ECCM IN RADARS

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Transcript of ECCM IN RADARS

ELECTRONIC PROTECTION

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ECCM DEFINITION : ECCM IS THE ACTION TAKEN TO ENSURE FRIENDLY EFFECTIVE USE OF THE EM SPECTRUM DESPITE THE ENEMYS USE OF ECM OR ESM. IT IS DEFENSIVE ARM OF EW ECM AND ECCM DEVELOPMENTS ALWAYS FOLLOW EACH OTHER. ECCM : MOSTLY CONCERNED WITH TECHNIQUES WHICH ARE BUILT IN DURING THE DESIGN OF ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT ECM : WHEREAS, ECM USUALLY REQUIRES SEPARATE EQUIPMENT WHICH IS DEVELOPED ON THE ESM DATA COLLECTED ON THE ENEMY EQUIPMENT.2/119

ECCM ECM AND ECCM FOLLOW EACH OTHER THE ABILITY IMPORTANT TO OF DEVELOPMENTS A RADAR ALWAYS

OPERATOR

TO RECOGNISE AN ECM BEING USED BY THE ENEMY WITHOUT LOSS OF TIME USE THE BEST SUITED ECCM AVAILABLE TO HIM WHICH WILL PROVE TO BE THE DECIDING FACTOR3/119

OBJECTIVES 0F ECCMPREVENTION OF RADAR SATURATION ENHANCEMENT OF SIGNAL TO JAMMING RATIO DISCRIMINATION OF DIRECTIONAL INTERFERENCE REJECTION OF FALSE TARGETS MAINTENANCE OF TARGET TRACKS COUNTERACTION OF ESM RADAR SYSTEM SURVIVABILITY4/119

ECCM TREEECCMANTI ESM Operational Measures ANTI ECM

EEP

EES

Technical Measures

Training

Measures Antenna Related ECCMs

Receiver Related ECCMs

Transmitter Related ECCMs

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ANTI-ELECTRONICS SUPPORT MEASURES

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AIM OF ANTI-ESMECCM IS TO COUNTER AND DETECT THE ENEMY ESM ACTIVITY BY JUDICIAL IMPOSITION OF EMISSION POLICY (EEP) AND MEASURES INVOLVING ELECTRONIC ELECTRONIC

EMISSION SECURITY (EES)

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ELECTRONIC EMISSION POLICY

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EEPELECTRONIC EMISSION POLICY (EEP) IS A COMMAND FUNCTION. IT LAYS DOWN RESTRICTIONS ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS OF OPERATIONS. ON THE USE OF

IT IS EVOLVED AT THE FIELD FORCE LEVEL AND IS CONVEYED TO THE LOWER FORMATIONS THROUGH OPERATIONAL ORDERS AND INSTRUCTIONS EEP IS THE POLICY WHICH LAYS DOWN DEGREE OF FREEDOM ALLOWED IN THE USE OF ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS TO COUNTER ENEMYS CAPABILITY TO DETECT, IDENTIFY AND LOCATE OWN EMITTERS FOR EXPLOITATION BY HOSTILE ACTION AND EXERCISE CONTROL OVER OWN EMISSIONS TO MINIMIZE ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE

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PURPOSE OF EEPIT REDUCES THE REACTION TIME AVAILABLE TO THE ENEMY ESM ORGANIZATION TO ACQUIRE INTELLIGENCE STUDY THE TECHNICAL PARAMETERS OF OUR

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS. IT DENIES INTELLIGENCE THAT MAY BE GAINED BY THE ENEMY THROUGH INTERCEPTION. IT ENABLES A BETTER CONTROL ON ALL EMISSIONS AND THERE BY HELPS TO REDUCE THE PROBLEMS OF EMI

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BASIC CONSIDERATIONS FOR EEPTHE OPERATIONAL NECESSITY TO OPERATE AN ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT THE RISK OF INTERCEPTION OF EMISSIONS BY ENEMYS ESM RECEIVERS FRIENDLY

THE VALUE OF SUCH INTERCEPTIONS TO THE ENEMY COULD BE A DECIDING FACTOR IN THE JUDICIOUS USE OF FRIENDLY ELECTRONIC EMITTERS.

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EEP IS NOT STATIC POLICY. THERE SHOULD BE SEPARATE PEACE TIME AND WARTIME POLICY. THIS POLICY SHOULD BE CONSTANTLY UNDER REVIEW AND LINKED UP WITH THE CHANGES IN THE ENEMY CAPABILITIES AND NEW TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENTS.

