Dwdm Introduction

download Dwdm Introduction

of 36

  • date post

    14-Apr-2018
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    240
  • download

    12

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Dwdm Introduction

  • 7/30/2019 Dwdm Introduction

    1/36

    Monday, May 20, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDMD N Sahay

    1

    INTRODUCTION

    TO DWDM

  • 7/30/2019 Dwdm Introduction

    2/36

    Monday, May 20, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDMD N Sahay

    2

    (D)WDM : CONTENTS

    THE NEED FOR DWDM :

    FIBRE EXHAUST- ALTERNATIVES

    THE CHALLENGE:

    TAPPING THE UNLIMITED FIBRE BANDWIDTH

    ACHIEVING THE NETWORKING FUNCTIONS IN THE OPTICAL DOMAIN

    WDM APPROACH TO FIBRE EXHAUST

    WDM FUNCTIONAL BLOCK SCHEMATIC

    DIFFERENCES FROM CONVENTIONAL SYSTEM: THE AMPLIFIER FEATURES : AD(DISAD)VANTAGES

    DWDM SYSTEMS AT PRESENT

    OPTICAL AMPLITIERS

    DWDM COMPONENTS

    NMS

    OPTICAL BANDS

    STANDARD WAVELENGTHS: ITU GRID

    DWDM APPLICATIONS :

    BENEFIT TO OPERATORS

    NEW ISSUES BEFOR PLANNERS

  • 7/30/2019 Dwdm Introduction

    3/36

    Monday, May 20, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDMD N Sahay

    3

    FIBRE EXHAUST

    2.5- Gbit/s

    2.5- Gbit/s

    2.5- Gbit/s

    2.5- Gbit/s

    transmitter

    2.5-Gbit/s2.5 Gbit/s

    2.5 Gbit/s

    reciever

    LAY NEW FIBRE AND PUT NEW SYSTEMS

  • 7/30/2019 Dwdm Introduction

    4/36

    Monday, May 20, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDMD N Sahay

    4

    FIBRE EXHAUST

    2.5- Gbit/s

    2.5- Gbit/s

    2.5- Gbit/s

    2.5- Gbit/s

    transmitter

    2.5-Gbit/s

    2.5 Gbit/s

    2.5 Gbit/s

    reciever

    INSTAL HIGHER BITRATE TDM

    EXPENSIVE, NEW FIBRE NEEDED

    10-Gbit/s 10-Gbit/s10-Gbit/s

    transmitter regenerator reciever

  • 7/30/2019 Dwdm Introduction

    5/36

    Monday, May 20, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDMD N Sahay

    5

    FIBRE EXHAUST

    DEPLOY DWDM

    2.5-Gbitt/s

    transmitter

    M

    U

    X

    D

    E

    M

    U

    X

    10-Gbit/s 10-Gbit/s10-Gbit/s

    transmitter regenerator reciever

    2.5- Gbit/s

    2.5- Gbit/s

    2.5- Gbit/s

    2.5- Gbit/s

    2.5- Gbit/s

    transmitter

    2.5-Gbit/s

    2.5 Gbit/s

    2.5 Gbit/s

    reciever

    2.5- Gbit/sreciever

    2

    1

    3

    4

    2

    1

    3

    4

    2.5- Gbit/sreciever

    2.5- Gbit/sreciever

    2.5- Gbit/sreciever

    2.5-Gbitt/stransmitter

    2.5-Gbitt/s

    transmitter

    2.5-Gbitt/s

    transmitter

  • 7/30/2019 Dwdm Introduction

    6/36

    Monday, May 20, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDMD N Sahay

    6

    EVOLUTION OF DWDM

    Late

    1990s

    64-160 channels

    25-50 GHZ spacing

    Mid1990s

    16-40 channels 100-200 GHz spacing

    Dense WDM, integrated systems withNetwork Management, add-drop functions.

