Elegant Espaliers - Notes

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  • 1. 1/6/2013Out of the Wilds and Into Your GardenElegant Espaliers:CA Natives in a Craftsman StyleGardenC.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh PreserveGardening with Western L.A. County Native PlantsDecember 4 & 7, 2010 Project SOUND - 2010 Project SOUND Project SOUND Last May we visited the Victorian Era Edwardian Gardens were very much a revolt against the Victorian style http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a9/Henry_Treffry_Dunn_Rossetti_and_Dunton_at_16_Cheyne_Walk.jpgIncreased wealth, manufactured goods and exotic stuff characterized thehttp://farm4.static.flickr.com/3002/2930975253_e3036b0a45.jpg?v=0Industrial Revolution/Victorian Era Edwardian Style Garden Back to Nature & Country Gardens Project SOUND Project SOUND 1

2. 1/6/2013 But there was an interesting revolutionary movement The Arts and Crafts Movement afoot in England in the mid/late 1800s Began in England in the 1860s asa reform movement. John Ruskin (1819-1900) Movements philosophical leader Most influential Victorian writer on the arts and architecture Member of the Pre-Raphaelite Movement/Brotherhood. Believed the decorative arts affected the men who produced them. The machine dehumanizedhttp://designinspiration.typepad.com/design_inspiration_planet/books/http://www.oldukphotos.com/london_famous_people.htmthe worker and led to a loss of dignity because it removed him "all cast from the machine is from the artistic process and thus,... a direct revolt against many of the bad bad, as work it is dishonest." from nature itself.aspects of the Industrial Revolution in England Project SOUND Project SOUNDThe Pre-RaphaeliteThe Brotherhoods early doctrines were Brotherhoodexpressed in four declarations:Founded in 1848; a loose movement of English painters, poets, and critics to have genuine ideas toIn its time it was a revolutionary asexpress; the Impressionistic Movement to study Nature attentively, soMission was to reform art by as to know how to express rejecting the mechanistic approachthem; adopted by artists after Raphael and Michelangelo. to sympathise with what isBelieved that the Classical poses anddirect and serious and elegant compositions of Raphael hadheartfelt in previous art, to the been a corrupting influence on the exclusion of what is teaching of art. Hence the nameconventional and self-parodying "Pre-Raphaelite".and learned by rote;Best known painters: and, most indispensable of all, Edward Burne-JonesHenry Le Jeuneto produce thoroughly good http://preraphaelitepaintings.blogspot.com/2009/01/edward-burne-jones-le-chant-damour.html Dante Gabriel RossettiA Young Lady Sketching in a Landscapepictures and statues John Everett MillaisDante Gabriel Rossetti: - La Ghirlandata Henry Le Jeune Project SOUND Project SOUND 2 3. 1/6/2013The Arts and Crafts William Morris (1834-1896) The Pre-Raphaelite MovementMovement English textile designer, artist, writer and socialist Ruskins book The Stones Associated with both the Pre- Raphaelite Brotherhood and the of Venice (1853) had aEnglish Arts and Crafts Movement. great impact on the intellectuals of Victorian Took Ruskins ideas about nature, England.art, morality and the degradation of human labor and translated them In it, he made a direct into a unified theory of design. By doing so, Morris successfully wedded connection between art, aesthetics and social reform into nature, and morality - good the Arts and Crafts Movement. moral art was nature expressed through man. Chief contribution to the arts was as a designer of repeating patterns for The English Arts & Crafts wallpapers and textiles, many based on a close observation of nature. Movement developed from this ideaWilliam Morris -La Belle Iseult He was also a major contributor to1858 the resurgence of traditional textile arts and methods of production.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Stones_of_Venice_(book) Project SOUND Project SOUNDCommon themes of The Arts & Crafts MovementWilliam Morris founded Morris & Co. in 1875 1880-1910. Rejection of Classical/ The goal was to create design that was... " forItalianate architecture, the people and by the and the revival of the people, and a source of pleasure to the maker and Gothic Style. the user." Rebellion against Medieval Guilds were the model for the ideal craft industrialization and mass production system production by machines. provide honorable work for the craftsman Leading figures believed The forms of Arts and in a socialist or utopian Crafts style typically http://www.ukmodernfurniture.co.uk/softfurnishi society, striving for goodng/artsandcrafts.html rectilinear/angular, with stylized decorative motifsquality of life for all, reminiscent of medieval, Japanese and Islamicincluding art for the http://www.victorianweb.org/art/design/furniture/25.htmldesignpeople, by the people.http://barnyardgazette.blogspot.com/2009/04/william-morris-arts-and-crafts-movement.html Project SOUNDhttp://www.blog.designsquish.com/index.php?