are to motivate employees, they must be perceived as being valued, attainable, fair and equitable. 23. Figure 16.6: The Expanded Goal- setting Theory of Motivation 24. Reinforcement Perspectives on Motivation Reinforcement Theory The role of rewards as they cause behavior to change or remain the same over time. Assumes that: Behavior that results in rewarding consequences is likely to be repeated, whereas behavior that results in punishing consequences is less likely to be repeated. 25. Reinforcement Perspectives on Motivation (contd) Kinds of Reinforcement in Organizations Positive reinforcement Strengthens behavior with rewards or positive outcomes after a desired behavior is performed. Avoidance Strengthens behavior by avoiding unpleasant consequences that would result if the behavior is not performed. Punishment Weakens undesired behavior by using negative outcomes or unpleasant consequences when the behavior is performed. Extinction Weakens undesired behavior by simply ignoring or not reinforcing that behavior. 26. Reinforcement Perspectives on Motivation (contd) Providing Reinforcement in Organizations Reinforcement schedules Fixed interval schedulereinforcement applied at fixed time intervals, regardless of behavior. Variable intervalreinforcement applied at variable time intervals. Fixed ratioreinforcement applied after a fixed number of behaviors, regardless of time. Variable Ratioreinforcement applied after a variable number of behaviors, regardless of time. 27. Table 16.1: Elements of Reinforcement Theory 28. Reinforcement Perspectives on Motivation (contd) Providing Reinforcement in Organizations (contd) Behavior modification (OB mod) A method for applying the basic elements of reinfo