    Early

    1990s

    2-8 channels passive

    WDM 200-400 GHz spacing

    WDM components/parts

    Late

    1980s

    2 channels Wideband

    WDM 1310 nm, 1550 nm

  • 7/30/2019 Dwdm Introduction

    7/36

    Monday, May 20, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDMD N Sahay

    7

    ACHIEVING HIGHER BANDWIDTH

    THREE POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS

    INSTAL NEW FIBRE

    INVEST IN NEW TDMTECHNOLOGIES TO

    ACHIEVE HIGHER

    BANDWIDTH. DEPLOY DWDM

    EXPENSIVE

    VERYEXPENSIVE

    REQUIRE NEW

    TYPE FIBRE

    ECONOMICA

    L

  • 7/30/2019 Dwdm Introduction

    8/36

    Monday, May 20, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDMD N Sahay

    8

    THE CHALLENGE:Continuous growth in trafficCALLS FOR TAPPING THE UNUTILIZED BANDWIDTH OF THE MEDIA

    ACHIEVE NETWORKING FUNCTIONS (ROUTING etc) IN OPTICAL DOMAIN

    JUST LIKE WIDENING OF ROAD USING AVAILAB.E LAND TO MEET INCREASED TRAFFIC

  • 7/30/2019 Dwdm Introduction

    9/36

    Monday, May 20, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDMD N Sahay

    9

    DWDM BASICS

    SINGLE FIBRE

    SDH OPTICAL SIGNALS

    NEW REQUIREMENTS:

  • 7/30/2019 Dwdm Introduction

    10/36

    Monday, May 20, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDMD N Sahay

    10

    BLOCK SCHEMATIC

    Tx RxMUX DEMUX

    OFAWD

    M

    W

    D

    M

    2.

    .

    .

    .

    1

    16

    TRANSPONDERS

    OPTICAL

    SIGNALS.

    STM-1

    STM-4

    STM-16

    ATM

    IP

  • 7/30/2019 Dwdm Introduction

    11/36

    Monday, May 20, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDMD N Sahay

    11

    Wayside Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer

    TM TMWDM

    MUX

    WDM

    DEMU

    X2

    15

    16

    1

    1-4 5-8

    O

    A

    O

    A

  • 7/30/2019 Dwdm Introduction

    12/36

    Monday, May 20, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDMD N Sahay

    12

    Optical Add/Drop

    Multiplexing

    1 12 2 2 2

    Configurable

    OADM :1 or2

    1 12 2 2 2

    1 1

    fixed OADM:

    2

    OADM : Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer

    Terminal Equipt Terminal EquiptIn-Line Amplifier

  • 7/30/2019 Dwdm Introduction

    13/36

    Monday, May 20, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDMD N Sahay

    13

    OADM Connectivity

    29 express ch

    32 ch

    WDM

    Omnibus

    From terminal to OADM, or from

    OADM to OADM

  • 7/30/2019 Dwdm Introduction

    14/36

    Monday, May 20, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDMD N Sahay

    14

    DIFFERENCES FROM OLD SYSTEM

    REGs

    FIBRES REQUIREMENT

    LASERS TYPES OF COMPONENTS

    CAPACITY

    FIBRE TRANSMISSION BEHAVIOUR

  • 7/30/2019 Dwdm Introduction

    15/36

    Monday, May 20, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDMD N Sahay

    15

    ADVANTAGES OF DWDM

  • 7/30/2019 Dwdm Introduction

    16/36

    Monday, May 20, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDMD N Sahay

    16

    Why Optical (DWDM) Networking?

    Fibre Exhaust : Unlimited bandwidth on a fibre pair

    Bit Rate Transparency

    Format/Protocol Transparency : IP, ATM etc. Efficient use and rearrangement of embedded optical

    capacity as per demand.

    Minimal Capital Expenditure : Capacity Expansions

    Demand Simpler Operations : Embedded DCC ---> Limited Nes -->

    Alarm Storm

  • 7/30/2019 Dwdm Introduction

    17/36

    Monday, May 20, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDMD N Sahay

    17

    Economics of WDM

    Saving of regeneration costs:

