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Real logic gates Measuring voltage limits Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits Terry Sturtevant Wilfrid Laurier University November 20, 2014 Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

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  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits

    ElectronicsLogic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

    Terry Sturtevant

    Wilfrid Laurier University

    November 20, 2014

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits Reading Data sheets

    Input voltages will not always be at ideal values

    a range of input values must be considered highanother range of input values must be considered low.Similarly output voltages will not always be at ideal valuesa range of output voltages should be considered as highanother range of output voltages should be considered low.

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits Reading Data sheets

    Input voltages will not always be at ideal valuesa range of input values must be considered high

    another range of input values must be considered low.Similarly output voltages will not always be at ideal valuesa range of output voltages should be considered as highanother range of output voltages should be considered low.

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits Reading Data sheets

    Input voltages will not always be at ideal valuesa range of input values must be considered highanother range of input values must be considered low.

    Similarly output voltages will not always be at ideal valuesa range of output voltages should be considered as highanother range of output voltages should be considered low.

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits Reading Data sheets

    Input voltages will not always be at ideal valuesa range of input values must be considered highanother range of input values must be considered low.Similarly output voltages will not always be at ideal values

    a range of output voltages should be considered as highanother range of output voltages should be considered low.

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits Reading Data sheets

    Input voltages will not always be at ideal valuesa range of input values must be considered highanother range of input values must be considered low.Similarly output voltages will not always be at ideal valuesa range of output voltages should be considered as high

    another range of output voltages should be considered low.

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits Reading Data sheets

    Input voltages will not always be at ideal valuesa range of input values must be considered highanother range of input values must be considered low.Similarly output voltages will not always be at ideal valuesa range of output voltages should be considered as highanother range of output voltages should be considered low.

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits Reading Data sheets

    VIHmin

    the minimum input voltage which will be accepted as a logic1.VILmaxthe maximum input voltage which will be accepted as a logic0.VOHminthe minimum output voltage representing a logic 1 state.VOLmaxthe maximum output voltage representing a logic 0 state.

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits Reading Data sheets

    VIHminthe minimum input voltage which will be accepted as a logic1.

    VILmaxthe maximum input voltage which will be accepted as a logic0.VOHminthe minimum output voltage representing a logic 1 state.VOLmaxthe maximum output voltage representing a logic 0 state.

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits Reading Data sheets

    VIHminthe minimum input voltage which will be accepted as a logic1.VILmax

    the maximum input voltage which will be accepted as a logic0.VOHminthe minimum output voltage representing a logic 1 state.VOLmaxthe maximum output voltage representing a logic 0 state.

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits Reading Data sheets

    VIHminthe minimum input voltage which will be accepted as a logic1.VILmaxthe maximum input voltage which will be accepted as a logic0.

    VOHminthe minimum output voltage representing a logic 1 state.VOLmaxthe maximum output voltage representing a logic 0 state.

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits Reading Data sheets

    VIHminthe minimum input voltage which will be accepted as a logic1.VILmaxthe maximum input voltage which will be accepted as a logic0.VOHmin

    the minimum output voltage representing a logic 1 state.VOLmaxthe maximum output voltage representing a logic 0 state.

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits Reading Data sheets

    VIHminthe minimum input voltage which will be accepted as a logic1.VILmaxthe maximum input voltage which will be accepted as a logic0.VOHminthe minimum output voltage representing a logic 1 state.

    VOLmaxthe maximum output voltage representing a logic 0 state.

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits Reading Data sheets

    VIHminthe minimum input voltage which will be accepted as a logic1.VILmaxthe maximum input voltage which will be accepted as a logic0.VOHminthe minimum output voltage representing a logic 1 state.VOLmax

    the maximum output voltage representing a logic 0 state.

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits Reading Data sheets

    VIHminthe minimum input voltage which will be accepted as a logic1.VILmaxthe maximum input voltage which will be accepted as a logic0.VOHminthe minimum output voltage representing a logic 1 state.VOLmaxthe maximum output voltage representing a logic 0 state.

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits Reading Data sheets

    Reading Data sheets

    The actual limits on voltage, current, timing, etc. will begiven in manufacturer’s data sheets.Different manufacturers arrange their data sheets differently,and use different names.

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits Reading Data sheets

    Reading Data sheets

    The actual limits on voltage, current, timing, etc. will begiven in manufacturer’s data sheets.

    Different manufacturers arrange their data sheets differently,and use different names.

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits Reading Data sheets

    Reading Data sheets

    The actual limits on voltage, current, timing, etc. will begiven in manufacturer’s data sheets.Different manufacturers arrange their data sheets differently,and use different names.

