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  • 1. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's Who gives a f**k about an Oxford comma?I've seen those English dramas tooThey're cruelSo if there's any other wayTo spell the wordIt's fine with me, with meWhy would you speak to me that wayEspecially when I always said that IHaven't got the words for youAll your diction dripping with disdainThrough the painI always tell the truth

2. 3.

    • Use lists.
    • Emphasize new and important information.
    • Choose an appropriate sentence length.
    • Focus on the real subject.
    • Focus on the real verb.
    • Use parallel structures.

Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's 4. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's 5. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's 6.

    • It tends to be imprecise.
    • It can be embarrassing.

Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's 7.

  • The Ventura Aquifer program objectives are the following:
  • characterization of ground water quality
  • to provide data to support Best Management Practices (BMP)
  • relating data to agricultural land use practices

Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's 8. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's 9.

    • Set off each listed item with a number, a letter, or a symbol (usually a bullet).
    • Break up long lists.
    • Present the items in a parallel structure.
    • Structure and punctuate the lead-in correctly.
    • Punctuate the list correctly.

Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's 10. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's 11.

    • Use a level and tone appropriate for
    • your audience
    • your subject
    • your purpose

Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's 12.

  • 1. Do you know your target readers well and personally? 1-10
  • 2. Are they below you in "rank"? 1-10
  • 3. Is the subject of your communication good news? 1-10

Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's 13.

  • What factors influence the level of formality in this picture?

Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's 14.

  • What factors influence the level of formality in this picture?

Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's 15.

  • What factors influence the level of formality in this picture?

Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's 16.

  • What factors influence the level of formality in this picture?

Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's 17.

  • What factors influence the level of formality in this picture?

Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's 18.

  • What factors influence the level of formality in this picture?

Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's 19. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's 20. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's 21. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's 22.

  • Shutdown is to be accomplished in the following manner. Switch S9 must be placed in the OFF position. Next, switch S2 must be placed in the UP position. Finally, press switch S12.
  • Use numbers.
  • Use bullets.
  • Use open (unshaded) boxes.
  • Use lowercase letters.

Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's 23.

  • I am not bound to win, I am bound to be true.

Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's 24. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's 25.

    • Use the active voice and the passive voice appropriately.
    • Be specific.
    • Avoid unnecessary jargon.
    • Use positive constructions.
    • Avoid long noun strings.
    • Avoid clichs.
    • Avoid euphemisms.

Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's 26.

  • Im not happy!
  • I am sad.

Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's 27.

  • It can be imprecise.
  • It can be confusing.
  • It is often seen as condescending.
  • It is often intimidating.

Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's 28.

  • The complementary crepuscularities of earth and sky shrank away from one another as the roseate effulgence of a new dawn burst forth, not unlike a reclining pneumatic beauty's black silk stocking splitting apart at the seam to reveal the glowing radiance of an angrily sun-burned leg.

Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's 29. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's "She wore a dress the same color as her eyes her father bought her from San Francisco," writes Danielle Steele in Star. 30.

  • New motorcycle motor durability equipment tests are being performed by engineers.
  • This could mean:
  • Engineers are using new equipment to test the durability of motorcycle motors .
  • Engineers are performing new tests on the equipment that makes motorcycle motors durable .
  • Engineers are performing tests on the equipment that checks the durability of new motorcycle motors .

Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's 31.

    • Use the active voice unless
    • the agent is clear from the context
    • the agent is unknown
    • the agent is less important than the action
    • a reference to the agent is embarrassing, dangerous, or in some other way inappropriate

Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's 32. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's 33.

  • The woods in the morning seemed both peaceful and lively. Birds could be heard in the pines and oaks, staking out their territory.Squirrels could be seen scampering across the leaves that covered the forest floor, while in the branches above, the new leaves of the birches and maples were outlined by the suns rays.The leaves, too, could be heard, rustling to the rhythm of the wind.

Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's 34.

  • To make a discovery instead of to discover
  • To conduct an investigation instead of to investigate
  • To make an accusation instead of to accuse
  • Nominalization has a rhetorical
  • effect.

Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's 35. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's 36.

  • A nominalization is a verb that has been transformed into a noun, as whento installbecomesto effect an installation , orto analyzebecomesto conduct an analysis .

Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's 37.

  • The measurement of the Earths fragile ozone layer was one of the important missions undertaken by the crew of the space shuttle Atlantis. The shuttle was launched in October of 1994. The mission lasted ten days.Humans are put at greater risk of skin cancer, cataracts, and other ailments because of overexposure to ultraviolet radiation. Crops can also be spoiled and underwater food sources devastated as a result of too much direct sunlight. A vast ozone hole over Antarctica from September to December every year is particularly worrisome to scientists.

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  • New and important information should come at the beginning of a sentence, where readers will be sure to notice it.

Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's 39.

  • If you consistently write sentences with short Subject/Topics that name a few central CHARACTERS and then join them to strong verbs, youll likely get the rest of the sentence right and in the process create a passage that seems both cohesive and coherent.

Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's 40. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin's A sociometric and actuarial analysis of Social Security revenues and disbursements for the last six decades to determine changes in projecting deficits is the subject of