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2. 5 6 EI AT THE WORKPLACE 6.1)TYPES OF LEARNING 6.2) INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR CURVE [ KUBLER ROSS CHANGE CURVE] 6.3) GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL LEARNING 41-46 7 USES 7.1) EQ USEFULNESS IN MODERN HR PRACTICES 47-48 8 OBJECTIVES 49 9 TOOLS 49 10 CASE STUDY 10.1) INTERVIEW 10.2) BUSSINESS CASE FOR EI 49-55 11 RECOMMENDATIONS 56 12 SUPPLEMENTARY 12.1) ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 57 13 CONCLUSION 58 14 BIBLIOGRAPHY 59 - 2 3. PREFACE The world has been moving from a manufacturing economy to a value-added, service- oriented economy. And at the heart of service are relationships: interpersonal relationships, inter- group relationships, and interdepartmental relationships. The ascendance of work teams in large organizations put a new premium on relationship team skills. There is a growing importance of finding, hiring, training, and retaining leaders with high emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is defined as a persons self-awareness, self- confidence, self-control, commitment and integrity, and a persons ability to communicate, influence, initiate change and accept change. Studies have shown that emotional intelligence impacts a leaders ability to be effective. Three of the most important aspects of emotional intelligence for a leaders ability to make effective decisions are self-awareness, communication and influence, and commitment and integrity. Managers who do not develop their emotional intelligence have difficulty in building good relationships with peers, subordinates, superiors and clients. The above two paragraphs show the significance of emotional intelligence and initiate a need to implement it into every organization. But enough Organizational Support has to be secured to see some Emotional intelligence efforts, which forms a crucial part in the entire functioning. Finally, Emotional intelligence contributes to the bottom line in any work organization and hence needs paramount attention. - 3 4. 1 ] INTRODUCTION Ever since the publication of Daniel Golemans first book on the topic in 1995, emotional intelligence has become one of the hottest buzzwords in the corporate world. For instance, when the Harvard Business Review published an article on the topic two years ago, it attracted a higher percentage of readers than any other article published in that periodical in the last 40 years. When the CEO of Johnson & Johnson read that article, he was so impressed that he had copies sent out to the 400 top executives in the company worldwide. Given that emotional intelligence is so popular in the corporate world, it is important to understand what it really means. Thus briefly laying out the history of the concept as an area of research and describing how it has come to be defined and measured. So lets begin with some history. Education is the ability to meet lifes situation. It is a character-building process. Enhancing ones personality and making him/her rational, capable, responsive and intelligently independent, it generates the will to refashion ones heart, head and life. But does education make a person emotionally independent? Todays curriculum aims at all round formation, training and development of students. But does the curriculum include the training to make students emotionally mature? These are crucial questions to answer, which we need to shift our attention to the emotional aspects of students for full, complete and wholistic formation of students. Emotion The word emotion comes from Latin word motere, which means to move. The Oxford English Dictionary defines emotion as any agitation or disturbance of mind, feeling, passion any vehement or excited mental state. Emotions refer to motions, movements feelings etc. Every emotion has an impulse to act. They are also complex and contagious, e.g. anger, sadness, fear, enjoyment, love, disgust, shame etc. All our emotions usually depend on the information our - 4 5. senses grasp. And so emotion is said to be primarily a psychic reaction to stimuli from the word around us. Feelings All emotions are feelings. But not all feelings are emotions. Feelings that are not emotion includes pain, hunger, thirst, cold, warmth, fatigue, tension, relaxation etc. Feelings have the origin in our body. They alert our bodily conditions and needs. A large number of course, varieties of exercise are offered to cope up artfully and carefully as every human being is expected to rise above ones feelings and emotion. 1.1) HISTORICAL ROOTS OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE When psychologists began to write and think about intelligence, they focused on cognitive aspects, such as memory and problem-solving. However, there were researchers who recognized early on that the non-cognitive aspects were also important. For instance, David Wechsler defined intelligence as the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment. As early as 1940 he referred to non-intellective as well as intellective elements, by which he meant affective, personal, and social factors. Furthermore, as early as 1943, Wechsler was proposing that the non-intellective abilities are essential for predicting ones ability to succeed in life. He wrote: The main question is whether non-intellective, that is affective and cognitive abilities, are admissible as factors of general intelligence. (My contention) has been that such factors are not only admissible but necessary. I have tried to show that in addition to intellective there are also definite non-intellective factors that determine intelligent behavior. If the foregoing observations are correct, it follows that we cannot expect to measure total intelligence until our tests also include some measures of the non-intellective factors. Wechsler was not the only researcher who saw non-cognitive aspects of intelligence to be important for adaptation and success. Robert Thorndike, to take another example, was writing - 5 6. about social intelligence in the late thirties. Unfortunately, the work of these early pioneers was largely forgotten or overlooked until 1983 when Howard Gardner began to write about multiple intelligence. Gardner proposed that intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligences are as important as the type of intelligence typically measured by IQ and related tests. Other strands of research and theory could be cited, but it is clear that by the early 1990s, there was a long tradition of research on the role of non-cognitive factors in the helping people to succeed in both life and the workplace. The current work on emotional intelligence builds on this foundation. - 6 7. 2] NEED AND IMPORTANCE : - Individual Group Cross-Boundary Norms That Create Awareness of Emotions Interpersonal Undertaking 1. Take time away from group tasks to get to know one another. 2. Have a check in at the beginning of the meeting-that is, ask how everyone is doing. 3. Assume that undesirable behavior takes place for a reason. Find out what that reason is. Ask questions and listen. Avoid negative attributions. 4. Tell your teammates what youre thinking and how youre feeling. Perspective Taking 1. Ask whether everyone agrees with a decision. 2. Ask quiet members what they think. 3. Question decisions that come too quickly. 4. Appoint a devils advocate. Team self-Evaluation 1. Schedule time to examine team effectiveness. 2. Create measurable task and process objectives and then measure them. 3. Acknowledge and discuss group moods. 4. Communicate your sense of what is transpiring in the team. 5. Allow members to call a process check. (for instance, a team member might say, Process check: is this the most effective use of our time right now?) Seeking Feedback 1. Ask your customers how you are doing. 2. Post your work and invite comments. 3. Benchmark your process. Organizational Understanding 1. Find out the concerns and needs of others in the organization. 2. Consider who can influence the teams ability to accomplish its goals. 3. Discuss the culture and politics in the organization. 4. Ask whether proposed team actions are congruent with the organizations culture and politics. Norms That Help Regular Emotions Confronting 1. Set ground rules and use them to point out errant behavior. 2. Call members on errant behavior. 3. Create playful devices for pointing out such behavior. These often emerge from the group spontaneously reinforce them. Caring 1. Support members: volunteer to help them if they need it, be flexible, and provide emotional support. 2. Validate members contributions. Let members know they are valued. 3. Protect members from attack. 4. Respect individuality and difference in perspectives. Listen. 5. Never be derogatory or demeaning. Creating Resources for Working with Emotion 1. Make time to discuss difficult issues, and address the emotions that surround them. 2. Find creative, shorthand ways to acknowledge and express the emotion in the group. 3. Create fun ways to acknowledge and relieve stress and tension. 4. Express acceptance of members emotions. Creating on Affirmative Environment 1. Reinforce that the team can meet a challenge. Be optimistic. For example say things like, We can get through this or nothing will stop us. 2. Focus on what you can control. 3. Remind members of the groups important and positive mission. 4. Remind the group how it solved a similar problem before. 5. Focus on problem solving, not blaming Building External Relationships 1. Create opportunities for networking and interaction. 2. Ask about the needs of other teams. 3. Provide support for other teams. 4. Invite others to team meetings if they might have a stake in what you are doing. 