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This lecture was given in December, 2010 as part of the California native plant gardening series ‘Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden’

Transcript of Elegant espaliers

  • 1. Out of the Wilds and Into Your GardenGardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants Project SOUND - 2010 Project SOUND

2. Elegant Espaliers:CA Natives in a Craftsman StyleGarden C.M. Vadheim and T. DrakeCSUDH & Madrona Marsh PreserveMadrona Marsh Preserve December 4 & 7, 2010 Project SOUND 3. Last May we visited the Victorian Era http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a9/Henry_Treffry_Dunn_Rossetti_and_Dunton_at_16_Cheyne_Walk.jpgIncreased wealth, manufactured goods and exotic stuff characterized theIndustrial Revolution/Victorian Era Project SOUND 4. Edwardian Gardens were very much arevolt against the Victorian stylehttp://farm4.static.flickr.com/3002/2930975253_e3036b0a45.jpg?v=0 Edwardian Style Garden Back to Nature & Country Gardens Project SOUND 5. But there was an interesting revolutionary movementafoot in England in the mid/late 1800s http://designinspiration.typepad.com/design_inspiration_planet/books/ ... a direct revolt against many of the bad aspects of the Industrial Revolution in England Project SOUND 6. The Arts and Crafts Movement Began in England in the 1860s asa reform movement. John Ruskin (1819-1900) Movements philosophical leader Most influential Victorian writer on the arts and architecture Member of the Pre-Raphaelite Movement/Brotherhood. Believed the decorative arts affected the men who produced them. The machine dehumanizedhttp://www.oldukphotos.com/london_famous_people.htmthe worker and led to a loss of dignity because it removed him"all cast from the machine isfrom the artistic process and thus,bad, as work it is dishonest." from nature itself. Project SOUND 7. The Pre-RaphaeliteBrotherhood Founded in 1848; a loose movement ofEnglish painters, poets, and critics In its time it was a revolutionary asthe Impressionistic Movement Mission was to reform art byrejecting the mechanistic approachadopted by artists after Raphael andMichelangelo. Believed that the Classical poses andelegant compositions of Raphael hadbeen a corrupting influence on theteaching of art. Hence the name"Pre-Raphaelite". Best known painters: Edward Burne-Jones http://preraphaelitepaintings.blogspot.com/2009/01/edward-burne-jones-le-chant-damour.html Dante Gabriel Rossetti John Everett MillaisDante Gabriel Rossetti: - La Ghirlandata Henry Le Jeune Project SOUND 8. The Brotherhoods early doctrines were expressed in four declarations: to have genuine ideas toexpress; to study Nature attentively, soas to know how to expressthem; to sympathise with what isdirect and serious andheartfelt in previous art, to theexclusion of what isconventional and self-parodyingand learned by rote; and, most indispensable of all,Henry Le Jeuneto produce thoroughly goodA Young Lady Sketching in a Landscapepictures and statues Project SOUND 9. The Pre-Raphaelite Movement Ruskins book The Stones of Venice (1853) had a great impact on the intellectuals of Victorian England. In it, he made a direct connection between art, nature, and morality - good moral art was nature expressed through man. The English Arts & Crafts Movement developed from this ideahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Stones_of_Venice_(book) Project SOUND 10. The Arts and Crafts William Morris (1834-1896)Movement English textile designer, artist, writer and socialist Associated with both the Pre- Raphaelite Brotherhood and the English Arts and Crafts Movement. Took Ruskins ideas about nature, art, morality and the degradation of human labor and translated them into a unified theory of design. By doing so, Morris successfully wedded aesthetics and social reform into the Arts and Crafts Movement. Chief contribution to the arts was as a designer of repeating patterns for wallpapers and textiles, many based on a close observation of nature.William Morris -La Belle Iseult He was also a major contributor to1858 the resurgence of traditional textile arts and methods of production. Project SOUND 11. William Morris founded Morris & Co. in 1875 The goal was to create design that was... " for the people and by the people, and a source of pleasure to the maker and the user." Medieval Guilds were the model for the ideal craft production system provide honorable work for the craftsman The forms of Arts and Crafts style typically rectilinear/angular, with stylized decorative motifs reminiscent of medieval, Japanese and Islamic http://www.victorianweb.org/art/design/furniture/25.htmldesignhttp://barnyardgazette.blogspot.com/2009/04/william-morris-arts-and-crafts-movement.html Project SOUND 12. Common themes of The Arts & Crafts Movement1880-1910. Rejection of Classical/Italianate architecture,and the revival of theGothic Style. Rebellion againstindustrialization and massproduction by machines. Leading figures believed http://www.ukmodernfurniture.co.uk/softfurnishiin a socialist or utopiansociety, striving for good ng/artsandcrafts.htmlquality of life for all,including art for thepeople, by the people.http://www.blog.designsquish.com/index.php?