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ELECTRONIC EMISSION SECURITY

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ELECTRONIC EMISSION SECURITY (EES)ONCE THE EMISSION POLICY HAS BEEN DECIDED MEASURES ARE TAKEN TO ENSURE THAT THE ENEMYS ESM ORGANIZATION GETS THE LEAST POSSIBLE INFORMATION FROM OWN ELECTROMAGNETIC TRANSMISSIONS. THIS IS KNOWN AS EES. THE BASIC CONSIDERATIONS FOR EES ARE :(A) THE DIRECTION OF TRANSMISSION. (B) THE FREQUENCIES OF TRANSMISSION. (C) SECURITY OF TYPES OF EMITTERS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS. (D) OBSERVANCE OF SECURITY RULES AND SAFETY MEASURES.14/119

EEP COMMUNICATION PROCEDURAL ASPECTS RESTRICTION IN ALLOTTING THE FREQUENCIES DURING PEACE TIME. OPERATING FREQ. TO BE CHANGED AT REGULAR INTERVALS. ALTERNATIVE FREQ. TO BE USED WHEN JAMMING IS EXPERIENCED. CALL SIGNS FOR VARIOUS TYPES OF COMMUNICATION TO BE CHANGED AND ALTERNATIVE CALL SIGNS TO BE USED WHEN JAMMED.15/119

EEP COMMUNICATION PROCEDURAL ASPECTSSTANDARD PROCEDURES FOLLOWED. TO BE STRICTLY

PRESENCE OF JAMMING/UNIDENTIFIED SIGNALS ARE TO BE REPORTED TO AIR HQ (DEW) WITH DETAILS. SITING SHOULD BE SUCH FOR TX/RX WHICH ABSORBS RADIO WAVES EXCEPT ALONG THE DIRECTION OF TRANSMISSION.16/119

ANTI-ELECTRONIC COUNTER MEASURESAIM OF ANTI ELECTRONIC COUNTER MEASURES IS TO REMOVE OR REDUCE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE ENEMYS ECM. THESE COUNTER COUNTER MEASURES HAVE FOLLOWING THREE ASPECTS:ORGANIZATIONAL. TRAINING. TECHNICAL.

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ANTI-ELECTRONIC COUNTER MEASURESORGANIZATIONAL ASPECTS FREQUENCY DIVERSITY AND PROCEDURE FOR CHANGING OVER TO ALTERNATIVE FREQUENCIES WITHOUT CAUSING CONFUSION. PROCEDURE FOR IMPOSITION OF RADIO SILENCE. PROCEDURE AND ORGANIZATION OF GETTING D/F CUTS IN CASE OF JAMMING BY MORE THAN ONE RADAR IS EXPERIENCED. DESTRUCTION OF JAMMER ON PRIORITY.18/119

ANTI-ELECTRONIC COUNTER MEASURESORGANIZATIONAL ASPECTS LOCATION OF RADARS TO PROVIDE BACK UP TO EACH OTHER. PROVISION OF ALTERNATIVE COMMUNICATION CHANNELS. USE OF HIGHLY MOBILE EQUIPMENT WITH PRESELECTED ALTERNATE SITES.

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ANTI-ELECTRONIC COUNTER MEASURESTRAINING ASPECTS TRAINING ENVIRONMENT. OF OPERATOR IN REALISTIC ECM

TRAINING CO-ORDINATION OF ECCM EFFORTS. TRAINING IN SECURITY ASPECTS. THE OPERATOR SHOULD BE ABLE TO RECOGNIZE AND REPORT JAMMING. ABILITY TO WORK WITH MINIMUM POWER TO AVOID DETECTION. ABILITY TO RECOGNIZE COMMUNICATION SIGNATURES. HIGH MOTIVATION.20/119

OWN

RADAR

AND

ANTI-ELECTRONIC COUNTER MEASURESTECHNICAL ASPECTS THE MOST EFFECTIVE MEASURES TO COMBAT ECM IS AN UPTO-DATE PIECE OF EQUIPMENT OPERATED BY A WELL TRAINED OPERATOR. FEW OF THE IMPORTANT TECHNICAL ASPECTS COMMON TO BOTH RADAR AND COMMUNICATION ARE: CODING OF TRANSMISSION. USE OF DIFFERENT MODULATIONS. QUICK CHANGE OVER OF FREQUENCY AND MULTI-CHANNEL TRANSMISSION. HIGHLY DIRECTIVE ANTENNA WITH SIDE LOBES AS LOW AS POSSIBLE.21/119

ANTI-ELECTRONIC COUNTER MEASURESTECHNICAL ASPECTS HIGH POWER OUTPUT WITH SELECTIONS AVAILABLE TO OPERATE AT LOW POWER (1/4, 1/2 OR FULL POWER). SELECTION OF SITE TO IMPOSE NATURAL BARRIERS TO THE ENEMY ESM ORGANIZATION. MOBILITY OF THE EQUIPMENT.