7 8. learn new things, focus on tasks and exercises retain and recall objective information manipulate numbers think abstractly as well as analytically & solve problems the application of prior knowledge EQ stands for Emotional Quotient. It borrows from the term "Intelligence Quotient," and is used interchangeably with "Emotional Intelligence." NEED 2.1)WHAT IS IQ AND EQ? Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Intelligence Quotient is a measure of an individuals intellectual, analytical, logical and rational abilities. Its concerned with verbal, spatial, visual and mathematical skills. IQ is a measure of an individuals personal information bank ones memory, vocabulary and visual motor coordination. It gauges how readily we: Emotional Quotient (EQ) Emotional Quotient is an ability of an individual to identify and understand ones own emotions and those of others. It is also an ability of an individual to regulate ones own emotions to make good decisions and act effectively. EI is the ability to - Perceive emotions - Access and generate emotions so as to assist thoughts - Understand emotions and emotional meanings and - 8 9. - Reflectively regulate emotions in ways that promote emotional and intellectual growth. In other words, its a set of skills that enables us to make our way in a complex world the personal, social and survival aspects of overall intelligence, the elusive common sense and sensitivity that are essential to effective daily functioning. Finally, it has to do with the ability to 2.2) THE ROLE OF EMOTION Emotion has been a major variable in psychology, but not organizational behavior, over the years. Similar to other psychological constructs, the exact definition and meaning of emotion is not totally agreed upon. However, most psychologists would agree that the best one word to describe emotion would be how a person feels about something. These emotional feelings are directed at someone or something, are not as broad as the term affect and more intense and specific than the term mood. The specific differences between emotion, affect, and mood are summarized as follows: Emotions are reactions to an object, not a trait. Theyre object specific. You show your emotions when youre happy about something, angry at someone, afraid of something. Moods, on the other hand, arent directed at an object. Emotions can turn into moods when you lose focus on the contextual object. So when a work colleague criticizes you for the way you spoke to a client, you might become angry at him (emotion). But later in the day, you might find - 9 Read the political and social environment and landscape them Intuitively grasp what others want and need, what their strengths and weaknesses are Remain unruffled by stress and Be engaging, the kind of person that others want to be around. 10. yourself just generally dispirited. This affective state describes a mood 2.3) EMOTIONAL PROCESSING: How do emotional reactions come about, and what are the inputs into emotional processing? A very simple, laypersons explanation of the process is that emotional feelings are in contrast with rational thinking. Put into popular terms, emotions come from the heart whereas rational thinking comes from the head.. For example, a young manager given a choice between two assignments may undergo the following cognitive processing: my head tells me to get involved with Project A because it has the best chance of succeeding and helping my career, but my heart says that Project B will be more fun, I like the people better, and I can take more pride in any results we achieve. Obviously, such emotions often win out over rational thinking in what people decide, do, or how they behave. Traditionally in psychology, both personality traits (e.g., extraversion/neuroticism or conscientiousness) and mood states (either positive or negative) have separate influences or emotional processing. Recently, however, to represent the more realistic complexity involved, it is suggested that: (1) mood states interact with individual differences in emotion-relevant personality traits to influence emotional processing, and/or (2) personality traits predispose individuals to certain mood states, which then influence emotional processing. In other words, for (1) above, someone in a positive mood may have to have (or will be enhanced by) a personality trait such as conscientiousness in order to experiment emotional happiness. The individual may have to have the personality trait such as extraversion in order to get into a positive mood state. This positive mood in turn will lead the person to experience emotional happiness. These Moderation and meditation models of emotional processing help resolve some of the inconsistencies that have been found in the research using the separate influences of moods and personality traits for emotions. 2.4) TYPES OF EMOTIONS - 10 11. Like the meaning of emotion, there is also not total agreement on the primary types of emotions . In the following table the primary emotions and their descriptors are given. Types of Emotions Positive Primary Emotions Other Descriptors Love/affection Happiness / joy Surprise Acceptance, adoration, longing, devotion, infatuation Cheerfulness, contentment, bliss, delight, amusement, enjoyment, enthrallment, thrill euphoria, zest Amazement, wonder, astonishment, shock Negative Primary Emotions Other Descriptors Fear Sadness Anger Disgust Shame Anxiety, alarm, apprehension, concern, qualm, dread, fright, terror Grief, disappointment, sorrow, gloom, despair, suffering, dejection Outrage, exasperation, wrath, indignation, hostility, irritability Contempt, disdain, abhorrence, revulsion, distaste, Guilt, remorse, regret, embarrassment, humiliation IMPORTANCE: 2.5) EI VERSUS IQ WORKPLACE PERFORMANCE - 11 12. As for IQs relevance in the workplace, studies have shown that it can serve to predict between 1 and 20 % (the average is 6%) of success in a given job. EQ, on the other hand, has been found to be directly responsible for between 27 and 45 % of job success, depending on which field is under study. IQ is pretty much set. It tends to peak when a person is 17, remains constant throughout adulthood, and wanes during old age.EQ however is not fixed. A study of almost 4,000 people in Canada and United States concluded that EQ rises steadily from an average of 95.3 (when youre in the late teens) to an average of 102.7 (where it remains throughout your 40s). Once youre past 50, it tapers off a bit, to an average of 101.5 not exactly a precipitous decline. [See Figure] This does not come as surprise: we get older but wiser. We live and learn, and one of the things we learn is to balance emotion and reason. EQ Over The Age Span 95.3 96.8 100 101.8 102.7 101.5 90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 16-19 20-29 Average EQ 30-39 40-49 50+ Age EQscores Column 1 - 12 In short, the position is that IQ will be a more powerful predictor than EI of individuals career success in studies of large populations over the career course because it sorts people before they embark on a career, determining which fields or professions they can enter. But when studies look within a job or profession to learn which individuals rise to the top and which plateau or fail, EI proves to be a more powerful predictor of success than IQ. 13. 2.6) EI LEADERSHIP, CLIMATE, AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE EI can affect an individual's success in an organization. But how does it affect organizational success overall? The evidence suggests that emotionally intelligent leadership is a key to creating a working climate that nurtures employees and encourages them to give their best. That enthusiasm, in turn, pays off in improved business performance. This trickle-down effect emerged, for example, in a study of CEOs in U.S. insurance companies. Given comparable size, companies whose CEOs exhibited more EI competencies showed better financial results as measured by both profit and growth. A similar relationship between EI strengths in a leader and business results was found by McClelland (1998) in studying the division heads of a global food and beverage company. The divisions of the leaders with a critical mass of strengths in EI competencies outperformed yearly revenue targets by a margin of 15 to 20 %. The divisions of the leaders weak in EI competencies underperformed by about the same margin. The relationship between EI strengths in a leader and performance of the unit led appears to be mediated by the climate the leader creates. In the study of insurance CEOs, for example, there was a significant relationship between the EI abilities of the leader and the organizational climate. Climate reflects people's sense of their ability to do their jobs well. Climate indicators include the degree of clarity in communication; the degree of employees' flexibility in doing their jobs, ability to innovate, and ownership of and responsibility for their work; and the level of the performance standards set. - 13 14. In the insurance industry study, the climate created by CEOs among their direct reports predicted the business performance of the entire organization and in three-quarters of the cases climate alone could be used to correctly sort companies by profits and growth. Leadership style seems to drive organizational performance across a wide span of industries and sectors and appears to be a crucial link in the chain from leader to climate to business success. A study of the heads of forty-two schools in the United Kingdom suggests that leadership style drove up students' academic achievement by directly affecting school climate. When the school head was flexible in leadership style and demonstrated a variety of EI abilities, teachers attitudes were more positive and students' grades higher; when the leader relied on fewer EI competencies, teachers tended to be demoralized and students