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  • P a g e | i

    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    Table o f Contents

    L i s t o f T a b l e s .................................................................................................................................. ii

    L i s t o f F i g u r e s ............................................................................................................................... iii

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .................................................................................................................... 1

    ACRONYMS ......................................................................................................................................... 4

    CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................... 6

    1.0 Statement of Policies (National and International) .................................................................... 6

    1.1 Historical Background ............................................................................................................... 6

    1.2 Purpose of the Plan .................................................................................................................... 7

    1.3 Brief Description of the Planning process ................................................................................. 7

    1.4 Rationale .................................................................................................................................... 9

    CHAPTER 2: AREA PROFILE ........................................................................................................... 10

    2.1 Geographic Location ................................................................................................................ 10

    2.2 Biophysical Profile................................................................................................................... 12

    2.3 Socio-cultural Profile ............................................................................................................... 28

    2.4 Economic Profile ..................................................................................................................... 32

    2.5 Political Profile ........................................................................................................................ 33

    CHAPTER 3: LEGAL STATUS AND REGULATIONS/FRAMEWORK ........................................ 36

    CHAPTER 4: PAST AND CURRENT INITIATIVES ....................................................................... 44

    CHAPTER 5: SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS ....................................................................................... 46

    CHAPTER 6: THE MANAGEMENT PLAN ...................................................................................... 49

    CHAPTER 7: IMPLEMENTATION SCHEME .................................................................................. 72

    CHAPTER 8: MONITORING AND EVALUATION AND FEEDBACK MECHANISMS ............. 87

    CHAPTER 9: BUDGETARY REQUIREMENTS .............................................................................. 88

    REFERENCES ..................................................................................................................................... 90

    ANNEXES ........................................................................................................................................... 91

    Annex A. National legislations with significant implications on cave planning and management 91

    Annex B. Cave-related administrative orders issued by PCSD..... 98

    Annex C. Cave-related resolutions issued by PCSD ................................................................... 103

    Annex D. Mandate of agencies in the implementation of RA 9072 ............................................ 106

    Annex E. Photo Documentation .................................................................................................. 109

    Annex F. Five-Year Budget for Hundred Caves Management ... 105

  • P a g e | ii

    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    Li s t o f T ab l es

    Table 1. Data Summary of Hundred Caves, Tagabinet, Puerto Princesa City ..................................... 16

    Table 2. List of Avian Species outside the Cave .................................................................................. 22

    Table 3. List of Mammals outside the Cave ......................................................................................... 23

    Table 4. List of Mammals inside the Cave ........................................................................................... 24

    Table 5. List of Flora Species outside Cave ......................................................................................... 26

    Table 6. Number of Households in Tagabinet, 2009 ........................................................................... 29

    Table 7. Population Distribution by Sex, Barangay Tagabinet, City of Puerto Princesa, 2009 ........... 29

    Table 8. Population by Age, by Gender Disaggregation 2009 ............................................................. 30

    Table 9. List of local ordinances and other issuances .......................................................................... 43

    Table 10. The major outcomes of the Cave Management Plan ............................................................ 50

    Table 11. Hundred Caves Management Action Plan ........................................................................... 52

    Table 12. Detailed Work Plan .............................................................................................................. 75

    Table 13. Local and International possible funding sources ............................................................... 89

  • P a g e | iii

    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    Li s t o f F ig ures

    Figure 1. Speleothems found inside the Cave......................................................................................... 1

    Figure 2. The Hundred Caves ................................................................................................................ 6

    Figure 3. Process of Cave Management Planning ................................................................................. 8

    Figure 4. Location Map of Hundred Caves .......................................................................................... 11

    Figure 5. The Hundred Caves including the Agricultural land surrounding it .................................... 12

    Figure 6. New Alternative Spatial Strategies for Bgy. Cabayugan Cluster Map ................................. 13

    Figure 7. One of the Passages inside the Cave .................................................................................... 14

    Figure 8. Speleothems found inside the Cave....................................................................................... 14

    Figure 9. Vandals and graffiti along the Cave walls and flooring ....................................................... 15

    Figure 10. Isometric view of Hundred Caves ....................................................................................... 17

    Figure 11. Plan view map of Hundred Caves ...................................................................................... 18

    Figure 12. Profile view of Hundred Caves ........................................................................................... 19

    Figure 13. Cave mouth /main entrance ................................................................................................ 20

    Figure 14. Cave Mouth (inside view) ................................................................................................... 20

