El Salon Mexico

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Transcript of El Salon Mexico

ANALYSIS

EL SALON MEXICOAARON COPLAND

M E Williams 2010

Power point prepared by: Margaret Williams www.mewsicresources.co.nz

BACKGROUND (1)E L S A L O N M E X I C OBelize Guatemala Honduras El Salvador

1

USA

Copland visited Mexico in 1932 and decided to compose a piece of music based on Mexican themes

BACKGROUND (2)E L S A L O N M E X I C O

2

From the very beginning, the composition was connected to a popular dance hall in Mexico City called the Salon Mexico

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BACKGROUND (3)E L S A L O N M E X I C O It would be foolish for me to attempt to translate into musical sounds the more profound side of Mexico: the Mexico of ancient civilisations the revolutionary Mexico of today In order to be able to do all that, one must really know the country All that I could hope to do was to reflect the Mexico of the tourists, and that is why I thought of the Salon Mexico, Mexico, because in that hot spot, one felt in a very natural and unaffected way, a close contact with the Mexican people

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BACKGROUND (4)E L S A L O N M E X I C O It wasnt the music I heard, but the spirit that I felt there, which attracted me. Something of the spirit is what I hope to have put into my music

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BACKGROUND (5)E L S A L O N M E X I C O Copland completed the work in 1936

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It was first performed on August 27 1937, by the Orquesta Sinfonica de Mxico Mxico conducted by Carlos Chavez

It was Carlos Chavez who introduced Copland to the Salon Mexico Night Club when he visited Mexico.

2

BACKGROUND (6)E L S A L O N M E X I C O Some of the themes are based on melodies printed in El Folklore y la Musica Mexicana edited by Reuben Campos Others are based on melodies from Cancionero Mexicano edited by Frances Toor NONE OF THE THEMES IS QUOTED COMPLETELY Copland used folk music idioms such as: Harmonisation in parallel 3rds and 6ths Pitch slides Clarinet cadenzas String glissandos Some call and response techniques

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BACKGROUND (7)E L S A L O N M E X I C O

7

Copland has mentally absorbed the spirit and characteristic idioms of Mexican folk music and reproduced them in music that is his own The original melodies have been altered

RHYTHMICALLY

and

MELODICALLY

Sometimes fragments of two different tunes are welded into a fresh idea Ralph Hawkes (co founder of the music publishing firm Boosey and Hawkes) nicknamed the work An American Bolero and commissioned Leonard Bernstein to write a piano arrangement of the work.

FORME L S A L O N M E X I C O El Salon Mexico is in

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TERNARY FORM

INTRO A B A1

Unusually long (102 bars) In FIVE sections - each a different tempo All three folk tunes introduced

Allegro Vivace - bar 103 Contains further variations on the themes stated in the introduction and new material Moderato molto (rubato) - bar 183 Contains new material Bar 323 Same material as A, but in a different order, and in different keys bar 384 - same theme as opening of intro

CODA

3

EL PALO VERDEE L S A L O N M E X I C OFirst verse Allegro

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CHORDS

I or G

I or G

I or G 3 4

V or D

1 bar MIXED METRE What chords are used? Verse 1 Verse 2

6 followed by 1 bar 8

Accents fall on different quavers

What musical device is used in this verse?Second verse

SEQUENCE

CHORDS

I or G

ii or Am

V or D

I or G

EL MOSCOE L S A L O N M E X I C OV1

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I or G What is the same as El Palo Verde?

V or D I or G What is different from El Palo Verde?

METREmixed What chords are used? Verse 1V2

TEMPOslower Verse 2

TONALITYLN

RHYTHManacrusic irregular syncopated

IV or C What is the main harmonic difference from the 1st verse?

V or D I or G Starts with the subdominant chord (IV)

LA JESUSITAE L S A L O N M E X I C O

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I METRE HARMONY MELODY RHYTHM2 4

V7

Simple duple Chords I and V7 Built entirely from harmony notes Anacrusic Syncopated

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INTRODUCTION (Part 1) bars 1-18 1E L S A L O N M E X I C O(Bar 3)

12

Which song? What has changed? IN NOTATION IN PERFORMANCE What has changed? IN NOTATION IN PERFORMANCELast entry followed by the rest of the verse(Bar 6)

EL PALO VERDE

(Bar 8)

Piano, viola

So, if the performance of the motif hasnt changed The number and timing of much, what HAS changed?chords before each entry

INTRODUCTION (Part 1) bars 1-18 1E L S A L O N M E X I C O What has changed?Written in triple time, but accents indicate 6 8 Extra quaver causes rhythmic displacement This bar could have been written in 7 time 8 Looks syncopated, but doesnt sound syncopated

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Copland has used FRAGMENTATION

in the intro

He has developed fragments of the original Mexican melodies LISTEN TO SECTION 1 OF THE INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION (Part 2) bars 19-33 19E L S A L O N M E X I C OBegins with 4 bars of discords from the bassoons and trombone How has Copland The chords sound less discordant changed La Jesusita? because they are very soft Trumpet plays a DECORATED version of La Jesusita Answered by a short clarinet CADENZA

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LA JESUSITA

The trumpet restates the melody. Answered again by a clarinet

CADENZA

How is it changed?

