Dutch, French, English, & Stuff

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  • 1. Dutch, French, English, & stuff

2. 3. Xenophobiathe fear/distrust of any one who is foreign or strangers.
Ethnocentricitythe firm belief that your society is the center of the universe, the best, and , therefore, that everyone else is not as good.
4. Cabot, Drake, and Hudson Explore
5. 6. English Settlements
England was already in America as early as 1475, by some speculations, fishing on the coasts of Newfoundland. They continued their quiet enterprise in the New World throughout the 1500's, fishing along the North American coast between France's fur trade to the north and Spain's mineral exportation to the south. The English began trade with the Indians for pelts and furs, and also began to raid villages and take slaves. They also made good money raiding Spanish treasure ships. Interest in America increased during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I; it was seen as a way to compete with Spain and an untapped source for raw materials, gold, and more lucrative trade routes, such as the elusive Northwest Passage.
Many English fishermen spent time re-supplying or even passing the winter on the North American shore. However, it wasn't until 1587 that a permanent colony was proposed.
By the late 16th century, Europe, and particularly England, by this time was becoming increasingly imperial. War-torn lands brought about a population shift of people into the urban areas; the population of London at this time tripled. This created not only an increase desire for land, but also a more stratified society with a growing middle class. It was this English middle class that would come to America, looking to make money and to own land.
7. Roanoke & CroatoanEnglish Settlement at Roanoke1584-1590
Sketch of Roanoke
8. 'Lost Colony'
Just after the colonists left, supply ships from Raleigh and then the long-awaited Grenville arrived, now too late. Grenville left fifteen soldiers to watch over the abandoned colony. These fifteen soldiers would never be seen again.
1587 (July)--Roanoke 2: The Lost Colony. Raleigh once again organized an expedition to colonize America, two years after his first failure. This time he recruited 150 people, including women and families, and notably experienced farmers and less soldiers. However, they came just as ill-equipped and just as hostile toward the native populations.
Although the second expedition had planned to settle farther in the bay, they ended up settling at the original site of the first colony. The fifteen soldiers that had been left there were not to be found; one body was recovered, but no sign of the others was ever discovered.
9. PowhatanEnglish Settlement at Jamestown1607-1620
1607 (May 14)--England in Virginia. After the disastrous first colony at Roanoke, the English once again came to the Chesapeake area in May 1607.An English businessman recruited 120 men who wanted to go to America, and they sailed on three ships for the New World under Captain John Smith.
10. Captain John Smith
Virginians know that Captain John Smith was one of the first American heroes. But because he was a proud and boastful man, it is difficult to know which parts of his life are fact and which are fiction. What many people may not know is that Smith's adventures started even before Jamestown. Born in 1580 in Willoughby, England, John Smith left home at age 16 after his father died. He began his travels by joining volunteers in France who were fighting for Dutch independence from Spain. Two years later, he set off for the Mediterranean Sea, working on a merchant ship. In 1600 he joined Austrian forces to fight the Turks in the "Long War." A valiant soldier, he was promoted to Captain while fighting in Hungary. He was fighting in Transylvania two years later in 1602. There he was wounded in battle, captured, and sold as a slave to a Turk. This Turk then sent Smith as a gift to his sweetheart in Istanbul. According to Smith, this girl fell in love with him and sent him to her brother to get training for Turkish imperial service. Smith reportedly escaped by murdering the brother and returned to Transylvania by fleeing through Russia and Poland. After being released from service and receiving a large reward, he traveled all through Europe and Northern Africa. He returned to England in the winter of 1604-05.
11. Pocahontas
Powhatan's daughter, Pocahontas - a nickname which means "my favorite daughter, or mischievous one" and not her real name (her real name was Matoaka, or little down feather from the Canada geese that winter on the Chesapeake) - told the leader of the colony, John Smith, of her father's agenda; history would remember her as "saving" the colonists from a trap.
The story of Pocahontas saving John Smith may possibly be legend; however, legend follows history in the next saga. After negotiations were broken off, Pocahontas was taken prisoner by the colonists as a bargaining chip for the return of white prisoners Chief Powhatan had. Later, she married John Rolfe, a white settler and established a peace between the Powhatan and the Virginia settlers.
