Drawing 1: Start Drawing

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Seeing and being able to reproduce what you can see is the foundation of visual communication, which is why drawing skills underpin most work in art and design. Our drawing course will help practitioners from all disciplines to draw what they can see and what they can imagine. Anyone can learn to draw and the course is aimed at beginners, but many experienced artists and designers take the course to improve their drawing skills.

Transcript of Drawing 1: Start Drawing

C us sm l or a p e e



Open College of the Arts 2009

Level HE4 - 40 CATSThis course has been written and illustrated by Christine Gregory, Hazel Lale and Richard Liley with additional technical input from Jane Horton, Caroline Firenza and Cathy Ferriera Additional illustrations by OCA students and tutors and other copyright images courtesy of the Bridgeman Art Library.

Open College of the Arts Redbrook Business Park Wilthorpe Road Barnsley S75 1JN Telephone: 01226 730 495 Fax: 01226 730 838 Email: open.arts@ukonline.co.uk www.oca-uk.com

Registered charity number: 327446 OCA is a company limited by guarantee and registered in England under number 2125674

Copyright OCA 2008 Document control number: DR1 11.12.08

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic, mechanical, photocopy, recording or otherwise - without prior permission of the publisher


OCA Start Drawing Introduction

Your course packYour course pack contains: Your OCA membership card. This card enables you to gain student discounts in shops and provides quick reference of your OCA student number A student profile form to compete and send to your tutor Six labels addressed to your tutor, to post your assignments to them A tube for sending your assignments to your tutor A selection of art materials. Please let OCA know immediately if anything is missing.

Tutor feedbackYou will have opted for either postal or face to face tuition. Between tutorials, if you have any queries, you should make arrangements with your tutor about how you will communicate. This may be by email, telephone or post. You may agree, for instance, that you photograph sketchbook images and upload them to the OCA website or a free website such as Flickr or Picassa in between tutorials, if you need your tutor to comment on something in particular, or you have a problem that you need help with. Send or show your tutor all of the work you have done for each assignment. You do not have to send individual project work to your tutor but if you have a face to face session, your tutor may find it helpful to look at the work leading up to each assignment as well. Make sure each piece of work is marked clearly on this back with your name, student number and assignment number. Your tutor will get back to you as soon as possible after receiving your assignment but this may take a little time. Continue with the course while you are waiting.

Where there are ethical, practical or personal issues regarding the subject matter or type of activity an art exercise demands, you should skip the exercise with an explanation to the tutor or, and preferably, makes a sensible substitution based on your own initiative, in terms of what is required, with a brief note to explain that that is what you have done. If you need guidance on what to choose to substitute ask for advice from your tutor. However, it is fine for you to decide for yourself within the themes of each assignment.

OCA Start Drawing Introduction


ContentsIntroductionIntroduction to drawing Keeping a sketchbook What else will I need?

Assignment one: Mark making and toneExercises Making marks Basic shapes Tone and form Reflected light Still life Using texture Enlarging an image Assignment one

Assignment two: The human figureExercises Proportions Gesture Form Structure The clothed figure The moving figure Self portrait Portrait from memory Assignment two


OCA Start Drawing Introduction

Assignment three: Observation in natureExercises Detailed observation of nature Still life Drawing fruit and vegetables in colour Drawing plants and flowers Drawing animals Assignment three

Assignment four: Drawing outdoorsExercises Landscape drawing Perspective Townscapes Drawing trees Assignment four

Assignment five: Draw and experimentExercises Mark making and tone Assignment five: option 1 Exercises Drawing figures