/site/2009/03/ Project SOUND3 4. 1/6/2013Common themes of The Arts & Crafts Not surprisingly, the Arts & CraftsMovement Nostalgia for the medievalMovement also influenced garden designage - seen as the goldenage of creativity andfreedom.Large or small, [a garden] shouldlook both orderly and rich. Itshould be well fenced from the Artists and craftsman wereoutside world. It should by noviewed as equals - art wasmeans imitate either theno longer a separate or willfulness or the wildness ofnature, but it should look like asuperior activity.thing never to seen except neara house. It should, in fact, look Revival of craftsmanship, like part of the house.honesty in construction, http://www.dartmouth.edu/~matc/math5.pattern/lesson8art.htmlBecause of the cost of hand and truth to materials noWilliam MorrisHopes and Fears for Art 1882production, the English Arts &fakes or cheap, gaudymass-produced items http://www.hewnandhammered.com/hewn_and_hammered/2006/03Crafts style was only available to /book_review_gar.htmlthe wealthy Project SOUND Project SOUND Gertrude Jekyll: an influential Arts & Crafts The English Arts & Crafts garden garden designer Wrote 14 influential Famous architects of the day viewedhouse and garden as a unified whole. books, and co-wroteThe distinctions between indoors and many more. outdoors were blurred gardens werea harmonious extension of the house. Her writing included practical advice, but Gardens were a venue for reform and also had an almost innovation, an opportunity to express poetic description ofintegrity and beauty, and a chance to the enjoyment of move beyond the artificiality of the gardening as dominant Victorian paradigm. spiritual practice, not Rejecting Victorian orderliness and just manual labor. ostentation in favor of naturalism andhttp://www.gertrudejekyllgarden.co.uk/informality.The close alignment of work, beauty and meaning was a key principle ofWhile certainly not simple, the overall effect is an invitingthe Arts and Crafts movement, of which Jekyll was a central figure. one of comfort and ease rather than grandeur. Project SOUND Project SOUND4 5. 1/6/2013 But what happened when the Arts & The Craftsman Movement: Arts & Crafts Crafts Movement crossed the ocean?American Style Much influenced by Morris keyfigures visited him/his colleagues Younger nation less Was both a social & design/stylistic rigid social structure;movement but the components land of opportunitywere uniquely American Melting pot of many Focus on architecture and home cultures with theirfurnishing crafts: furniture, pottery,printing, other decorative arts not own distinct craftsso much textiles traditions The Craftsman magazine played a Less industrialized/ key role in popularizing the urban than England Movement Key figures:So, the American Craftsman Different materials Elbert Hubbard Roycroft StudiosMovement was influenced bythe English Arts & Crafts(woods; native plants; Gustav StickleyMovement, but later (1900- etc.)1920s) and distinctly American Project SOUND Project SOUNDCraftsman Style furnishings are becoming In America, the Arts & Crafts movementpopular againinspired some influential architects American architects like the Greene brothers in Pasadena, Frank Lloyd Wright in Chicago and many others drew inspiration from the Arts & Crafts/Craftsman Movements Rediscovered the value in hand crafting buildings and their contents http://www.alpinestcraftsman.com/ using natural materials and creating Greene & Greene - Pasadenaa more holistic life style for their occupants very Arts & Crafts Designers often designed both the building/home and its contents the two were seen as inseparable? People furnishing their periodcottages or parallels with our Once again, the Craftsman style http://www.mydesignsecrets.com/2009/05/15/the-craftsman-style-home/ with all of its handwork was reallytimesa style for the well-to-do A. Tichenor house, Long Beach, 190405 Project SOUND Project SOUND 5 6. 1/6/2013By the early 1900s, many families wanted to Gambel House - Pasadenaown their own homes & gardens and those Green & Green gardens homes needed to be close to work freely combined elements from different sources, using stones in a Japanese manner, laying mission-style padre tiles in brick- edged terraces, and integrating existing orange groves. This synthesis of local and exotic traditions, of the naturalisticand the formal, remains a remarkable achievement in the historyof the California garden http://catalog1.lapl.org/cgi-bin/cw_cgi?fullRecord+5905+968+22179+20+0 Project SOUND Project SOUNDDifferences between the American CraftsmanToday, we tend to think of Craftsman as& English Arts & Crafts a design/aesthetic style Much more available to the mass market in America even in the beginning. Machines were used, but craftsmen were still able to assemble and finish t