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ANTI ECM MEASURESTHE MAJOR ECM THREATS TO SURVEILLANCE RADAR INVOLVE : (A) NOISE JAMMING (B) DECEPTION JAMMING (C) CHAFF (D) DECOYS AND EXPENDABLES (E) ANTI RADIATION MISSILES A

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TRANSMITTER RELATED ECCMHIGH POWER OUTPUT FREQUENCY AGILITY FREQUENCY DIVERSITY PRF STAGGERING PRF JITTER PULSE COMPRESSION INCREASING TRANSMITTER FREQUENCY

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TRANSMITTER RELATED ECCM

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TRANSMITTER RELATED ECCMPOWER INCREASING THE RADAR TRANSMITTED POWER INCREASES THE EFFECTIVE RADIATED POWER (ERP) WHICH IN TURN INCREASES THE RADAR RANGE AND THE BURN THROUGH RANGES (BTR). THE OPTIONS OF OPERATING THE RADAR AT 25 %, 50% AND 100% ( 1/4,1/2 AND FULL POWER ) POWER SHOULD BE AVAILABLE TO THE OPERATOR WHICH WILL GIVE THE OPERATOR THE FLEXIBILITY TO OPERATE THE RADAR AT LOW POWER TO AVOID DETECTION BY ENEMY ESM RECEIVER AND ALSO INCREASE THE POWER IN CASE OF JAMMING EXPERIENCED.26/119

TRANSMITTER RELATED ECCMFREQUENCY TRAINING AND OPS FREQUENCIES SHOULD BE DIFFERENT. THE WAR FREQUENCIES COULD BE KEPT A SECRET. THE TWO FREQUENCIES CAN NOT BE VERY FAR APART MAINLY DUE TO THE LIMITATIONS OF THE MICROWAVE COMPONENTS WHICH PERMIT ONLY + 10 % VARIATION FROM THE CENTRAL FREQUENCY, BEYOND WHICH THE COMPONENTS LIKE WAVE GUIDE AND ANTENNA BECOMES UNMATCHED AND CAUSE CONSIDERABLE ATTENUATION. THE TWO WIDELY MEASURES ARE : FREQUENCY AGILITY FREQUENCY DIVERSITY27/119

USED

TECHNIQUES

AS

ANTI

ECM

FREQUENCY AGILITY THE ECCM TECHNIQUE WHERE THE FREQUENCY OF A RADAR IS CHANGED IN ORDER TO FORCE THE ENEMY JAMMER TO SPREAD HIS AVAILABLE POWER OVER A SIGNIFICANTLY INCREASED RF BANDWIDTH. THE INTENDED EFFECT IS TO REDUCE THE JAMMING DENSITY. THIS IS ALSO CALLED FREQUENCY JUMPING, HOPPING THE NUMBER OF INDIVIDUAL SPOT FREQUENCIES AVAILABLE ARE A FUNCTION OF COST. THE FREQUENCY AGILITY MODE MAY BE ON A BURST-TO-BURST OR PULSE-TO-PULSE BASIS

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FREQUENCY DIVERSITY AN ECCM TECHNIQUE IN WHICH THERE IS A SIMULTANEOUS OR NEARLY SIMULTANEOUS OPERATION OF ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS PERFORMING SIMILAR FUNCTIONS AND WHERE THE SYSTEMS NORMALLY USE WIDELY SEPARATED FREQUENCIES. THIS MAY TAKE THE FORM OF A NUMBER OF SEARCH RADARS OF A DEFENCE COMPLEX OPERATING AT DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES. IT RESULTS IN SPREADING THE AVAILABLE JAMMER POWER. IT IS ALSO KNOWS AS BAND DIVERSITY, MULTIPLE RADAR, DUAL RADAR AND RF DIVERSITY.

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PRF AGILITY IT HELPS THE RADAR TO INCREASE ITS CAPABILITIES IN A MULTI ELECTRONIC ENVIRONMENT IN THIS CASE THE RADAR PRF IS CHANGED MANUALLY BETWEEN TWO OR MORE FREQUENCIES RAPIDLY VARIED AT A RANDOM RATE SO THAT FALSE TARGETS APPEAR TO JITTER OR BECOME FUZZY ON THE SCOPE (PRF JITTER) SWITCHING PRF TO DIFFERENT VALUES ON A PULSE TO PULSE BASIS SUCH THAT THE VARIOUS INTERVALS FOLLOW A REGULAR PATTERN (PRF STAGGER). OTHER NAMES OF THIS TECHNIQUE ARE PRF SHIFTING , PRF SLIDING AND VARIABLE PRF.

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STAGGERED PRF HIGH PRF RADARS ARE SHORT-RANGE TRACKING RADAR. SHORT RANGE WEAPONS HAVE HIGH PRF RADARS. A STAGGERED PULSE TRAIN IS FUNDAMENTALLY A BASIC PRF WITH THIS SAME PRF IMPRESSED UPON ITSELF ONE OR MORE TIMES. THE NUMBER OF LEVELS (OR POSITIONS) IS THE NUMBER OF TIMES THE BASIC PRF IS INTEGRATED IN THE PULSE TRAIN. EACH LEVEL HAS THE SAME CHARACTERISTIC PRF AND PW, BUT THE TIME TO FIRST EVENT FOR EACH LEVEL IS DIFFERENT.

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STAGGERED PRF AS EP TECHNIQUEtrue target false targets P PRI variation false targets

time / range

S c o p e

s ta g g e r e d

P R F

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JITTER PRF IN JITTER MODE, THE TIME BETWEEN SUCCESSIVE PULSES, IS ALLOWED TO VARY IN A TOTALLY RANDOM MANNER OVER A SERIES OF