Employability and Work-based-Learning Dieses Konzept, welches v.a. die Europ£¤ische...

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  • Employability and Work-based-Learning Priv. Doz. (Ass. Professor) Dr. Stefan Wolf | Dept. Vocational Education and School Pedagogy | TU Berlin TAIEX Workshop on Entrepreneurship and Employability | Cairo, 17-18 July, 2017

    s.wolf@tu-berlin.de

  • Overview

    What means the concept of Employability? Contradictions between the pure British and the German understanding in the EU Broader understanding of what could mean Employability

    What is the meaning of WBL in the EU? Practical consequences of WBL – with a short excurse to the types of VET models WBL in Higher Education - some German experiences

    Conclusion

    Employability and Work-based-Learning | PD Dr. phil. Stefan Wolf | TAIEX Workshop on Entrepreneurship and Employability

  • Employability

    The term employability refers to the ability of a person to find employment and remain in employment. In the labor market and education policy discussion, employability is now regarded as the central goal of labor market policy, company’s human resource development policy and individual qualification profiles. (Source: IAB - Institute for Employment Research, research unit of the Federal Employment Agency)

    The term is highly contested in a German context because it is seen as a contradiction to our ruling concept of “Beruflichkeit” i.e. non-academic professionalism

    Employability and Work-based-Learning | PD Dr. phil. Stefan Wolf | TAIEX Workshop on Entrepreneurship and Employability

    Vorführender Präsentationsnotizen Employability; 1. Begriff: Das Konzept betont die Notwendigkeit ständiger Weiterqualifizierung und lebenslangen Lernens sowie die Eigenverantwortung des einzelnen Arbeitnehmers für seine gesamte Erwerbsbiografie bei sich ständig wandelnden Anforderungen.

    2. Folge: Die in traditioneller Sicht dominierende Arbeitsplatzsicherheit (job security) soll abgelöst werden durch die genereller angelegte Beschäftigungsfähigkeit bzw. -sicherheit (employment security) des Individuums auf unterschiedlichen Arbeitsplätzen bzw. bei verschiedenen Arbeitgebern. Bei Verlust des Arbeitsplatzes soll möglichst umgehend eine alternative Beschäftigung gefunden werden können. Dieses Konzept, welches v.a. die Europäische Kommission entwickelt und favorisiert hat, spielt zunächst neben der Förderung von Unternehmergeist, Anpassungsfähigkeit sowie Chancengleichheit eine wesentliche Rolle als eine von vier "Säulen" der in den späten 1990er-Jahren entwickelten „Europäischen Beschäftigungsstrategie” bzw. der Lissabon-Strategie der 2000er-Jahre; später ging es in die revidierten, ab 2005 geltenden "Integrierten Leitlinien für Wachstum und Beschäftigung" ein. Außerdem ist es auf EU-Ebene von zentraler Bedeutung im Rahmen von Konzepten der Flexicurity, die Flexibilität und soziale Sicherheit zu vereinbaren suchen. Auf nationaler Ebene fand es auch Eingang in das Sozialgesetzbuch III (§ 1 II). Springer Gabler Verlag (Herausgeber), Gabler Wirtschaftslexikon, Stichwort: Beschäftigungsfähigkeit, online im Internet: �http://wirtschaftslexikon.gabler.de/Archiv/5431/beschaeftigungsfaehigkeit-v12.html

  • Employability and some notes for critical thinking

    (1) Personal dimension of upgrowing human-beings to become a competent member of a society and a successful player in the capitalist market

    (2) Economic dimension of employment, decent work, high performance and international competitiveness of the businesses

    (3) Societal dimension e.g. of family social reproduction and community stability (4) Political dimension e.g. of policy implementation of matching labour market and education

    system, including stakeholder and interest groups involvement

    For deeper scientific perspective see: Guilbert, L., Bernaud, J.-L., Gouvernet, B., & Rossier, J. (2016). Employability: Review and research prospects. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 16(1), 69–89. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10775-015- 9288-4

    Seite 4 Employability and Work-based-Learning | PD Dr. phil. Stefan Wolf | TAIEX Workshop on Entrepreneurship and Employability

    Vorführender Präsentationsnotizen Shown of facets of contents relevant to the concept of emplyoability

  • Background of the concepts I

    Mainly promoted by the European Commission since the 1990th

    It replace the former job security with the employment security of the individual at different work places and under different employers through individual efforts to find easily a new job opportunity (Schmid, J. (2017). Beschäftigungsfähigkeit. In Springer Gabler (Ed.), Gabler Wirtschaftslexikon - online. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, transl. SW)