underperformed academically. Effective school leaders not only created a working climate conducive to achievement but were more attuned to teachers' perceptions of such aspects of climate and organizational health as clarity of vision and level of teamwork. The benefits of an understanding and empathic school leader were reflected in the teacher-student relationship as well. In a related follow-up analysis, which studied the climates of individual classrooms, concluded that teachers who are more aware of how students feel in the classroom are better able to design a learning environment that suits students and better able to guide them toward success. Teachers who have a leader who has created a positive school climate will be better equipped to do the same in their own classrooms. Indeed, several dimensions of school climate identified in the earlier study correspond to dimensions of classroom climate. For instance, clarity of vision in a school's purpose parallels clarity of purpose in class lessons; challenging yet realistic performance standards for teachers translate into like standards for students. A similar effect of EI-based leadership on climate and performance was demonstrated in a study of outstanding leaders in health care (Catholic Health Association, 1994). For this study, 1,200 members of health care organizations were asked to nominate outstanding leaders based on criteria such as organizational performance and anticipation of future trends. The members were then asked to evaluate the effectiveness of the nominees in fifteen key situations that leaders face-among them organizational change, diversity, and institutional integrity. The study revealed - 14 15. that the more effective leaders in the health care industry were also more adept at integrating key EI competencies such as Organizational Awareness and relationship skills like persuasion and influence. The link between EI strengths in a leader and the organization's climate is important for EI theory. A Hay/McBer analysis of data on 3,781 executives, correlated with climate surveys filled out by those who worked for them, suggests that 50 to 70 % of employees' perception of working climate is linked to the EI characteristics of the leader. Research drawing on that same database sheds light on the role of EI competencies in leadership effectiveness, identifying how six distinct styles of EI-based leadership affect climate. Four styles-the visionary (sometimes called the "authoritative"), the affiliative, the democratic, and the coaching-generally drive climate in a positive direction. Two styles-the coercive and the pacesetting-tend to drive climate downward, particularly when leaders overuse them (though each of these two can have positive impact if applied in appropriate situations). 2.7) PROFILE OF INDIAN EXECUTIVES [E I] For years, educationalists, human resource professionals, corporate trainers, recruiters, managers and others have known that what sets apart average performers and stars isnt the technical skills, not necessarily the intelligence either. They have felt the existence of something in addition a capacity which pervades and fades other abilities into background and stands out. They have come up with various terms like human relations or human resource approaches, people skills, etc. It is felt that a more objective measurable term - Emotional Intelligence can be termed as the skill which makes people shine at the work place. Also EI plays an important role in many areas of our lives. We can sum up by saying that: - 15 EI is an important component relating to workplace success, career satisfaction and managerial effectiveness 16. Here, an attempt has been made to profile emotional intelligence of Indian executives, with a view to evolve strategies to improve their emotional intelligence quotient. 3] CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE APPLICATION: Although emotions are given primary attention in psychology, in the organizational - 16 17. behavior literature, with the exception of the increasing popularity of emotional labor and the impact of emotions in relation to stress, emotion generally is only an indirect, subtopic in discussions of personality and individual differences. As one organization list behavior theorist/researcher recently noted: Its an under appreciated line of research. Emotions as part of the workplace have been ignored. They have either been seen as a commodity hiring smiling faces or something that gets in the way of rational decisions making. This neglected status is unfortunate because most academics and practicing managers would agree with the systematic assessment that emotions permeate all of organization life. Recently, and the reason emotions are singled out for special attention in this chapter, is the popularity of emotional intelligence and its relevance to the study and application to organization behavior. Emotionally intelligence people not only can read the expressed emotions of other people as discussed in the previous section, but also have the maturity to hold their felt emotions in check and not display undesirable, immature negative emotions such as anger or disgust. This distinction between felt and displayed emotions as well as the rest of the previous discussions on the meaning, cognitive processing, and types/categories/continuum of emotions, when combined with the next section on intelligence, serve as the foundation and point of departure for the important emerging role that emotional intelligence can play in organizational behavior. 3.1) A Framework of Emotional Competencies The framework of emotional intelligence (EI) by Daniel Goleman reflects how an individual's potential for mastering the skills of Self-Awareness, Self-Management, Social Awareness, and Relationship Management translates into on-the-job success. This model is based on EI competencies that have been identified in internal research at hundreds of corporations and organizations as distinguishing outstanding performers. Self Personal Competence Other Social competence - 17 18. Recognition Self-Awareness Emotional self-awareness Accurate self-assessment Self-confidence Social Awareness Empathy Service orientation Organizational awareness Regulation Self-Management Self-control Trustworthiness Conscientiousness Adaptability Achievement drive Initiative Relationship Management Developing others Influence Communication Conflict management Leadership Change catalyst Building bonds Teamwork & collaboration 1. SELF - AWARENESS Emotional self-awareness: Recognizing ones emotions and their effects. People with this competence: Know which emotions they are feeling and why Realize the links between their feelings and what they think, do, and say Recognize how their feelings affect their performance Have a guiding awareness of their values and goals Accurate self-assessment: Knowing ones strengths and limits. People with this competence are: Aware of their strengths and weaknesses Reflective, learning from experience and continuous learning - 18 19. Open to candid feedback, new perspectives, and self-development Able to show a sense of humor and perspective about themselves Self-confidence: Sureness about ones self worth and capabilities. People with this competence: Present themselves with self-assurance; have presence Can voice views that are unpopular and go out on a limb for what is right Are decisive, able to make sound decisions despite uncertainties and pressures 2. SELF MANAGEMENT Self-control: Managing disruptive emotions and impulses. People with this competence: Manage their impulsive feelings and distressing emotions well Stay composed, positive, and unflappable even in trying moments Think clearly and stay focused under pressure Trustworthiness: Maintaining standards of honesty and integrity. People with this competence: Act ethically and are above reproach Build trust through their reliability and authenticity Admit their own mistakes and comfort unethical actions in others Take tough, principled stands even if they are unpopular Conscientiousness: Taking responsibility for personal performance. People with this competence: Meet commitments and keep promises Hold themselves accountable for meeting their objectives Are organized and careful in their work Adaptability: Flexibility in handling change. People with this competence: Smoothly handle multiple demands, shifting priorities, and rapid change - 19 20. Adapt their responses and tactics to fit fluid circumstances Are flexible in how they see events Achievement drive: Striving to improve or meet a standard of excellence. People with this competence: Are results-oriented, with a high drive to meet their objectives and standards Set challenging goals and take calculated risks Pursue information to reduce uncertainty and find ways to do better Learn how to improve their performance Initiative: Readiness to act on opportunities. People with this competence: Are ready to seize opportunities Pursue goals beyond whats required or expected of them Cut through red tape and bend the rules when necessary to get the job done Mobilize others through unusual, enterprising efforts 3. SOCIAL AWARENESS Empathy: Sensing others feelings and perspective, and taking an active interest in their concerns. People with this competence: Are attentive to emotional cues and listen well Show sensitivity and understand others perspectives Help out based on understanding other peoples needs and feelings Service orientation: Anticipating, recognizing, and meeting customers needs. People with this competence: Understand customers needs and match them to services or products Seek ways to increase customers satisfaction and loyalty Gladly offer appropriate assistance acting as a trusted advisor - 20 21. Organizational awareness: Reading a groups emotional