    Figure 15. Second cave opening (outside view) ................................................................................... 20

    Figure 16. Second cave opening (inside view) ..................................................................................... 20

    Figure 17. Other lesser known fauna found outside the cave .............................................................. 23

    Figure 18. Nests found inside the cave ................................................................................................. 24

    Figure 19. Miniopterus australis .......................................................................................................... 25

    Figure 20. Megaderma spasma ............................................................................................................ 25

    Figure 21. Macroglossus minimus ........................................................................................................ 25

    Figure 22. Eonycteris spelaea .............................................................................................................. 25

    Figure 23. Cynopterus brachyotis (Short-nosed fruit bat), Family Pteropodidae .............................. 25

    Figure 24. Rhinolopus virgo ................................................................................................................. 26

    Figure 25. Miniopteris australis ........................................................................................................... 26

    Figure 26. Rhinolophus creaghi ........................................................................................................... 26

    Figure 27. ECAN Map of the Hundred Caves ...................................................................................... 38

    Figure 28. Objectives of the Management Plan ................................................................................... 50

    Figure 29. Organization chart of Hundred Caves management structure ........................................... 72

    file:///D:/PCSD/CAVES/Hundred%20Caves/Hundred%20Cave%20Mgt.%20Plan%20final%20draft%20with%20maps.docx%23_Toc438026939file:///D:/PCSD/CAVES/Hundred%20Caves/Hundred%20Cave%20Mgt.%20Plan%20final%20draft%20with%20maps.docx%23_Toc438026940file:///D:/PCSD/CAVES/Hundred%20Caves/Hundred%20Cave%20Mgt.%20Plan%20final%20draft%20with%20maps.docx%23_Toc438026941file:///D:/PCSD/CAVES/Hundred%20Caves/Hundred%20Cave%20Mgt.%20Plan%20final%20draft%20with%20maps.docx%23_Toc438026942file:///D:/PCSD/CAVES/Hundred%20Caves/Hundred%20Cave%20Mgt.%20Plan%20final%20draft%20with%20maps.docx%23_Toc438026943file:///D:/PCSD/CAVES/Hundred%20Caves/Hundred%20Cave%20Mgt.%20Plan%20final%20draft%20with%20maps.docx%23_Toc438026944file:///D:/PCSD/CAVES/Hundred%20Caves/Hundred%20Cave%20Mgt.%20Plan%20final%20draft%20with%20maps.docx%23_Toc438026945file:///D:/PCSD/CAVES/Hundred%20Caves/Hundred%20Cave%20Mgt.%20Plan%20final%20draft%20with%20maps.docx%23_Toc438026946file:///D:/PCSD/CAVES/Hundred%20Caves/Hundred%20Cave%20Mgt.%20Plan%20final%20draft%20with%20maps.docx%23_Toc438026947file:///D:/PCSD/CAVES/Hundred%20Caves/Hundred%20Cave%20Mgt.%20Plan%20final%20draft%20with%20maps.docx%23_Toc438026948file:///D:/PCSD/CAVES/Hundred%20Caves/Hundred%20Cave%20Mgt.%20Plan%20final%20draft%20with%20maps.docx%23_Toc438026949file:///D:/PCSD/CAVES/Hundred%20Caves/Hundred%20Cave%20Mgt.%20Plan%20final%20draft%20with%20maps.docx%23_Toc438026951file:///D:/PCSD/CAVES/Hundred%20Caves/Hundred%20Cave%20Mgt.%20Plan%20final%20draft%20with%20maps.docx%23_Toc438026952file:///D:/PCSD/CAVES/Hundred%20Caves/Hundred%20Cave%20Mgt.%20Plan%20final%20draft%20with%20maps.docx%23_Toc438026953file:///D:/PCSD/CAVES/Hundred%20Caves/Hundred%20Cave%20Mgt.%20Plan%20final%20draft%20with%20maps.docx%23_Toc438026954file:///D:/PCSD/CAVES/Hundred%20Caves/Hundred%20Cave%20Mgt.%20Plan%20final%20draft%20with%20maps.docx%23_Toc438026955file:///D:/PCSD/CAVES/Hundred%20Caves/Hundred%20Cave%20Mgt.%20Plan%20final%20draft%20with%20maps.docx%23_Toc438026956file:///D:/PCSD/CAVES/Hundred%20Caves/Hundred%20Cave%20Mgt.%20Plan%20final%20draft%20with%20maps.docx%23_Toc438026957file:///D:/PCSD/CAVES/Hundred%20Caves/Hundred%20Cave%20Mgt.%20Plan%20final%20draft%20with%20maps.docx%23_Toc438026958file:///D:/PCSD/CAVES/Hundred%20Caves/Hundred%20Cave%20Mgt.%20Plan%20final%20draft%20with%20maps.docx%23_Toc438026959file:///D:/PCSD/CAVES/Hundred%20Caves/Hundred%20Cave%20Mgt.%20Plan%20final%20draft%20with%20maps.docx%23_Toc438026960file:///D:/PCSD/CAVES/Hundred%20Caves/Hundred%20Cave%20Mgt.%20Plan%20final%20draft%20with%20maps.docx%23_Toc438026961file:///D:/PCSD/CAVES/Hundred%20Caves/Hundred%20Cave%20Mgt.%20Plan%20final%20draft%20with%20maps.docx%23_Toc438026962file:///D:/PCSD/CAVES/Hundred%20Caves/Hundred%20Cave%20Mgt.%20Plan%20final%20draft%20with%20maps.docx%23_Toc438026963file:///D:/PCSD/CAVES/Hundred%20Caves/Hundred%20Cave%20Mgt.%20Plan%20final%20draft%20with%20maps.docx%23_Toc438026964file:///D:/PCSD/CAVES/Hundred%20Caves/Hundred%20Cave%20Mgt.%20Plan%20final%20draft%20with%20maps.docx%23_Toc438026965