    But currently no coherent concept exists and highly contested in different socio-political fields of EU member states

    Seite 5 Employability and Work-based-Learning | PD Dr. phil. Stefan Wolf | TAIEX Workshop on Entrepreneurship and Employability

  • Background of the concept II

    One of four pillars of the Lisbon strategy of the EU commission Strengthen of (1) entrepreneurship attitude (2) adaptability (3) equal opportunity to become a high performance economy region of the world

    With strong influence of social security policy of the member states with the concept of flexibility and security  flexicurity

    With the concept of life-long-learning the employability term address strongly the education policy of the member states to bridge better than before the gap between labour market and education system

    (Schemmann, M. (2004). Bedeutung und Funktion des Konzepts "Beschäftigungsfähigkeit" in bildungspolitischen Dokumenten der Europäischen Union. Report: Zeitschrift für Weiterbildungsforschung, 27(1), 110–116, transl. SW)

    Seite 6 Employability and Work-based-Learning | PD Dr. phil. Stefan Wolf | TAIEX Workshop on Entrepreneurship and Employability

  • Disagreement and debates in Germany of the two concepts Non-Academic Professionalism Employability

    Seite 7

    Individual responsibility to labour market success, your own personal business entrepreneur

    Focus on transversal and soft skills neglecting of occupational skills, centred to the market

    Small skills, short term trainings, personal development of “proper” work attitude, flexibility & adaptability (indecent work?)

    Only valuable at the labour market during contracting, no social recognitions

    Personal development (socialisation) to a member of a community of practice (novice to expert)

    Professional skills and knowledge, professional competence centred to the subject

    Framework of Qualifications gained through longer specific professional education and training process

    Valuable in the external and internal labour market and widely recognised

    Social recognition of such professionalism by the educational benefit and social stability (honour, values, social respect etc.)

    Openness to continuous education and training Employability and Work-based-Learning | PD Dr. phil. Stefan Wolf | TAIEX Workshop on Entrepreneurship and Employability

    vs.

  • Coherence perspective of the two concepts

    The concept of Earning-oriented Pedagogy (K. Kraus, 2006) bridge three pillars of the relation between education and labour market

    - Professional skills and knowledge to deal properly with concrete, subject-related tasks within the workplace;

    – Generic competences: behaviours within the workplace, which result in particular from its social organization;

    – Employment Orientation: attitudes and relationship with respect to employment (situational and biographical) according to the respective economy and society. (Kraus 2012, p. 254)

    Seite 8

    German perspective  the concept of extended labour professionalism (IG Metall. (2014). Erweiterte moderne Beruflichkeit)

    Employability and Work-based-Learning | PD Dr. phil. Stefan Wolf | TAIEX Workshop on Entrepreneurship and Employability

    Vorführender Präsentationsnotizen Fachlichkeit: Wissen und Können zur Bewältigung konkreter, gegenstandsbezogener Aufgaben innerhalb der Erwerbstätigkeit; überfachliche Kompetenzen: Verhaltensweisen innerhalb der Erwerbstätigkeit, die insbesondere aus ihrer sozialen Organisation resultieren; Erwerbsorientierung: Einstellungen und Verhältnis gegenüber der Erwerbstätigkeit (situativ und biografisch) entsprechend der jeweiligen Wirtschafts- und Gesellschaftsform. (Kraus, K. (2012). Beruflichkeit – Betrachtungen aus der Perspektive einer „Pädagogik des Erwerbs“. In A. Bolder, R. Dobischat, G. Kutscha, & G. Reutter (Eds.), Beruflichkeit zwischen institutionellem Wandel und biographischem Projekt (pp. 249–268). Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-531-19623-7_13, S. 254

    extended labour professionalism  erweiterte Beruflichkeit (IG Metall. Erweiterte moderne Beruflichkeit: Ein gemeinsames Leitbild für die betrieblich-duale und die hochschulische Berufsbildung ; Diskussionspapier.)

  • Employability - a short résumé

    The pure concept of employability is very limited to labour market goods selling but neglect the personal and social dimension

    Socially and politically contested in some EU Member states specifically in Germany

     Extended Labour Professionalism open the concept beyond the limited market approach of selling one person’s marketable skills and knowledge to employers and join the employability concept to the cultural pattern of societies (specifically with respect to work culture approach