/site/2009/03/ Project SOUND 13. Common themes of The Arts & CraftsMovement Nostalgia for the medievalage - seen as the goldenage of creativity andfreedom. Artists and craftsman wereviewed as equals - art wasno longer a separate orsuperior activity. Revival of craftsmanship,honesty in construction, http://www.dartmouth.edu/~matc/math5.pattern/lesson8art.htmlBecause of the cost of hand and truth to materials noproduction, the English Arts &fakes or cheap, gaudyCrafts style was only available tomass-produced itemsthe wealthy Project SOUND 14. Not surprisingly, the Arts & Crafts Movement also influenced garden design Large or small, [a garden] should look both orderly and rich. It should be well fenced from the outside world. It should by no means imitate either the willfulness or the wildness of nature, but it should look like a thing never to seen except near a house. It should, in fact, look like part of the house.William Morris Hopes and Fears for Art 1882http://www.hewnandhammered.com/hewn_and_hammered/2006/03/book_review_gar.html Project SOUND 15. Gertrude Jekyll: an influential Arts & Crafts garden designer Wrote 14 influentialbooks, and co-wrotemany more. Her writing includedpractical advice, butalso had an almostpoetic description ofthe enjoyment ofgardening asspiritual practice, notjust manual labor. http://www.gertrudejekyllgarden.co.uk/The close alignment of work, beauty and meaning was a key principle ofthe Arts and Crafts movement, of which Jekyll was a central figure. Project SOUND 16. The English Arts & Crafts garden Famous architects of the day viewedhouse and garden as a unified whole.The distinctions between indoors andoutdoors were blurred gardens werea harmonious extension of the house. Gardens were a venue for reform andinnovation, an opportunity to expressintegrity and beauty, and a chance tomove beyond the artificiality of thedominant Victorian paradigm. Rejecting Victorian orderliness andostentation in favor of naturalism andinformality.While certainly not simple, the overall effect is an invitingone of comfort and ease rather than grandeur. Project SOUND 17. But what happened when the Arts & Crafts Movement crossed the ocean? Younger nation lessrigid social structure;land of opportunity Melting pot of manycultures with theirown distinct craftstraditions Less industrialized/urban than EnglandSo, the American Craftsman Different materialsMovement was influenced bythe English Arts & Crafts (woods; native plants;Movement, but later (1900-etc.)1920s) and distinctly American Project SOUND 18. The Craftsman Movement: Arts & CraftsAmerican Style Much influenced by Morris key figures visited him/his colleagues Was both a social & design/stylistic movement but the components were uniquely American Focus on architecture and home furnishing crafts: furniture, pottery, printing, other decorative arts not so much textiles The Craftsman magazine played a key role in popularizing the Movement Key figures: Elbert Hubbard Roycroft Studios Gustav Stickley Project SOUND 19. Craftsman Style furnishings are becomingpopular again? People furnishing their periodcottages or parallels with our http://www.mydesignsecrets.com/2009/05/15/the-craftsman-style-home/times Project SOUND 20. In America, the Arts & Crafts movementinspired some influential architects American architects like the Greene brothers in Pasadena, Frank Lloyd Wright in Chicago and many others drew inspiration from the Arts & Crafts/Craftsman Movements Rediscovered the value in hand crafting buildings and their contentshttp://www.alpinestcraftsman.com/ using natural materials and creatingGreene & Greene - Pasadena a more holistic life style for their occupants very Arts & Crafts Designers often designed both the building/home and its contents the two were seen as inseparable Once again, the Craftsman style with all of its handwork was really a style for the well-to-doA. Tichenor house, Long Beach, 190405 Project SOUND 21. Gambel House - Pasadena Green & Green gardensfreely combinedelements fromdifferent sources,using stones in aJapanese manner,laying mission-stylepadre tiles in brick-edged terraces, andintegrating existingorange groves. This synthesis of local and exotic traditions, of the naturalisticand the formal, remains a remarkable achievement in the historyof the California garden Project SOUND 22. By the early 1900s, many families wanted toown their own homes & gardens and those homes needed to be close to work http://catalog1.lapl.org/cgi-bin/cw_cgi?fullRecord+5905+968+22179+20+0 Project SOUND 23. Differences between the American Craftsman& English Arts & Crafts Much more available to the mass market in America even in the beginning. Machines were used, but craftsmen were still able to assemble and finish the furniture, which lowered