Educating Girls

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An Overview of Girls' Education in America

Transcript of Educating Girls

  • 1. Educating Girls An Overview ofGendered Education in America Photo Credit National Geographic, copyright National Geographic Society
  • 2. History:Girls Are Different Photo Credit National Geographic, copyright Bambang Hidajat
  • 3. And since the Americans have bravelyestablished their liberties, (not withstanding the vainefforts of tyranny) we hope that their modesty willkeep them from exercising that despotism overus, which they so openly despised in their master. . . .and now, may they wish to see the fair sex on anequal footing with themselves, enjoying all theblessings of freedom. - New York female academy student, 1794
  • 4. History 1700s Finishing Schools 1800s Girls Schools, Young Womens academies, and Coeducation 1972 Title IX 1974 Womens Educational Equality Act 1991 How Schools Shortchange Girls 2006 Title IX amended
  • 5. From the 1700sFinishing Schools Arts, such as music, embroidery, drawing, and painting furniture Refinement and social graces Dancing Hosting a ball Etiquette and manners How to be a wife: cook, clean, and keep a household
  • 6. 1700-1800sDame Schools Instruction for a small group of children led by a woman in her home (in place of parents educating their own children) Equivalent to an elementary level education Begun in colonial times based on English methods Prepared boys for town schools or academies Girls might be allowed to attend town schools during summers or holidays
  • 7. 1800sWomens Seminaries and Academies Colonial women were involved in family businesses and commerce Literacy was needed for all Movement for single-gender seminary or academy modeled after English finishing schools, to provide a moral, literary, and domestic education Prepared female teachers for Catholic girls schools Women were the foundation of good manners and a positive influence on men
  • 8. 1800sCoeducation Taught boys and girls in the same schools Included secondary schools Common in the west due to small classes Tracked programs: College preparatory (boys) Vocational (girls, minorities) For girls through the 1960s: Nursing Secretarial Teaching Motherhood
  • 9. History:Girls Are the Same Photo Credit National Geographic, copyright Wahyudi Andriano
  • 10. 1972Title IX Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act, Congresswoman Patsy Mink No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance BIG changes to school athletics Several states passed laws to include schools not receiving Federal funding
  • 11. 1974Womens Educational Equality Act promotes education equity for women and girls through competitive grants. Training for teachers to encourage gender- equity in classrooms Guidance and counseling to increase opportunities for women in technologically demanding workplaces Evaluating and replicating exemplary gender equity programs From $6 million in 1976 to just under $2 million in 2009
  • 12. 1991How Schools ShortchangeGirls, American Association of UniversityWomen Classrooms have progressed in terms of gender equity Girls academic performance has increased Girls continue to face unique challenges Compared to male peers, girls have less self-confidence and lower self-esteem General inequity in society continues to impact education
  • 13. 2006: But, girls ARE differentAmendments to Title IX: separate gendereducation provide school districts with flexibility in the implementation of single-sex programs Coeducational facilities reinforce gender stereotypes through gender intensification poetry is for girls, computer science is for boys Gender separate format can boost grades and test scores Teacher training is KEY in separate gender instruction
  • 14. We can conclude from the research that there aresignificant differences in how boys and girls learn. Thecognitive differences are brain based; behavioral differencescan be brain based or a result of responses from brain-based differences. The very architecture of the brain and theresultant differences in sensory perception and physicalskills differ markedly between the sexes in the classroomand in society. -Virginia Bonomo, 2010
  • 15. Sensory Differences Girls Boys Retain have 35% Sensory less Memory hearing Details Well Boys use Targets And Spatial Memory
  • 16. HOWEVER! When developing computer software, educational tools, or curriculum, there is no lowest common denominator: Girls AND Boys Research BOTH genders and adjust the material to perform well with both Assessing these materials requires unbiased methods (no interviews)
  • 17. It is understandable why, when the statisticsemerged showing boys underachievement, it wasconcluded that schools had gone too far in redressinggirls inequalities. It is also understandable why these samemeasures were adopted to tackle the problems boys wereexperiencing with school. However, this meant that theconstruction of traditional gendered subjectivities of boysand girls were left unchallenged and, hence, the ongoingproduction of lower levels of self-confidence amongst girls. -Christine Skelton, 2010
  • 18. Implications Photo Credit National Geographic, copyright Joshua Kast
  • 19. What Girls WantWhen you compete with girls, youcompete on skills. -Debbie, 2008Throughout the research, girls have wanted: Opportunities Respect Challenges Community RecognitionSocially, girls now have the abilityand, increasingly, the economic motivations topursue higher education
  • 20. Identity EconomicsStandard Economic Theories + Individuals Identities Insiders versus Outsiders In work: nurses and male nurses In school: jocks and drop-outs Identity utility: gaining or losing face through actions that agree with or disagree with identity Schools AND Companies must promote insider identity that is attainable regardless of gender, ethnicity, or socioeconomic status
  • 21. In Coeducational SchoolsBoys will be boys, right? If I laggedbehind, people would think Im not okay. Itsthe same with boys and teachers. Teachersseem willing to push the boys more thanthey push the girls. Girls are just expectedto be good. Gender equity means adjusting instruction for Each Student, regardless of gender Theres no such thing as, or need for, gender-blind Boys need more Motivation, Activit