12. Peter Minuit
Peter Minuit (1580 1638was the Director General of the Dutch colony of New Netherland from 1626 until 1633. He is most famous for the purchase of the island of Manhattan from the Native Americans (Algonkins), on May 24, 1626. However, it is little noted that Minuit purchased the island not from its owners, but from a tribe in the Bronx who had no claim on the island.
Minuit was appointed the third director general of New Netherland by the Dutch West India Company in December 1625 and arrived in the colony on May 4, 1626. On May 24 of the same year he is credited with the purchase of the island from the natives -- perhaps from a Metoac tribe known as the Canarsee -- in exchange for trade goods valued at 60 guilders.
This figure is known from a letter by Peter Schagen to the board of the Dutch West India Company: a traditional conversion to US$ 24 using 19th century exchange rates is not particularly meaningful. The trade goods are sometimes identified as beads and trinkets, but that may also have been an embellishment by 19th century writers.
A contemporary purchase of rights in Staten Island, New York to which Minuit was also party involved duffel cloth, iron kettles and axe heads, hoes, wampum, drilling awls, "Jew's Harps," and "diverse other wares".
13. Peter Stuyvesant
PETER STUYVESANT(1610?-1672), was the last Dutch governor of New Netherland. This area included land in present-day New York and several nearby states.
Around 1632, Stuyvesant entered the service of the Dutch West India Company. By 1643, its directors had appointed him governor of the Caribbean islands of Curacao, Aruba, and Bonaire. The next year, he lost a leg while taking part in an unsuccessful attempt to capture the Spanish island of St. Martin.
In 1646, Stuyvesant became director-general of all Dutch territory in the Caribbean and North America. In 1647, he arrived in New Amsterdam (now New York City) to take charge of New Netherland. In New Netherland, Stuyvesant had to deal with disorder in the colony's government, boundary disputes with other European colonies, and conflicts with a number of local Indian tribes. He soon negotiated peace treaties with several Indian groups. In 1650, he established the colony's eastern border by agreeing to give New England colonists much disputed land. But Stuyvesant protected all land under actual Dutch control from further English expansion.
In 1655, he captured New Sweden, including lands in what are now New Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania. He named the region New Amstel and made it a part of New Netherland.
Stuyvesant governed with absolute power. His methods were often effective, but they caused tension between him and the colonists. In 1664, an English fleet ordered the surrender of New Amsterdam. The colonists refused to support Stuyvesant, and he was forced to give in. He sailed to Holland in disgrace, but he returned to New York after a few years and settled on his bouwerij (farm), part of which later became the Bowery of New York City. Stuyvesant died there and lies buried on the site of St. Mark's Church.
14. Peg-Leg Pete
Among the projects built by Stuyvesant's administration were the protective wall on Wall Street, the canal which became Broad Street, and Broadway.
He lost his leg in a battle with the Spanish over the island of Saint Maarten and wore a peg leg for most of his adult life, leading the Native Americans to dub him "Father Wooden Leg".
15. Old Silver Nails
Stuyvesant became known as "Peg Leg Pete" and "Old Silver Nails" from the stick of wood studded with silver nails that was his artificial limb.
The ill-fitting prosthesis may have been the reason for his reputed ill-tempered manner and autocratic style.
16. Lasting Impact of the Dutch
Sinter Klaus--The original Santa Claus was the Dutch Sinter Klaus, or "Klaus of the cinders," which was the Dutch name for the Good God Thor! The god Thor was the god of the sun, of fire and of lightning (his name, of course, means "thunder"). His altar was in every home throughout the pre-patriarchal Scandinavian world, and in most people's homes for long after the Bronze-age invaders arrived . It was the fireplace, of course.
Every year on his birthday (Yuletide, December 25), Thor would visit every little child and bring presents, coming down the chimney to his own personal altar. (He was known as "Klaus of the cinders" or Sinter Klaus, because children assumed he would have to be singed just a bit in order to come through the flaming fire in mid-winter.)
Easter Eggs
Toboggans and Sledding and Sleighs
Skiing and ice skating
BowlingTen Pins