MELODIC RANGE

How is it the same?

HARMONY

LONGER CLARINET CADENZA

Listen again to Section 2

5

INTRODUCTION (Part 3) bars 34-60 34E L S A L O N M E X I C OBegins with an introduction (6 bars) Timp What instruments? Piano What is the link to the folk tunes? IRREGULAR RHYTHM sounds like MIXED METREBass

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On which folk tune is the main theme based?

EL MOSCO

How does Copland:

Keep the flavour of the folk music? Use musical elements to personalise it?

What changes when the theme is repeated? (on each entry)

MELODY

RHYTHM

HARMONY

INTRODUCTION (Part 4) bars 61-72 61E L S A L O N M E X I C OBegins with an introduction (2 bars) Repeated throughout the section What rhythm? Sounds like 6 8 What notes? 3 4

16

G D

TONIC & DOMINANT PEDAL POINTSection 3

What other section began like this?

What instruments reinforce this rhythm in bars 69 - 71? Violin 2 and viola with quaver movement Why is this rhythm not as obvious as in other sections?

DYNAMICS

( p)

CHANGES OF TEMPO

(rit. - a tempo) tempo)

INTRODUCTION (Part 4) bars 61-72 61E L S A L O N M E X I C OOn which folk song is the melody based?

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1st verse El Palo Verde

2nd verse

What instruments harmonise the melody? violin 2, viola, cello What chords are used? (ignore the pedal notes) I ii V I

(implied by the melody) LISTEN AGAIN TO SECTION 4

6

INTRODUCTION (Part 5) bars 73-102 73E L S A L O N M E X I C OWhat is the new time signature? This section is based on the One of the most famous examples is the Habanera from Carmen by Bizet Repetitive bass rhythm (Copland does not use this) NB 6 8 Compound duple rhythm

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HABANERA

Distinctive rhythm of melody

is the same as same rhythm

Which folk tune uses this rhythm? El Mosco

Another famous song using the Habanera rhythm is La Paloma

INTRODUCTION (Part 5) bars 73-102 73E L S A L O N M E X I C OIntro:(4 bars)

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Tonic chord in Habanera rhythm played by Same chord sustained by

Vln 2 & Vla

Flutes 1&2, Clarinet 2, Horns

The chordal accompaniment continues throughout this section What instruction is given to the accompanying strings? DIVISI (in three)

The melody in the cello (bars 76-80) is based on 76-

EL MOSCO RHYTHM Same MELODIC CONTOUR Slight alteration ENDING Same drop of a Major 3rd

INTRODUCTION (Part 5) bars 73-102 73E L S A L O N M E X I C OUsing and developing only part of a melody or rhythm is called:

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FRAGMENTATION

Look at the rhythm of the melody and the rhythm of the accompaniment in bars 77-79. What musical devices are being used?

POLYRHYTHM

or

CROSSCROSS-RHYTHM

SYNCOPATION

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INTRODUCTION (Part 5) bars 73-102 73E L S A L O N M E X I C OFirst statement of the melody:Bar 76

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Vln & Vc in THIRDS

Typical harmonisation of folk music

I Vsus4 I This interval (major 6th) is the same as the 2nd verse of El Mosco but the harmony is based on the first verse What has changed in the second statement? Listen to the first statement followed by the second statementBar 84

Melody and descant no longer entirely in 3rds

Shows influence of 20th century (discordant) harmony

INTRODUCTION (Part 5) bars 73-102 73E L S A L O NSECOND On which verse of El Mosco is the 3rd melodic statement based?

22

IV

I

How do you know? Starts with a subdominant chord

M E X I C O

How has the instrumentation changed? MELODY (in 3rds) Violins 1 and 2

HARMONY (Habanera rhythm) Violas and Cellos SUSTAINED CHORDS Oboes 1&2, Cor Anglais, Clarinet 2, 3 Horns

INTRODUCTION (Part 5) bars 73-102 73E L S A L O N M E X I C OThe 3rd melodic statement is printed below. Listen to the 3rd and 4th statements What changes does Copland make in the 4th statement?

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Extra bar

What cadence does this imply? PLAGAL

IV I What are the chords in these two bars? Why is the cadence only implied? No bass.

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INTRODUCTION (Part 5) bars 73-102 73E L S A L