  • P a g e | 1

    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    This management plan for Hundred Caves is developed and prepared by the Palawan Council

    for Sustainable Development Staff (PCSDS) in coordination with the City Tourism Office,

    Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park Project Management Office (PPSRNP-

    PMO), Centre for Sustainability, Barangay Council of Tagabinet and stakeholders.

    On September 15-24, 2014, PCSD Staff together with PSU Anthropologist Dr. Jun G.

    Cayron and PPSRNP Biologist Mr. Nevong Puna and selected members of Tagabinet

    Neighborhood Tourism association (TNTA) conducted cave identification, assessment,

    survey and mapping, and classification of Hundred Caves in Barangay Tagabinet, Puerto

    Princesa City, Palawan. The Cave Assessment and Classification Report is used in

    determining the resources and status of resources within the cave. The report contains the

    physiographical profile, cave mapping, rapid archaeological and ecological assessment, and

    socioeconomic information pertinent to developing a plan that integrates ecology and

    biodiversity with economic concerns and emphasizes the archaeology and local culture in

    and around the cave system.

    Hundred Caves is located in Barangay Tagabinet, Puerto Princesa City and has geographic

    coordinates of N 10 04' 55.4", E 118 50' 56.8". It is bounded on the north by Barangay

    Cabayugan and Marufinas, Barangay Maoyon and Buenavista on the south, Barangay San

    Rafael on the east and Barangay Buenavista and West Philippine Sea on the west. It is a

    solution-type of cave, the most frequently occurring type of cave in the Philippines. It is

    formed by chemical reaction between circulating groundwater and bedrock composed of

    limestone or dolomite. Hundred caves is a horizontal cave with an elevation of 80 meters

    above sea level. It is accessible by land 1.15 hours from the center of Puerto Princesa City

    and by foot for about 15-minutes trail walk from the cemented road system going to Sitio

    Sabang (take off point to PPSRNP). Its straight distance is 400 meters parallel to the road

    system with second growth forest over limestone surrounding its periphery. The surrounding

    land development is devoted to agriculture such as rice paddies and farm lots.

    This cave system is multi-storied and possesses a series of continuous narrow maze-like

    and/or winding interconnecting passages and vertical pitches which are both challenging and

    beautiful. Speleothems are well defined and various concretions were present. The passages

    of the cave network below contain knee-deep water and some of those dry passages have

    alluvium deposits cemented in blocks by chemical/mechanical weathering. Mini-rimstone

    dams are abundant as well as columns and draperies. Special feature of speleogen, such as

    cave scallops (flute casts) are found on the walls and floors of the main entrance. Rock

    pendants also exist in various scales. The cave system also has a bat chamber located at the

    end of the main passage.

