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Transcript of Employability

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Employabilityhttps://store.theartofservice.com/the-employability-toolkit.htmlEmployability'Employability' refers to a person's capability for gaining and maintaining employment (Hillage and Pollard, 1998). For individuals, employability depends on the knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) they possess, the way they present those assets to employers. As such employability is affected by both supply-side and demand-side factors which are often outside of an individual's control.https://store.theartofservice.com/the-employability-toolkit.htmlEmployability - OriginsThe concept of employability has been in the literature for many years. Current interest has been driven by:https://store.theartofservice.com/the-employability-toolkit.htmlEmployability - Employability: towards a definitionWhile there is no singular definition of employability, a review of the literature suggests that employability is about work and the ability to be employed, such as:https://store.theartofservice.com/the-employability-toolkit.htmlEmployability - Employability: towards a definition Berntson (2008) Employability refers to an individuals perception of his or her possibilities of getting new, equal, or better employment.https://store.theartofservice.com/the-employability-toolkit.htmlEmployability - Employability: towards a definitionHarvey (2001) Employability is the ability of graduate to get a satisfying job. Employability is a process of learning.https://store.theartofservice.com/the-employability-toolkit.htmlEmployability - Employability: towards a definitionHillage and Pollard (1998) Employability is the capability to move self-sufficiently within the labor market to realize potential through sustainable employment.https://store.theartofservice.com/the-employability-toolkit.htmlEmployability - Employability: towards a definitionFugate, Kinicki, and Ashforth (2004) define employability as a form of work specific active adaptability that enables workers to identity and realize career opportunity. Employability facilitates the movement between jobs, bothwithin and between organizationshttps://store.theartofservice.com/the-employability-toolkit.htmlEmployability - Employability: towards a definitionFugate et al. (2004) contend that employability enhances an individuals likelihood of gaining employment, although it does not assure actual employment.https://store.theartofservice.com/the-employability-toolkit.htmlEmployability - Employability: towards a definitionHarvey (2001) concurs that job acquisition should not be prioritized over preparedness for employment to avoid pseudo measure of individual employabilityhttps://store.theartofservice.com/the-employability-toolkit.htmlEmployability - Employability: towards a definitionThus employability by this definition is about learning, not least learning how to learn, and it is about empowering learners as critical reflective citizens (Harvey, 2001).https://store.theartofservice.com/the-employability-toolkit.htmlEmployability - Employability: towards a definitionHarveys (2001) definition is important for it emphasizes employability of graduates, which is similar to our context, hence, able to provide insight about how to measure graduates employability and what are the differences between graduates and experienced individuals in labor market.https://store.theartofservice.com/the-employability-toolkit.htmlEmployability - Employability: towards a definition Berntson (2008) argues that employability refers to an individuals perception of his or her possibilities of getting new, equal, or better employment. Berntsons study differentiates employability into two main categories actual employability (objective employability) and perceived employability (subjective employability).https://store.theartofservice.com/the-employability-toolkit.htmlEmployability - Four components of employabilityThis suggests that we can separate out four main elements in respect of individuals employability: the first three are analogous to the concepts of production, marketing and sales, and the fourth is the marketplace in which they operate.https://store.theartofservice.com/the-employability-toolkit.htmlEmployability - AssetsAn individuals employability assets comprise their knowledge (i.e. what they know), skills (what they do with what they know) and attitudes (how they do it). There are a number of detailed categorisations in the literature which, for instance, distinguish between:https://store.theartofservice.com/the-employability-toolkit.htmlEmployability - AssetsFurther key points from the literature include the importance of the transferability of these skills from one occupational or business context to another for employability and the increased attention employers are paying to the softer attitudinal skills in selecting employees.https://store.theartofservice.com/the-employability-toolkit.htmlEmployability - Deployment* Job search skills i.e. finding suitable jobs. Access to formal and informal networks is an important component of job search and employability.https://store.theartofservice.com/the-employability-toolkit.htmlEmployability - PresentationAnother key aspect of employability is being able to get a particular job, once identified sometimes included under career management skills, but is given prominence as a separate element here due to its crucial importance to securing employment. It centres around the ability to demonstrate employability assets and present them to the market in an accessible way. This includes:https://store.theartofservice.com/the-employability-toolkit.htmlEmployability - In the context of personal circumstances and the labour marketFinally and crucially, the ability to realise or actualise employability assets depends on the individuals personal and external circumstances and the inter-relationship between the two. This includes:https://store.theartofservice.com/the-employability-toolkit.htmlEmployability - Priorities for actionFrom 2005 to 2007 The Association of Graduate Recruiters in the UK identified where there was a skills gap in the graduates leaving university.http://eprints.hud.ac.uk/14782/1/HEA_-_Employability_is_the_answer_but_what%27s_the_question.pdf It suggested that commercial awareness, leadership, commitment and drive, problem solving and managing own learning as the areas in most need of attentionhttps://store.theartofservice.com/the-employability-toolkit.htmlEmployability - Priorities for actionFor the individual the need is to boost those aspects of their employability which will most enhance their opportunities in the light of their circumstances. However, what the individual believes to be most critical does not necessarily coincide with the views of the employer.https://store.theartofservice.com/the-employability-toolkit.htmlEmployability - Issues for public policyThe above definition of employability provides a basis for analysing the policies affecting the employability of certain groups (e.g. 16 and 17-year-old school leavers), or conversely how major policy initiatives (e.g. the New Deal) impact on employability. A brief review of government initiatives in this area suggests that policy is aimed:https://store.theartofservice.com/the-employability-toolkit.htmlEmployability - Issues for public policythe views of employers and the workforce of their employability; and outcome measures, e.ghttps://store.theartofservice.com/the-employability-toolkit.htmlEmployability - Duality of EmployabilityAn alternative account of employability takes a more relative approach. Brown and Hesketh define employability as the relative chances of getting and maintaining different kinds of employment (2004).https://store.theartofservice.com/the-employability-toolkit.htmlEmployability - Duality of EmployabilityEmployability not only depends on whether one is able to fulfil the requirements of specific jobs, but also on how one stands relative to others within a hierarchy of job seekers (Brown and Hesketh, 2004)https://store.theartofservice.com/the-employability-toolkit.htmlEmployability - Duality of EmployabilityWith the move to a more knowledge economy|knowledge based economy, it is widely thought that there is an increasing demand for high-calibre managerial talent. However, a focus on obtaining skills in order to gain good employment has led to an over-supply of graduates and a larger number of contenders chasing the same top jobs. Brown and Hesketh argue that there is a clear mismatch between individuals expectations of employability and the realities posed by the labour market.https://store.theartofservice.com/the-employability-toolkit.htmlEmployability - Duality of EmployabilityThis view of employability incorporates the dual aspects of supply and demand of labour to show that advancing ones position in the labour market by gaining credentials is partially dependent on structural factors outside the individuals control. The recent financial crisis demonstrates that global economic factors can and do have a significant impact on the likelihood of an individual securing a job regardless of their skills, credentials and social status.https://store.theartofservice.com/the-employability-toolkit.htmlHigher education in Portugal - EmployabilityDue to these factors, higher education courses with a higher employability rate include medicine (there is a very high demand for medical doctors across the whole country), some classic engineering specializations, and computer sciences.https://store.theartofservice.com/the-employability-toolkit.htmlHigher education in Portugal - EmployabilityLow employability is found among teaching, humanities and some social sciences fields of study, like history, geography, linguistics, philosophy, sociology; or to a lesser degree among the exact sciences and natural sciences, such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology or geology, when these courses are oriented towards a teaching career instead of a more tech