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits Reading Data sheets

    Supply voltage Designations

    The supply voltages for various families have names which arebased on the type of transistors used in their construction.For instance, TTL gates are made with bipolar transistors,which have a collector and an emitter,the supply voltages are VCC and GROUND is occasionallygiven as VEE.On the other hand, CMOS gates are built with field–effecttransistors which have a drain and a source,the supply voltages are VDD and VSS.

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits Reading Data sheets

    Supply voltage Designations

    The supply voltages for various families have names which arebased on the type of transistors used in their construction.

    For instance, TTL gates are made with bipolar transistors,which have a collector and an emitter,the supply voltages are VCC and GROUND is occasionallygiven as VEE.On the other hand, CMOS gates are built with field–effecttransistors which have a drain and a source,the supply voltages are VDD and VSS.

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits Reading Data sheets

    Supply voltage Designations

    The supply voltages for various families have names which arebased on the type of transistors used in their construction.For instance, TTL gates are made with bipolar transistors,which have a collector and an emitter,the supply voltages are VCC and GROUND is occasionallygiven as VEE.

    On the other hand, CMOS gates are built with field–effecttransistors which have a drain and a source,the supply voltages are VDD and VSS.

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits Reading Data sheets

    Supply voltage Designations

    The supply voltages for various families have names which arebased on the type of transistors used in their construction.For instance, TTL gates are made with bipolar transistors,which have a collector and an emitter,the supply voltages are VCC and GROUND is occasionallygiven as VEE.On the other hand, CMOS gates are built with field–effecttransistors which have a drain and a source,the supply voltages are VDD and VSS.

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits

    Measuring voltage limits

    In order to measure the voltage limits, you can connect up thecircuit as in the following figure.

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits

    Measuring voltage limits

    In order to measure the voltage limits, you can connect up thecircuit as in the following figure.

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits

    Vcc

    Vin

    1 2

    GND

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits

    Using a sine wave input with the oscilloscope operating in the X–Ymode, a trace similar to the one shown in the following figureshould be obtained.

    (The output shown is for an LSTTL inverting gate.)

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits

    Using a sine wave input with the oscilloscope operating in the X–Ymode, a trace similar to the one shown in the following figureshould be obtained.(The output shown is for an LSTTL inverting gate.)

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits

    Vin

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits

    Vin

    Vout

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits

    Vin

    Vout

    logic “0” input0.8

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits

    Vin

    Vout

    logic “0” input0.8

    ����VOHmin

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits

    Vin

    Vout

    logic “1” input2.0

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits

    Vin

    Vout

    logic “1” input2.0

    ����VOLmax

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits

    Vin

    Vout

    logic “0”output

    0.5

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits

    Vin

    Vout

    logic “0”output

    0.5 ����

    VIHmin

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits

    Vin

    Vout

    logic “1”output

    2.7

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits

    Vin

    Vout

    logic “1”output

    2.7 ����

    VILmax

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits

    This is called the transfer characteristic of the gate.

    Note that the input voltage, Vin, is on the X axis and the outputvoltage, Vout, on the Y axis.

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits

    This is called the transfer characteristic of the gate.Note that the input voltage, Vin, is on the X axis and the outputvoltage, Vout, on the Y axis.

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits

    Vin

    Vout

    CMOS will look slightly different.

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits

    Vin

    Vout

    CMOS will look slightly different.

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits

    Measuring Output Voltage Limits

    The output voltage produced by an input voltage of thespecified value of VILmax would be the measured value ofVOHmin .The output voltage is produced by an input voltage of thespecified value of VIHmin would be the measured value ofVOLmax .

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits

    Measuring Output Voltage Limits

    The output voltage produced by an input voltage of thespecified value of VILmax would be the measured value ofVOHmin .

    The output voltage is produced by an input voltage of thespecified value of VIHmin would be the measured value ofVOLmax .

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits

    Measuring Output Voltage Limits

    The output voltage produced by an input voltage of thespecified value of VILmax would be the measured value ofVOHmin .The output voltage is produced by an input voltage of thespecified value of VIHmin would be the measured value ofVOLmax .

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

  • Real logic gatesMeasuring voltage limits

    Measuring Output Voltage Limits

    The output voltage produced by an input voltage of thespecified value of VILmax would be the measured value ofVOHmin .The output voltage is produced by an input voltage of thespecified value of VIHmin would be the measured value ofVOLmax .

    Terry Sturtevant Electronics Logic Gates: Measuring Voltage Limits

    Real logic gatesReading Data sheets

    Measuring voltage limits