    Based on the characteristics of the cave, Hundred Caves is classified as Class III, limited to

    low impact ecotourism activity. Class III caves are generally safe to inexperienced visitor

    with no known threatened species, archeological, geological, natural history, cultural and

    historical values. Subzones within the cave were further classified under restricted and

    controlled zones. Based on its classification, Hundred Caves and its surrounding area can

    carry soft impact ecotourism activities like cave tour/exploration and picture taking.

  • P a g e | 2

    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    Among the threats to the Hundred Cave are the uncontrolled tourism and exploration

    activities, and uncontrolled edible birds nest collection which resulted to presence of cave

    hazards, destruction of rock formations, presence of vandals and graffitis along the walls

    and flooring of the cave system. There are also reports that the lack of governance and

    enforcement implementation as well as lack of human resource poses threat to the cave and

    cave ecosystem. Entrance in the cave has to be regulated to cushion the impact of mass

    tourism. Delineating a buffer zone around the Hundred Caves as well as development of

    other activities outside the cave can minimize the existing and potential adverse effects of

    economic activities. Establishment of a governing body that will implement and monitor

    activities in the area is also needed.

    To ensure that the plan will be acceptable to the stakeholders and that it addresses the

    concerns of the community, a participatory planning workshop was conducted in April 7-8,

    2015 through the facilitation of the PCSDS. It was participated by 63 members of the

    Tagabinet Neighborhood Tourism Association (TNTA), representatives from the Puerto

    Princesa City Tourism Office, PPSRNP-PMO, Centre for Sustainability and barangay

    officials of the Barangay Tagabinet. Situation of the cave is verified during the process

    through the SWOT Analysis - strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. It was agreed

    during the planning workshop that the management plan will be geared towards ecotourism

    purposes.

    On July 7, 2015, a validation workshop was conducted to present the result of the

    management plan to the stakeholders and came up with the plans vision, mission and

    objectives. Based on the discussion, stakeholders agreed with the plan and they will endorse

    the same to the barangay council.

    The developed Hundred Caves Management Plan (HCMP) is designed to address the

    environmental and socioeconomic threats to the cave, as well as the challenges posed by a

    lack of cave governance structure and livelihood mechanisms that can reduce the pressures to

    the cave. To achieve this, the Plan uses the following management framework.

    Hundred Caves Sustainable Management Framework

    Established "Green Tourism" program for

    cave

    Strengthened

    cave governance, stewardship

    and advocacy

    Reduced cave threats and enhanced cave ecosystem security

    Ecological Integrity and stakeholders empowermen

    t

  • P a g e | 3

    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    Following this framework, the goal of the Management Plan is to develop an

    ecotourism program for Hundred Caves to ensure ecological integrity of the cave

    and its ecosystem through sustainable management of an empowered local

    community group thereby providing alternative source of livelihood.

    This plan has three interlinked outcomes as follows:

    1. to protect and manage the cave in an integrated and adaptive manner, 2. to efficiently use the cave and the resources therein, and 3. to safeguard the cave ecosystems resilience and stability and enhance its

    productivity.

    The prescribed strategic actions to attain these objectives are divided into nine

    components:

    1. Policy Reform and Development 2. Human Resources Development 3. Research and Development 4. IEC and Advocacy 5. Cave Protection and Management 6. Waste Management 7. Zoning of Cave and Cave Periphery 8. Green Tourism and Cave Visitor Management 9. Livelihood Development

    Under each component, a set of actions are given with a corresponding timeline and

    budgetary requirement. Due to the many uncertainties and constraints inherent in the cave

    resource management, it is recommended that an adaptive management approach is used to

    guide the interventions. The scope of the plan is limited by the lack of preparatory activities

    for ecotourism development, and the preponderance of recent cave-related and ecotourism

    policies which may require integration and harmonization prior to their application on the

    ground.

    Many critical factors are required for a smooth implementation of HCMP, foremost of which

    are: (1) the active involvement of the concerned authorities and agencies in the initiative, (2)

    the openness of the community to the regulations and socioeconomic changes that will be

    introduced when the plan is implemented, and (3) their cooperation to be engaged as cave

    stewards and protectors. A lot can be accomplished if political commitments are in place and

    Memorandums of Agreement (MOA) are signed.

    The implementation of the plan can be a venue for collaboration among private and public

    entities. It is also an opportunity to empower local communities through the sustainable

    practice of green tourism. Financial assistance from an external source will go a long way

    toward securing this green investment of cave management.