    one optical amplifier for many channels regeneration

    cost per channel drastically reduced Saving of fibres/fibre shortage

    Cost effective compared to laying new fibres

  • 7/30/2019 Dwdm Introduction

    18/36

    Monday, May 20, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDMD N Sahay

    18

    DWDM Components

    Transmit

    Receive

    Repeater Add Drop

    Distribution: Cross connects

  • 7/30/2019 Dwdm Introduction

    19/36

    Monday, May 20, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDMD N Sahay

    19

    OPTICAL NETWORK ELEMENTS

    TP

    TP OA

    ODEM

    UX

    OMUX

    OADM OXC

  • 7/30/2019 Dwdm Introduction

    20/36

    Monday, May 20, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDMD N Sahay

    20

    TRANSPONDER / TRANSLATOR /

    WAVELENGTH CONVERTOR

    O/E E/OElectricalREGENERATION

    OPTIONAL

    REGENERATOR

  • 7/30/2019 Dwdm Introduction

    21/36

    Monday, May 20, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDMD N Sahay

    21

    Optical Multiplexers & Filters

    W\L FILTER

    W\L

    MULTIPLEXER

    W\L ROUTER

  • 7/30/2019 Dwdm Introduction

    22/36

    Monday, May 20, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDMD N Sahay

    22

    OPTICAL ADD DROP MUX

    COUPLER

    D M

    CIRCULATOR

  • 7/30/2019 Dwdm Introduction

    23/36

    Monday, May 20, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDMD N Sahay

    23

    OPTICAL CROSSCONNECT

    SWITCH

    MATRIX

    TTTT

    T

    TTT

    WAVELENGTH

    ADAPTATIONTRIBUTARY

    LINKS

    INPUT

    FIBRE

    LIN

    KS

  • 7/30/2019 Dwdm Introduction

    24/36

    Monday, May 20, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDMD N Sahay

    24

    OPTICAL AMPLIFIERS

    Pump

    laser

    Pump

    laser

    Erbium-doped

    Fiber-(10-50 m)

    Isolator

    Coupler Coupler

    Isolator

  • 7/30/2019 Dwdm Introduction

    25/36

    Monday, May 20, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDMD N Sahay

    25

    NMS FOR DWDM SYSTEMS

    NMS IN CONVENTIONAL SDH SYSTEMS:

    DCC: TIME SLOTS

    DWDMNO TIME SLOTS

    WAVELENGTH SLOTS

    ONE WAVELENGTH IS DEDICATED FOR N.M.S.

    OPTICAL SUPERVISORY CHANNEL

    OSC needs to be accessed at all points in the network

  • 7/30/2019 Dwdm Introduction

    26/36

    Monday, May 20, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDMD N Sahay

    26

    Optical Supervisory Channel

    (OSC)Line Terminal Equipment In-line Amplifier

    Tx 1

    Tx 2

    Tx 3

    Tx 4

    Tx 5

    Tx 6

    Tx 7

    Tx 8

    D

    ATAIN

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    8

    Rx

    Rx

    Rx

    Rx

    Rx

    Rx

    Rx

    Rx

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    8

    Line Terminal Equipment

    + supervisory

    Tx sup

    System Control

    Processor

    Rx Tx

    OSC

    Network Management Network Management

    System Control

    Processor

    Rx sup

  • 7/30/2019 Dwdm Introduction

    27/36

    Monday, May 20, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDMD N Sahay

    27

    OPTICAL BANDS

    EXTENSIVE USE OF WAVELENGTHS

    DIFFERENT VENDORS:INTEROPERABILITY ISSUES

    NEED FOR STANDARD WAVELENGTH VALUES

    ITU Classification of bands

    Standard values : ITU Grid

    Center frequency: 193.10THz (1552.52 nm)

    Standard spacings of 200, 100, 50 GHz for different applications

  • 7/30/2019 Dwdm Introduction

    28/36

    Monday, May 20, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDMD N Sahay

    28

    ITU-T BAND ALLOCATION

    Optical

    Supervisory

    channel

    1500 1520 1530 1542 1547 1560 1620

    RED

    BAND

    C BAND L BAND

    BLUE

    BAND

    CBAND PRODUCTS ARE COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE.ERBIUM DOPED FIBRE AMPLIFIERS SUITABLE FOR

    C BAND.

    GAIN IN RED BAND FLATTEST FOR EDFA. SOME MANUFACTURERS PROVIDE 16 CHANNELS IN

    RED BAND ONLY. OTHERS USE BOTH RED

    & BLUE BANDS.