currents and power relationships. People with this competence: Accurately read key power relationships and detect crucial social networks Understand the forces that shape views and actions of clients, customers, or competitors 4. RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT Developing others: Sensing what others need in order to develop, and bolstering their abilities. People with this competence: Acknowledge and reward peoples strengths, accomplishments Offer useful feedback and identify peoples needs for development Influence: Wielding effective tactics for persuasion. People with this competence: Are skilled at persuasion Fine-tune presentations to appeal to the listener Use complex strategies like indirect influence to build consensus and support Orchestrate dramatic events to effectively make a point Communication: Sending clear and convincing messages. People with this competence: Are effective in give-and-take, registering emotional cues in attuning their message Deal with difficult issues straightforwardly Listen well, see mutual understanding, and welcome sharing of information fully Foster open communication and stay receptive to bad news as well as good Leadership: Inspiring and guiding groups and people. People with this competence: Articulate and arouse enthusiasm for a shared vision and mission Step forward to lead as needed, regardless of position Guide the performance of others while holding them accountable - 21 22. Lead by example Change catalyst: Initiating or managing change. People with this competence: Recognize the need for change and remove barriers Challenge the status quo to acknowledge the need for change Champion the change and enlist others in its pursuit Conflict management: Negotiating and resolving disagreements. People with this: Handle difficult people and tense situations with diplomacy and tact Spot potential conflict, bring disagreements into the open, and help deescalate Encourage debate and open discussion Orchestrate win-win solutions Building bonds: Nurturing instrumental relationships. People with this competence: Cultivate and maintain extensive informal networks Seek out relationships that are mutually beneficial Build rapport and keep others in the loop Make and maintain personal friendships among work associates Teamwork and Collaboration: People with this competence: Model team qualities like respect, helpfulness, and cooperation Draw all members into active and enthusiastic participation and share credit Build team identity, commitment and protect the group and its reputation And Balance a focus on tasks with attention to relationships Collaborate, sharing plans, information, and resources Promote a friendly, cooperative climate Spot and nurture opportunities for collaboration - 22 23. 3.2) EMOTIONAL COMPETENCIES An emotional competence is a learned capability based on emotional intelligence that results in outstanding performance at work. To be adept at an emotional competence like Customer Service or Conflict Management requires an underlying ability in EI fundamentals, specifically, Social Awareness and Relationship Management. However, emotional competencies are learned abilities: having Social Awareness or skill at managing relationship does not guarantee we have mastered the additional learning required to handle a customer adeptly or to resolve a conflict- just that we have the potential to become skilled at these competencies. Emotional competencies are job skills that can, and indeed must, be learned. An underlying EI ability is necessary, though not sufficient, to manifest competence in any one of the four EI domains. Consider the IQ corollary that a student can have excellent spatial abilities yet never learn geometry. So too can a person be highly empathic yet poor at handling customers if he or she has not learned competence in customer service. Although our emotional intelligence determines our potential for learning the practical skills that underlie the four EI clusters, our emotional competence shows how much of that potential we have realized by learning and mastering skills and translating intelligence into on-the-job capabilities. - 23 24. 4] MEASURING E I : 4.1) THE MEANING OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE As a point of departure for the important role that emotions have played in psychology over the years and Gardners recognition of multiple intelligences is the recent emergence of emotional intelligence. Although its roots are usually considered to go back Golemans Dimensions of Emotional Intelligence in the workplace EI Dimensons Characteristics Workplace Example Self-awareness Self-management Self-motivation Empathy Self-understanding: knowledge of true feeling at the moment Handle ones emotion to facilitate rather than hinder the task at hand; shake off negative emotions and get back on constructive track for problem solution Stay the course toward desired goal; overcome negative emotional impulses and delay gratification to attain the desired outcome Understand and be sensitive to the feelings of others: being able to sense what others feel and want John recognizes that he is angry so he will wait to cool down and gather more information before making an important personnel decision. Amber holds back her impulse to become visibly upset and raise her voice at the customers unfair complaint and tries to get more facts of what happened. Pat persisted to successful project completion in spite of the many frustrations from the lack of resources and top management support. Because the head of the team knew her members were mentally if not physically exhausted, she took everyone bowling during an afternoon - 24 25. Social skills The ability to read social situations smooth in interacting with others and forming networks; able to guide others emotions and the way they act break and bought refreshments. Jeremy could tell from the nonverbal cues from his staff members that they were not buying into the new policy being presented, so after the meeting he visited with each of them to explain how they will all benefit. Sources: Adapted from Daniel Goleman, Emotional Intelligence, Bantam Books. New York 1995. pp. 43-44 and Daniel Goleman, Working with Emotional intelligence. Bantam Books. New York, 1998, p. 318. EQ unlike IQ is not easily quantifiable. It pivoted on such intangibles as social deftness, persistence and empathy. Cyberia shrink developed a test on emotional intelligence. It consists of 70 items to complete by the subject in 35-40 minutes. Here is the model items to rate the level of your intelligence on the basis of your response. When I feel crappy, I dont know what or who is upsetting me. Most of the time Often Sometimes Rarely Almost never - 25 26. 4.2) Building the Emotional Intelligence of Groups When Managers first started hearing about the concept of emotional intelligence in the 1990s scales fell from their eyes. The basic message, that effectiveness in organization is at least as much about EQ as IQ, resonated deeply; it was something that people to knew in their guts but that had never before been so well articulated. Most important, the idea held the potential for positive change. Instead of being stuck with the hand theyd been dealt, people could take steps to enhance their emotional intelligence and make themselves more effective in their work and personal lives. Indeed, the concept of emotional intelligence had read impact. The only problem is that so far emotional intelligence has been viewed only as an individual competency when the reality is that most work in organization is done by team. And if managers have one pressing need today, its to find ways to make teams work better. It is with real excitement, therefore, that we share these findings from our research: individual emotional intelligence has a group analog, and it is just as critical to groups effectiveness. Teams can develop greater emotional intelligence and, in so doing, boost their overall performance - 26 27. A model of Team Effectiveness Study after study has shown that teams are more creative and productive when they can achieve high levels of participation, cooperation and collaboration among members. But interactive behaviors like these arent easy legislate. Our work shows that three basic conditions need to be present before such behaviors can occur: mutual trust among members, a sense of group identity (a feeling among members that they belong to a unique and worthwhile group), and a sense of group efficacy(the belief that the team can perform well and that group members are more effective working together than apart). At the heart of these three conditions are emotions. Trust, a sense of identity, and a feeling of efficacy arise in environments where emotion is well handled, so groups stand to benefit by building their emotional intelligence. Group emotional intelligence isnt a question of dealing with a necessary evil-catching emotions as they bubble up and promptly suppressing them. Far from it. Its about bringing emotions deliberately to the surface and understanding how they affect the teams work. Its also - 27 Better decisions, More creative solutions, Higher productivy Participation, Cooperation, Collaboration Trust, Identity, Efficacy Group Emotional Intelligence 28. about behaving in ways that build relationships both inside and outside the team and that strengthen the teams ability to face challenges. Emotional intelligence means exploring, embracing, and ultimately relying on emotion in work that is, at the end of the day, deeply human. Baron Emotional Quotient Inventory EQ-I Dr. Reuven Baron developed an inventory to measure emotional intelligence. This inventory consisted 133 items and takes approximately 30 minutes to complete. It gives an overall EQ scores as well as scores for five composite scales and 15 subscales. Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale This MEIS has been created by the co-developed of the theory of emotional intelligence, John D. Mayer and Peter Salovey. They have been conducting research on emotional intelligence since the late 1980and they have been driving research price in this area. Dr. David R. Caruso, a management psychologist also joined in the development of Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale. This is an ability test designed to measure the under mentioned four branches of the emotional intelligence ability model of Mayer and Salovey. Identifying emotions---the ability to reorganize how you and those around you are feeling Using Emotions---the ability to generate emotion, and then to reason with this emotion Understanding Emotion---the ability to understand complex emotions and emotional chains, how emotion transmit from one stage to another. Managing emotion---the ability which always you to manage emotions in your self and others. - 28 29. The EQ Map In 1995, Essi system Inc. and Advanced Intelligence Technologies (AIT) joined together to create the first-over EQ Map. A measurement of various qualities and competencies of EQ. The EQ Map determines not how smart you are, but how smart you are. The EQ Map is unique, non-judgmental, interactive approach to assess the emotional intelligence including stress and creativity. Unlike the numeric scores obtained in the tests used to measure emotional intelligence, it provides the birds eye approach to survey the landscape, identifying strengths and pinpointing vulnerabilities and targeting specific action to be taken by the individual concerned. Its scoring version is self administered, confidential, and easy to use and understand. It comes complete with a questionnaire, scoring grid, interpretation guide, and action planning worksheets. - 29 30. 4.3) THE BAR-ON MODEL OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE The INTRAPERSONAL REALM concerns ones ability to know and manage oneself. It embraces: Self-awareness Assertiveness Independence Self-Regard Self-Actualization The INTERPERSONAL REALM concerns ones people skills ones ability to interact and get along with others. It is composed of three scales: Empathy Social Responsibility Interpersonal Relationships - 30 Intrapersonal Interpersonal Stress Management Adaptability EFFECTIVE PERFOMANCE General Mood 31. The ADAPTABILITY REALM involves ones ability to be flexible and realistic, and to solve a range of problems as they arise. Its 3 scales are: Reality Testing Flexibility Problem-solving The STRESS MANAGEMENT REALM concerns ones ability to tolerate stress and control impulses. Its two scales are Stress Tolerance Impulse Control The GENERAL MOOD REALM also has two scales: Optimism Happiness The above model can be compared to the Framework of Emotional Competencies. The Personal Competence and Social Competence of the Framework can be compared to Intrapersonal Realm and the Interpersonal Realm respectively. The BarOn Model says that when the 4 realms Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, Adaptability and Stress Management are integrated along with the Good Mood Realm (optimism and happiness), EFFECTIVE PERFORMANCE is certainly achieved. - 31 32. 4.4) SIGNS OF HIGH AND LOW EQ Listed below are general characteristics of people with high and low EQ, as is defined. Obviously these are generalizations, but are helpful as guidelines. These lists include general signs of high and low self-esteem, as well as other variables which have not in fact been specifically correlated to emotional intelligence as defined by Mayer and Salovey. Signs of high EQ A person with High EQ: Expresses his feelings clearly and directly with three word sentences beginning with I feel.. Does not disguise thought as feelings by the use of I feel like. and I feel that. sentences Is not afraid to express feelings Is not dominated by negative emotions such as: Fear, Worry, Guilt, Shame, Embarrassment, Obligation, Disappointment, Hopelessness, Powerlessness, Dependency, Victimization, Discouragement Is able to read non-verbal communication Lets his feelings lead him to healthy choices and happiness Balances feelings with reason, logic, and reality Acts out of desire, not because of duty, guilt, force or obligation Is independent, self-reliant, morally autonomous and emotionally resilient Is intrinsically motivated and not by power, wealth, fame, or approval Tends to feel optimistic, but is also realistic, and can feel pessimistic at times Does not internalize failure and is not immobilized by fear or worry Is interested in other peoples feelings Is comfortable talking about feelings - 32 33. Signs of low EQ A person with Low EQ: Doesnt take responsibilities for his feelings; but blames others for them Cant put together three word sentences starting with I feel Cant tell why she feels the way she does, or cant do it without blaming someone else Attacks, blames, commands, criticizes, interrupts, invalidates, lectures, advises and judges others. Tries to analyze others, for example when they expresses their feelings Often begins sentences with I think you Sends you messages disguised as I feel messages. For example, I feel like you Lays guilt trips on others Withholds information about or lies about feelings. (Emotional dishonesty) Exaggerates or minimizes her feelings Lets things build up, then they blow up, or react strongly to something relatively minor Lacks integrity and sense of conscience Acts out feelings rather than talking them out Has no empathy, no compassion Avoids responsibility by saying things like: What was I supposed to do? I had no choice! May be overly pessimistic; may invalidate others joy Frequently feels inadequate, disappointed, resentful, bitter or victimized Rigidly clings to his beliefs because he is too insecure to be open to new facts Avoids connections with people and seeks substitute relationships with everything from pets and plants to imaginary beings - 33 34. 4.5) MINI EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE TEST How does one know if one has a high or low EQ? These questions help judge the level of EQ: 1. When you're feeling depressed and a friend asks how you are feeling, are you more likely to answer: i) Fine. I don't know. Alright, I guess. You don't want to know. ii) I feel depressed. 2. When your partner does something, which upsets you, your most likely reply: i) You shouldn't have... You really hurt my feelings. ii) I felt hurt by that. 3. When someone points out a mistake, are you more likely to: i) Defend yourself. Find something wrong with the other person. ii) Thank the person. 4. When facing a scary situation are you more likely to: i) Worry about it. Try to avoid thinking about it. Hope that it will go away. ii) Estimate the probability of your fears coming true and begin focusing on your options. 5. When someone reacts strongly to something you say, are you more likely to: i) Think they are too sensitive. Tell them you were just kidding. ii) Apologize and ask them what bothered them about what you said. - 34 35. Generally speaking, the more you tend towards the answers in the second set of responses, the higher your EQ. Here's why? 1. High EQ suggests that you can identify and express your feelings. 2. High EQ suggests that you take responsibility for your feelings by saying "I feel..." instead of "You shouldn't have..." 3. If you have high EQ, you are not easily threatened by criticism, so you don't feel the need to defend yourself or attack the other person. Instead, you are always willing to listen and learn from other people. 4. High EQ suggests you address your fears using reason, rather than avoiding them or letting them paralyze you. 5. High EQ people empathize with others' feelings, acknowledge them, and seek to help soothe them. - 35 36. 4.6)HOW TO RAISE EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE There are at least two good reasons to work on raising your EQ: 1. If you want to be happier. 2. If you want people around you to be happier. You will be happier because you will learn to spend your time more efficiently. You will avoid activities and situations which don't feel good, and you will seek and create situations which do. You will learn to take responsibility for your emotions and your happiness. You will attract more positive people, and you will enter into more meaningful relationships. You will begin to value your time more and get more accomplished. People around you will be happier because they will feel more accepted, more understood, more respected, more safe, and more significant. Raising EI - 36 Things one can do with others Things one can do alone Happiness spreads within and also to people around 37. Things You Can Do Alone Frequently ask yourself how you feel. Write down your feelings to increase your recall of the feelings and their surrounding circumstances. Work on raising your self-esteem, by taking courses, listening to tapes, and taking advantage of the abundant practical literature available at your public library. Track your feelings in a written journal. Take responsibility for your feelings. Begin expressing your feelings accurately. Neither exaggerate them nor minimize them. One reason people exaggerate is to get attention because they do not feel they are being heard. When you are comfortable with your feelings, and you surround yourself with people who validate your feelings, you won't need to exaggerate them any more. Neither will you feel the need to minimize them, so as not to burden your friends. Stop over-using expressions like "I hate..." and "I love..." Let your feelings teach you what your needs are. Acknowledge, accept, respect, and validate your feelings. When you feel defensive, ask yourself