  • P a g e | 4

    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    ACRONYMS

    AO Administrative Order

    CADC Certificate of Ancestral Domain Claim

    CBET - Community-Based Ecotourism

    CBST Community-Based Sustainable Tourism

    CIEC Cave Information and Education Center

    CLUP Comprehensive Land Use Plan

    CPEO Cave Protection and Enforcement Officer

    CTO City Tourism Office

    CVMP Cave Visitor Management Plan

    DAO DENR Administrative Order

    DENR Department of Environment and Natural Resources

    DMC DENR Memorandum Circular

    DOLE Department of Labor and Employment

    DOT Department of Tourism

    DPWH Department of Public Works and Highways

    DSWD Department of Social Welfare and Development

    DTI Department of Trade and Industry

    EBN Edible Birds Nest

    ECAN Environmentally Critical Areas Network

    ENR Environment and Natural Resources

    FPIC Free, Prior, and Informed Consent

    HCMP Hundred Caves Management Plan

    IEC Information and Education Campaign

    IKSP Indigenous Knowledge System and Practices

    IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature

    LGU Local Government Unit

    MAB Man and the Biosphere Programme

    MIMAROPA Mindoro, Marinduque, Romblon, Palawan

    NEDA National Economic and Development Authority

    NEDC National Ecotourism Development Council

  • P a g e | 5

    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    NGO Non-government Organization

    NHCP National Historical Commission of the Philippines

    NIPAS National Integrated Protected Areas System

    NM National Museum

    PAGASA Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration

    PCMPCP Palawan Cave Management, Protection and Conservation Program

    PCSD Palawan Council for Sustainable Development

    PMO Project Management Office

    PPCC Puerto Princesa Cave Committee

    PPP public-private partnerships

    PPSRNP-PMO Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park Project Management Office

    PPUR Puerto Princesa Underground River

    PTO Provincial Tourism Office

    RA Republic Act

    RITM Research Institute on Tropical Medicine

    SP Sangguniang Panlungsod

    SEP Strategic Environmental Plan

    TESDA Technical Education and Skills Development Authority

    TIEZA Tourism Infrastructure and Enterprise Zone Authority

    TNTA Tagabinet Neighborhood Tourism Association

    UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

  • P a g e | 6

    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

    1.0 Statement of Policies (National and International)

    Caves are protected nationally through the National Caves and Cave Resources Management

    and Protection Act of 2001 or Republic Act 9072. The law states that it is the policy of the

    State to conserve, protect and manage caves and cave resources as part of the countrys

    natural wealth. To achieve this, the State shall strengthen cooperation and exchange of

    information between governmental authorities and people who utilize caves and cave

    resources for scientific, educational, recreational, tourism and other purposes1.

    To support the implementation of such law, several policies were also enacted such as Cave

    Act Implementing Rules and Regulations (DAO 2003-29); Cave Classification Guidelines

    and Manual (DMC 2007-04) and Guidelines in Treasure Hunting in Caves (DAO 2007-34).

    National Laws Related to Cave Planning and Management

    Prior to the passage of RA 9072, national laws have been promulgated whose scope may

    include activities in caves. These include the National Integrated Protected Areas System Act

    of 1992 (RA 7586) which governs activities inside protected areas and The Indigenous

    Peoples Rights Act of 1997 (RA 7586) which provides for the protection of the right of

    indigenous peoples and indigenous cultural communities, especially with regards to their

    ancestral domains.

    Since the passage of RA 9072, other pertinent national laws that have direct bearing on the

    management of caves as cultural properties and potential tourism destinations have been

    passed. The legislations related to cave are summarized in Annex A.

    1.1 Historical Background

    1 Section 2, RA 9072. The text is available online:

    www.pawb.gov.ph/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=27&Itemid=294 [Accessed

    November 2013]

    Figure 2. The Hundred Caves

  • P a g e | 7

    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    The cave was first discovered in 1990s when Mr. Bueg Lais, a Palawan native from

    Barangay Abo-abo, Sofronio Espaola (Southern Palawan), came to Barangay Tagabinet in

    search of Balinsasayaw or edible birds nests (EBN) as a source of livelihood. Recounting

    how he discovered the gap/opening of the cave, it was early morning when he decided to

    explore the karst area. Bueg spotted a swiftlet hovering around the limestone cliff feeding on

    insects. He religiously followed the swiftlets flight path going inside the cave and ended up

    discovering a crevice within the ledge of the limestone cliff. Without hesitation, Bueg slipped

    into the crevice downwards inside the cave system. Alone and brave, he explored its passages

    and its nooks and crannies, and finally discovered the presence of edible birds nests in

    various locations. He continuously wandered inside the cave until finally in mid-afternoon,

    he managed to find the cave exit. Since then, the cave is his source of edible birds nests (not