    ITU T G 692 Frequency Grid

  • 7/30/2019 Dwdm Introduction

    29/36

    Monday, May 20, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDMD N Sahay 29

    Nominal

    Central

    (THz)

    Central

    (nm)

    Nominal

    Central

    (THz)

    Central

    (nm)

    Nominal

    Central

    (THz)

    Central

    (nm)

    196.1 1528.77 194.7 1539.77 193.3 1550.92

    196.0 1529.55 194.6 1540.56 193.2 1551.72

    195.9 1530.33 194.5 1541.35 193.1 1552.52

    195.8 1531.12 194.4 1542.14 193.0 1553.33

    195.7 1531.90 194.3 1542.92 192.9 1554.13

    195.6 1532.68 194.2 1543.73 192.8 1554.94

    195.5 1533.47 194.1 1544.53 192.7 1555.75

    195.4 1534.25 194.0 1545.32 192.6 1556.55

    195.3 1535.04 193.9 1546.12 192.5 1557.36

    195.2 1535.82 193.8 1546.92 192.4 1558.17

    195.1 1536.61 193.7 1547.72 192.3 1558.98

    195.0 1537.40 193.6 1548.51 192.2 1559.79

    194.9 1538.19 193.5 1549.32 192.1 1560.61

    194.8 1539.77 193.4 1550.12

    ITUT G.692 Frequency Grid

  • 7/30/2019 Dwdm Introduction

    30/36

    Monday, May 20, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDMD N Sahay 30

    LIMITATIONS

    DWDM TRANSMISSION IS ANALOG.THE IN LINE AMPLIFIERS AREALSO ANALOG.THIS IMPLIES THAT THE SIGNAL TO

    NOISE RATIO WORSENS WITHDISTANCE.

    TO KEEP THE BER WITHIN LIMITS,THE SIGNALS ARE REQUIRED TO BE

    3R PROCESSED IN ELECTRICALDOMAIN.

    FIBRE DISPERSION IS ANOTHERLIMITATION.

  • 7/30/2019 Dwdm Introduction

    31/36

    Monday, May 20, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDMD N Sahay 31

    LIMITATIONS

    THE MAXIMUM DISTANCE IS 640 KmsMADE OF 8 SPANS OF 80 Kms. THE

    ASSUMPTIONS ARE:

    * FIBRE ATT INCLUDING SPLICELOSS IS 0.28 dB/km

    * SPAN LOSS OF 22 dB.

    * TOTAL DISPERSION IS LESSTHAN 12800 ps/nm.

  • 7/30/2019 Dwdm Introduction

    32/36

    Monday, May 20, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDMD N Sahay 32

    Long DistanceLonger Regenerator spacing: Hundreds toThousands of Kilometers

    Saving of Regenerators

    Very Low Bandwidth Cost

    Scalability

    Very Fast Commissioning of Optical Paths:

    Within a week as compared to several months/year with old technologies

    Advanced Networking Capabilities

    New Applications with DWDM

  • 7/30/2019 Dwdm Introduction

    33/36

    Monday, May 20, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDMD N Sahay 33

    Metropolitan Area Network

    Unlimited Bandwidth, bit rate and format

    transparencyEfficient Bandwidth use and Management

    New Applications with DWDM

  • 7/30/2019 Dwdm Introduction

    34/36

    Monday, May 20, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDMD N Sahay 34

    High speed parallel Data TransportCertain Computer Applications Require that

    Computer Centres be interconnected with

    multiple high speed channels that have capacity

    and availability requirements, as well as

    interlink delay restrictions that can not be met

    by TDM Transport Systems.

    In General, DWDM Optical Transport Benefitsall Delay Sensitive Applications

    New Applications with DWDM

  • 7/30/2019 Dwdm Introduction

    35/36

    Monday, May 20, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDMD N Sahay 35

    Wavelength LeasingNetwork Customers are beginning to demand

    high capacity Network Transport that affords

    high reliability and security, as well as

    segmentations from the providers Network

    A spare Wavelength (Leased ) is used to

    provide clear-channel transport to a customer

    The Customers Bandwidth requirements arecleanly separated from the providers core

    Network Needs.

    New Applications with DWDM

  • 7/30/2019 Dwdm Introduction

    36/36

    Monday May 20 2013 ALTTC / TX 1 / WDM 36

    Thank You