what you are defending. Listen to your feelings. Let them guide you. Think about the consequences of your actions. Balance your feelings and your logic. Try to anticipate your feelings. Don't do things which will bring you negative feelings. Make changes in areas where there are persistent negative feelings. - 37 38. Invest more time on activities that have lasting, not just temporary, positive feelings. Things You Can Do with Others Start asking other people how they feel. Try to understand their feelings. Ask them to explain their feelings so you can understand them better. Ask others how they would feel about possible future events. In other words, start to take their feelings into consideration. Listen to others non-judgmentally. Begin being more honest with your feelings. Use the tactful, but honest expression of your feelings to set your boundaries. Take some risks by sharing more true feelings. Get a group of close friends together & talk about feelings in a supportive way. Share your deepest fears & desires. Attend some of the existing support groups and just listen while others talk about their feelings. Ask others for feedback on how they perceive you and your emotions. Others will see things that you don't. - 38 39. Don't defend yourself if you hear things you disagree with, or you will stifle their openness. Instead, thank them for their honesty. Work on becoming less defensive, more open, and easier on yourself. Ask others to let you know when they perceive you as defensive, insecure, rigid or hard on yourself. Set some emotional improvement goals and share them with someone you trust. Ask them to give you honest feedback. - 39 40. 5] METHODOLOGY 5.1) Data Collection / Sample Data collection was done on a Sample of 219 executives by using the EI scale developed by Dr. Cooper & Prof. Sawaf (1996). The questionnaire covers 21 variables (e.g. life events, work pressures, personal pressures, emotional self awareness, emotional awareness of others, creativity, resilience, interpersonal connections, compassion intuition, trust radius, personnel power, quality of life, etc.) and leads to mapping of Emotional Quotient (EQ) and its inherent competencies. The instrument is extensively researched and found statistically reliable and valid in USA and CANADA. The Questionnaire is already in use for training programs conducted for Indian Executives and is a basis for personal feedback and counseling. Here the same has been pilot tested on Indian executive population. Data was collected on the sample of 250 executives who were attending the Professional Managerial Programs; out of which 219 are considered for analysis (based on the completeness of their response). The characteristics of sample in terms of age, gender, qualification, functional areas and work experience is given below. AGE GENDER FUNCTIONAL AREAS QUALIFICATION WORK EXPERIENCE - 20-30 yrs 73 % 31-50 yrs 27 % Male 80 % Female 20 % Graduates 78 % Post Graduates 18 % Professional 2 % Doctorate 2 % Marketing 54 % Finance 22 % HR 24 % 0-5 yrs 53 % 6-10 yrs 33 % 11-15 yrs 6 % 16-20 yrs 5 % 21 + yrs 3 % 41. Analysis: The data collected was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively to arrive at an EQ map of Indian Executives. The score on 21 variables is analyzed to get an Emotional Quotient (EQ) Profile using 5 competencies. Profile of EQ competencies Components Category Interpretation Strategy To Improve Current environment Low Current environment is not perceived as very helpful. Work & personal pressures are high Training for awareness, coping & stress management Emotional Literacy Average Average self-awareness, emotional expression & awareness for others Training for assertiveness, giving & accepting feedback EQ Competency Average Average purposefulness, adjustment, creativity, resilience and self-control, avoid confrontation & interpersonal connection Training for goal setting, developing creativity & overcoming adversities EQ Values & Beliefs Low Dissatisfaction with life, low on compassion, intuition, trust, personal power & integrity Training for teambuilding, conflict management & adaptation to change EQ Outcomes Low Not happy with the quality of life, quality of relationship & other health related issues Holistic training covering psychosomatic issues (training in yoga, reiki, stress management, etc.) Conclusion: Here we may say that this test is applicable to Indian managerial population and helps in arriving at their EQ profile. However further analyses and research is essential for getting a better insight into the construct of emotional intelligence. Also there is a need for preparing a shortened version of the scale to check its reliability and validity. 6] EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AT WORKPLACE - 42. When the book, Emotional Intelligence, appeared in 1995, many business leaders agreed with the basic message that success is strongly influenced by personal qualities such as perseverance, self-control, and skill in getting along with others. They could point to "super sales persons" who had an uncanny ability to sense what was most important to the customers and to develop a trusting relationship with them. They could point to customer service employees who excelled when it came to helping angry customers to calm down and be more reasonable about their problems with the product or service. And they also could point to brilliant executives who did everything well except get along with people, or to managers who were technically brilliant but could not handle stress, and whose careers stalled because of these deficiencies. Business leaders well understood how valuable these "emotionally intelligent" employees are to an enterprise. But what about the many workers who lack these important emotional competencies? Is it possible for adults to become more socially and emotionally competent? Many business leaders are less certain about this question. For instance, the dean of a major business school, when asked about the importance of emotional intelligence at work, enthusiastically agreed that it was crucial. But when asked as to how his school attempted to improve the emotional intelligence of MBA students, he said, "We dont do anything. I dont think that our students emotional intelligence can be improved by the time they come here. Theyre already adults, and these qualities are developed early in life." On the other hand, there are those who seem to claim that they can raise the emotional intelligence of a whole group of employees in a day or less. Scores of consultants now are selling workshops and seminars designed to help people become more emotionally competent and socially skilled. Some of these programs are quite good, but others make unrealistic claims. The worst ones are those that involve a heavy reliance on inspirational lectures or intense, short-lived experiences and little else. So who is right the skeptics who believe that nothing can be done to improve emotional competence after the age of 15, or the hucksters who claim that they can turn emotional dunces into emotional Einsteins in an afternoon? As usual, the answer lies somewhere in between. A growing body of research on emotional learning and behavior change suggests that it is possible to help people of any age to become more emotionally intelligent at work. However, many programs designed to do so fail to recognize the difference between two types of learning. - 43. X-axis 6.1) Two Types of Learning Training and development efforts in industry have not always distinguished between cognitive learning and emotional learning, but such a distinction is important for effective practice. For instance, consider the example of the engineer whose career was stymied because he was shy, introverted, and totally absorbed in the technical aspects of his job. Through cognitive learning, he might come to understand that it would be better for him to consult other people more, make connections, and build relationships. But just knowing he should do these things would not enable him to do them. The ability to do these things depends on emotional competence, which requires emotional learning as well as cognitive learning. Emotional incompetence often results from habits deeply learned early in life. These automatic habits are set in place as a normal part of living, as experience shapes the brain. As people acquire their habitual repertoire of thought, feeling, and action, the neural connections that support these are strengthened, becoming dominant pathways for nerve impulses. Connections that are unused become weakened, while those that people use over and over grow increasingly strong. When these habits have been so heavily learned, the underlying neural circuitry becomes the brains default option at any moment what a person does automatically and spontaneously, often with little awareness of choosing to do so. Thus, for the shy engineer, diffidence is a habit that must be overcome and replaced with a new habit, self-confidence. Emotional capacities like empathy or flexibility differ from cognitive abilities because they draw on different brain areas. Cognitive learning involves fitting new data and insights into existing frameworks of association and understanding, extending and enriching the corresponding neural circuitry. But emotional learning involves that and more it requires that we also engage the neural circuitry where our social and emotional habit repertoire is stored. Changing habits such as learning to approach people positively instead of avoiding them, to listen better, or to give feedback skillfully, is a more challenging task than simply adding new information to old. 6.2) INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR CURVE (Kubler Ross Change Curve) - 44. 