Assignment five: option 2 Exercises Observation in nature

Assignment five: option 3 Exercises Drawing outdoors

Assignment five: option 4

OCA Start Drawing Introduction


Introduction to drawingDrawing occupies a unique place in every artists creative life. It can be an immediate expression of seeing, thinking and feeling, investigating ideas and recording experiences. Drawing can become part of your life, not just to make art but as a way of engaging with life: by learning to draw the world around us we can learn to see it and understand it more clearly. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives: from maps, signs and graffiti to logos on packaging. It is a language that we are all familiar with and understand. Even when we cannot understand a word, we can readily decipher and relate to a drawing. Some drawings cover entire walls and need to be reached with ladders, some may require large sheets of paper to be joined to give a big enough picture plane, whilst others can be held in your hand. The Start Drawing course gives you guidelines, techniques and a good basic knowledge to enable you to establish your ability to draw, you will find that you can quite quickly achieve some satisfying results. Part of the learning process will be how to put together a collection of drawings of different sizes in your sketchbook and also much larger pieces of work drawn onto individual sheets of paper. We will experiment with linear mediums such as pen, pencil and charcoal to discover a variety of results.

Drawing needs practice. So as you follow the exercises and experiment with different sorts of line and mediums, make a record of your observations, you will produce increasingly confident artwork and will eventually develop your own style. As you develop your drawing skills, you will learn to look, make comparisons and use your imagination and as you do so your artistic awareness will increase. We can all learn to draw, the very first step is to believe it.

To draw, you must close your eyes and sing.Pablo Picasso 4OCA Start Drawing Introduction

Materials you will needYou will need a variety of drawing instruments, which we call linear mediums: 3B to 9B pencils Water soluble coloured pencils Solid graphite pencils of various softnesses A variety of pens Various thicknesses of charcoal Pencil sharpener Plastic rubber Putty rubber

You will also need various other items: Drawing board the bigger the better: A2 is ideal Scalpel very useful for getting a good point on your pencil Pencil case to keep everything in Bulldog clips to clip paper to drawing board Adjustable lamp so you can direct the light source A3 and A4 white cartridge paper Fixative spray An easel. You can both sit and stand at an easel. Standing will give you a different view of your subjects and give you the opportunity for broader arm movements and space to stand back from your work.

...and somewhere to keep it all safe.

OCA Start Drawing Introduction


Health and SafetyWhile you are studying this course there are a few things you must be very careful about using, and other things you must consider to ensure your health and safety.

Working outsideThe course emphasises the need to ensure your safety while working outside in different weather conditions, by wearing appropriate clothes and not staying outside for long periods in the sun or in the cold. The course also advises you to be careful about choosing locations to work in. Remember not to choose lonely locations, and if you are somewhere remote it is always best to be with a friend while you work.

Using fixative and spraysIn your drawing materials pack there is a spray can of fixative to fix charcoal, chalk and pastel drawings. All forms of sprays give off a fine vapour which is a possible health risk and you should avoid breathing it. Aerosols of any kind need to be used in a well ventilated area, preferably outside. Always spray well away from you.

BooklistThe Art of Drawing Landscape Sterling Publishing Company New York. The Complete Drawing Course Ian Simpson Dictionary of Art Terms by Edward Lucie -Smith Drawing Keith Micklewright Drawing Animals Victor Ambrose Grange Books The Drawing Book by Sarah Simblet Drawing Lessons from the Great Masters by Robert Beverley Hale Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain Betty Edwards Encyclopaedia of Drawing Techniques Ian Simpson Figure Drawing and Anatomy for the Artist by John Raynes A Penguin Dictionary of Art and Artists by Peter and Linda Murray The Story of Art Eric Gombrich

To buy secondhand books try www.abebooks.com and www.amazon.co.uk6OCA Start Drawing Introduction


Assignment one: Markmaking and tone

In the style of Bach Paul Klee

There are universal shapes to which everyone is subconsciously conditioned and to which they can respond if their unconscious control does not switch them off.

Henry Moore

Drawing before the Hostages Jean Fautrier


OCA Start Drawing Markmaking and tone

Exercises: Making marksTotal time: 4 hours Drawing starts with making marks on paper. You may have something in your mind that you want to produce or you may just be daydreaming and doodling by putting down random lines. The unconscious marks you make while doodling can contribute to the development of other interesting drawings. This project will help you experiment with making different marks and using different pens and pencils. It will also help you discover which drawing tools work best for different kinds of mark making.

DoodlingWhat to do: Lay some large sheets of paper (A2 or A3)and sketchbook on a table. You can also use the back of wr