0 Perceived Competence & Confidence Development level Shock / fear Y-axis This curve shows the changes and reactions of the trainee, a trainer might have to face in certain situations. Importance The above curve is important to an intervention agent or a coach, as he would face the above circumstances. Enough care has to be taken by him in the process of deconstructing the individuals behaviour, guiding the trainee to insights and identifying emotional triggers from the past. X-axis: Time Y-axis: Perceived competence & confidence OR Development level The curve starts from the middle of the Y-axis, which means that the trainee has a certain level of perceived competence and confidence. He gets a shock or fears when he gets the - Or High Low Time Disbelief Resistance Awareness Anger & Blame Acceptance & Regret Strength & Recognition Exploration Discovery & Development Integration & improved performance 45. information about the major changes in the organization or when he realizes that he needs to undergo change. It should be borne in mind that most people do need a significant shift in their view of themselves to be capable of making significant beneficial changes. Initially there is disbelief towards, and resistance to change. But over a period of time, awareness sets in. The actual change process is always difficult phase to pass. Hence he passes through the phase of anger and blame and finally reaches the acceptance and regret phase over a period of time. After regret, the recovery is generally quick. This can be seen in the diagram (after regret, the curve takes an immediate steep rise.) The trainee recognizes his strengths and explores better and improved ways of functioning. He discovers the right approach for improved performance and develops on it. Integrating the right steps he achieves improved performance. Here his development levels are high and is ready to take on the front with high spirits. - 46. Motivation Assess the organizations Needs Assess personal strengths and limits Provide feedback with care Maximize learner choice Encourage participation Link learning goals to personal values Adjust expectations Gauge readiness Foster positive relationship between trainer and learners Maximize Self-directed Set clear goals Break goals into manageable steps Maximize opportunity for practice Provide frequent feedback on practice Rely on experiential methods Enhance insight Prevent relapse Learnin g Provide an organizational culture that supports learning Remove situational constraints Improved performance Evaluate Encourage use of skills on the job 6.3) Guidelines for Effective Social and Emotional Learning: The guidelines for social and emotional training are presented schematically in Figure 1. They are arranged in the form of a flow chart that describes the optimal process for helping individuals to increase their emotional competence in personal and interpersonal contexts. The Optimal Process for Developing Emotional Intelligence in Organizations Preparation Phase Training Phase Transfer & Maintenance Evaluation Phase Phase - 47. The flow chart suggests that there are four basic phases to the training process. The first occurs even before the individual begins formal training. This initial phase, which is crucial for effective social and emotional learning, involves preparation for change. This preparation occurs at both the organizational and individual levels. The second phase, training, covers the change process itself. It includes the processes that help people change the way in which they view the world and deal with its social and emotional demands. The third phase, transfer and maintenance, addresses what happens following the formal training experience. The final phase involves evaluation. Given the current state of knowledge about social and emotional learning, the complexity of programs designed to promote such learning and the great unevenness in the effectiveness of existing programs, evaluation always should be part of the process. - 48. 7] USES: 7.1) EQ - USEFULNESS IN HR PRACTICES Emotional intelligence/quotient plays a very important role as a tool in organizations. It contributes to the bottom line in any work organization. It can also be a valuable tool for HR practitioners and managers who need to bring revolution in their organizations. Companies Contacted: 1. Godrej Boyce India Limited HR manager T.P. Vaishnav Question What role does EQ play in your company? Response EQ is yet not practiced as a tool to improve and measure performance in the company. But we have started an EQ / EI awareness program, which is very preliminary. 2. Reliance Infocom HR manager Ravi Ranganathan Question Is EQ used as a tool to measure performance in your company? Response EQ as a tool is not used explicitly in our company. We check the EI levels in the candidates through few indirect questions during the recruitment and selection processes. 3. Jhonson & Jhonson HR manager Shruti Chaterjee Response given by her was similar to that given by HR manager of Reliance Infocom - 49. 4. Raptakos Brett Company India Limited (A Pharma company) General Manager (HR & Marketing) - Mr. V.P. Dikshit Question Has EQ as a tool entered your organization? Response - No, till date it hasnt entered explicitly. We have been using it in some other form in transitions like transfers and promotions. But realizing that IQ is not a powerful predictor of success in an organization and understanding the gaining importance of EQ, we have full plans to have EQ as an explicit tool in our company within two months, (by November, 02). Question In which areas will EQ play a role? Response It will play a significant role in: Overall performance evaluation ( of middle as well as top management ) Recruitment and Selection Training and Development We expect major changes and improvements in the working of employees and managers. We also expect our employees bettering in their soft skills after having undergone training in emotional competencies. Further, EQs role can also be extended to Counseling Coaching and Intervention - 50. 8] OBJECTIVES 1) To understand the meaning of EQ 2) To find out its uses in different areas. 3) To evalute its importance through case study. 9] TOOLS 1) Books . 2) Questionnaire . 3) Interview. 10] CASE STUDY 10.1) Interview Q1) What do you understand by Emotional Intelligence? Ans : According to me E.I is understanding the emotions and feelings of others by being empathetic and knowing yourself.. Q2) What are your strengths and weaknesses ? Ans : Strengths a) extremely patient , b) can connect people easily(networking), c) aware of my own-self (introspection), d) art of saying NO Weaknesses: a) Sensitive, b) Extra anxious, - 51. c) Very competitive Q3) How do you work upon your blind spot? Ans: Basically by two ways i.e. a)feedback and b)introspection. Q4) How you make decisions when you are under pressure? Ans : I do: a) Deep Breathing and b) Introspection of what is happening. Q5) How you face your upsets while handling emotional cases? Ans : I show Empathy rather than sympathy by keeping professional approach. Q6) What are the steps you follow to solve emotional cases? Ans : By being:- very attentive Pleasant Emphatic Very diligent Q7) How you control your different moods while solving a case? Ans : I dont always manage to control myself as the cases make me emotional but I try to control by a) Deep Breathing technique, b) Tea Break , c) Washing the face d) Watching the sky. - 52. Q8) How do you develop trust among the people? Ans : By Rapo Building Q9) How do you motivate the people ? Ans : I try to find out the a) Intensity of the problem, b) Speak at emotional level, c) How do you feel the problem?, d) Speak at practical level and also help them to take a decision. Q10) How committed are you to achieve the goals? Ans : I have set certain reachable goals not too high or too low and very much committed to achieve them. Q11) Do you think you are an empathetic listener ? Can you give some example. Ans : Yes. In this she gave me an example of a battered woman. The daughter in law had to face a lot of problems with this new family. These people used to physically harass her. And her husband used to just watch the game without raising his voice. He couldnt support her in any way in this matter. Wounds were developed on her different parts of the body. Her physical condition itself spoke everything. She was crying. She wanted to take revenge but being a woman the only way out suggested was file a case with the court where they will be properly handled and also she will get her right back. This was the suggestion given only after a patient hearing of both the parties. The outcome was she filed a case against them and got a divorce. Q12) How you show interest to understand others ? Ans : By giving good gestures as per the situation, nodding the head, positive body language, by being optimistic, and most importantly by making them comfortable by - 53. letting them say whatever they feel like by creating confidence in them. So that maximum facts can be obtained. Q13) What leadership qualities do you feel you have? Ans : I am a) Empathetic , b) Support group co operation by giving every one a say in the discussion , c) I think well in stress, d) I accept my own mistakes and try to work on them, e) At times I am democratic at times I am situational . f) Also I am non-judgmental. Q14) Do you think you are emotionally balanced ? give any 1 case to support your statement? Ans : I am not completely emotionally balanced. In this she gave me a famous case of a mother in law and a daughter in law. They both approach me for a problem .The mother in law started telling her problems shouting and screaming at the top of her voice ,making hands at me,she looked frustrated. I got afraid too by way of talking. Also she was dressed in a green saree wearing green bangles in both the hands and a big tika on her fore-head which threatened me more. I just thought if I am so afraid of her then what about the girl. I was feeling like laughing by looking at her overall way of talking, but couldnt as it was a serious matter. - 54. 10.2) Business case for Emotional Intelligence Here are few corporate examples which show the significance of Emotional Quotient / Intelligence in fields like Recruitment and Selection Training and Development Leadership 1. The US Air Force used the EQ-I to select recruiters (the Air Forces front-line HR personnel) and found that the most successful recruiters scored significantly higher in the emotional intelligence competencies of Assertiveness, Empathy, Happiness, and Emotional Self Awareness. The Air Force also found that by using emotional intelligence to select recruiters, they increased their ability to predict successful recruiters by nearly three-fold. The immediate gain was a saving of $3 million annually. These gains resulted in the Government Accounting Office submitting a report to Congress, which led to a request that the Secretary of Defense order all branches of the armed forces to adopt this procedure in recruitment and selection. (The GAO report is titled, Military Recruiting: The Department of Defense Could Improve Its Recruiter Selection and Incentive Systems, and it was submitted to Congress January 30, 1998. Richard Handley and Reuven Bar-On provided this information.) 2. At LOreal, sales agents selected on the basis of certain emotional competencies significantly outsold salespeople selected using the companys old selection procedure. On an annual basis, salespeople selected on the basis of emotional competence sold $91,370 more than other salespeople did, for a net revenue increase of $2,558,360. Salespeople selected on the basis of emotional competence also had 63% fewer turnovers during the first year than those selected in the typical way. - 55. 3. In a large beverage firm based in the United States, using standard methods to hire division presidents, 50% left within two years, mostly because of poor performance. When they started selecting based on emotional competencies such as initiative, self-confidence, and leadership, only 6% left in two years. Furthermore, the executives selected based on emotional competence were far more likely to perform in the top third based on salary bonuses for performance of the divisions they led: 87% were in the top third. In addition, division leaders with these competencies outperformed their targets by 15 to 20 percent. Those who lacked them under-performed by almost 20%. 4. After supervisors in a manufacturing plant received training in emotional competencies such as how to listen better and help employees resolve problems on their own, lost-time accidents were reduced by 50 percent, formal grievances were reduced from an average of 15 per year to 3 per year, and the plant exceeded productivity goals by $250,000. In another manufacturing plant where supervisors received similar training, production increased 17 percent. There was no such increase in production for a group of matched supervisors who were not trained. 5. For sales representatives at a computer company, those hired, based on their emotional competence were 90% more likely to finish their training than those hired on other criteria. 6. For 515 senior executives analyzed by the search firm Egon Zehnder International, those who were primarily strong in emotional intelligence were more likely to succeed than those who were strongest in either relevant previous experience or IQ. In other words, emotional intelligence was a better predictor of success than either relevant previous experience or high IQ. More specifically, the executive was high in emotional intelligence in 74 percent of the successes and only in 24 percent of the failures. The study included executives in Latin America, Germany, and Japan, and the results were almost identical in all three cultures. - 56. 7. Financial advisors at American Express whose managers completed the Emotional Competence training program were compared to an equal number whose managers had not. During the year following training, the advisors of trained managers grew their businesses by 18.1% compared to 16.2% for those whose managers were untrained. 8. An analysis of more than 300 top-level executives from fifteen global companies showed that six emotional competencies distinguished stars from the average: Influence, Team Leadership, Organizational Awareness, self-confidence, Achievement Drive, and Leadership. 9. In jobs of medium complexity like those of sales clerks and mechanics, a top performer is 12 times more productive than those at the bottom and 85 percent more productive than an average performer. In the most complex jobs like insurance salespeople and account managers, a top performer is 127 percent more productive than an average performer. Competency research in over 200 companies and organizations worldwide suggests that about one-third of this difference is due to technical skill and cognitive ability while two- thirds is due to emotional competence. In top leadership positions, over four-fifths of the difference is due to emotional competence. 10. Research by the Center for Creative Leadership has found that the primary causes of derailment in executives involve deficits in emotional competence. The three primary ones are Difficulty in handling change Not being able to work well in a team, and Poor interpersonal relations. - 57. 11] RECOMMENDATIONS 1) Individual level Every individual to become more successful in his life should try to evaluate his EI connected to his working areas so that he can increase his productivity. 2) Group level In the companies, they should develop in-service training module for evaluating and improving emotional intelligence of workers form the point of view of productivity. 3) Managerial level The emotional intelligence can be evaluated even for the managerial category at a particular time intervals to get optimum use of human resources. - 58. 12 ] SUPPLEMENTARY 12.1) Acknowledgement I am thankful to N.E.S.Ratnam college for giving me an opportunity to work on the project of Emotional Intelligence Quotient. I am highly thankful to my esteemed guide Mr.Subramanium for his support throughout the completion of this project. I am also thankful to Stri.Chetana Shakti,collector colony ,chembur for assisting me in this project and allowing me to do a case study form their staff. I am thankful to Ms.Mitali (psychiatrist), who works there as a counsellor ,for answering to my questionnaire. - 59. 13] CONCLUSION So is there anything new about emotional intelligence? In some ways, emotional intelligence really is not new. In fact, it is based on a long history of research and theory in personality and social psychology. Furthermore, Goleman has never claimed otherwise. In fact, one of his main points was that psychologists have studied the abilities associated with emotional intelligence for many years, and there is an impressive, and growing, body of research suggesting that these abilities are important for success in many areas of life. However, rather than arguing about whether emotional intelligence is new, it is more useful and interesting to consider how important it is for effective performance at work. There now is a considerable body of research suggesting that a persons ability to perceive, identify, and manage emotion provides the basis for the kinds of social and emotional competencies that are important for success in almost any job. Furthermore, as the pace of change increases and the world of work makes ever-greater demands on a persons cognitive, emotional, and physical resources, this particular set of abilities has become increasingly important. Use of Emotional Intelligence has become imperative to improve both productivity and psychological well being in the workplace of tomorrow. At present, there is little in the way of published, fundamental research that examines either emotional intelligence or its measurement. However, This is a very interesting and potentially powerful area that bears watching. It is not without controversy. It is a long way to go. No doubt, the emotional intelligence will contribute much to a happy living of an individual and the community. Emotional intelligence allows us to think more creatively and use our emotions to solve problem. Emotional intelligence appears to be an important set of psychological abilities that relate to life success. It is empathy and communication skills as well as social and leadership skills that will be central to your success in life and personal relationships. Rather than a high IQ, purpose that it is far better to have a high E-IQ, emotional intelligence, if you want to be a valued and a productive member of the society. Men particularly need to develop emotional skills, and there are many examples of men with high intelligence who were not successful because they had problems with there people skills. It is found from this research that people with high emotional intelligence generally have - 60. successful relationships with family, friends and fellows workers. They are also successful because they have persisted the face of setbacks and channel their emotional energies towards achieving their goals. BIBLIOGRAPHY Books: Goleman, D. (1995) Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam. Goleman, D.(1998) - Working with Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam. The EQ Edge Hemphill, J. K. (1959) - Job description. Harvard Business Review. Claude Steiner, Ph. D - Achieving Emotional Literacy A research done on Profile of Indian Executives by - Dr. Vijaya Manerikar & Dr. C. Dlima Websites: www.eqi.org www.rediff.com www.google.com -