    Aerodramus fuciphagus species) in scheduled basis. Averaging almost 2 kilos of EBN

    collected during those times, composition were not made up of pure birds saliva instead

    nests are made up of mixed with small twigs, hays and branches. Though he visited the cave

    most of the time, Bueg Lais did not bother to name the cave but he is the original discoverer

    of it (pers. comm. with Mr. Bueg Lais). Nobody really recounted the person who coined the

    present cave name and it was only in year 2008 that PCSD staff heard the caves name as

    Hundred Caves. According to the residents, the name of the karst formation represents the

    numerous passages and outlets within the karst. The preserved cave formations and a

    subterranean river encouraged the local community to develop this area for tourism.

    1.2 Purpose of the Plan

    This plan is formulated to be a guide in the management and development of the Hundred

    Caves. Plan includes implementable actions coming from the local stakeholders to ensure

    that this will not remain as a written document only, but will be beneficial to the community.

    Once plan will be adopted and implemented, the following can be expected:

    1. To undertake necessary measures to protect and conserve the cave ecosystem and its

    surrounding environment

    2. To develop tourism-related capacities of the community

    3. To serve as an alternative livelihood and generate income for the stakeholders of

    Hundred Caves

    1.3 Brief Description of the Planning process

    This Cave Management Plan is developed and prepared by the Palawan Council for

    Sustainable Development Staff together with the Tagabinet Neighborhood Tourism

    Association (TNTA) and other local stakeholders. It follows science-based and participatory

    approaches. The science-based approach is used when developing appropriate and sound

    strategies and activities for the cave system given its fragile and unique constitution. The

    Cave Assessment and Classification Report prepared by PCSDS (2014) and produced in

    collaboration with the Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park Project

    Management Office (PPSRNP-PMO) is used in determining the resources and status of

    resources within the cave. The report contains the physiographical profile, cave mapping,

    rapid archaeological and ecological assessment, and socioeconomic information pertinent to

    developing a plan that integrates ecology and biodiversity with economic concerns and

    emphasizes the archaeology and local culture in and around the cave system.

  • P a g e | 8

    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    Result of the participatory planning workshop conducted in April 7-8, 2015 through the

    facilitation of the PCSDS is the basis of most of the suggested interventions for the

    sustainable development of the cave. Participants of the workshop are the 63 members of the

    Tagabinet Neighborhood Tourism Association (TNTA), representatives from the Puerto

    Princesa City Tourism Office, PPSRNP-PMO, Centre for Sustainability and barangay

    officials of the Barangay Tagabinet. Situation of the cave is verified during the process

    through the SWOT Analysis - strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. It was agreed

    during the planning workshop that the management plan will be geared towards ecotourism

    purposes. On July 7, 2015, a validation workshop was conducted to present the result of the

    management plan to the stakeholders and came up with the plans vision, mission and

    objectives. Based on the discussion, stakeholders agreed with the plan and they will endorse

    the same to the barangay council.

    This Cave Management Plan then is an offshoot of both scientific and community-based

    investigations into the issues confronting Hundred Caves. Existing legal considerations and

    institutional arrangements are also duly considered in its formulation. The Plan strategies and

    actions have to conform to national laws and regulations.

    A plan is always a work in progress and it is important to communicate its contents to all

    stakeholders and to review and monitor its progress and effectiveness. The Plan is designed

    to be flexible and adaptive such that administrators can adjust certain management

    prescriptions based on the practicability of the interventions. The following flowchart

    describes the planning process.

    Figure 3. Process of Cave Management Planning

    CAVE CLASSIFICATION

    AND ASSESSMENT

    PARTICIPATORY

    PLANNING WORKSHOP

    REVIEW OF LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL

    FRAMEWORKS

    CAVE MANAGEMENT

    PLAN

    ADOPTION OF CAVE

    MANAGEMENT PLAN

    PLAN

    IMPLEMENTATION

    MONITORING AND

    EVALUATION

  • P a g e | 9

    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    1.4 Rationale

    The caves of Palawan are special geological heritage of ecological and cultural significance.

    They preserve a record of the past and often play an important role in the ecology of the area.

    Unique or critical records of natural history are contained in the caves. They offer distinct

    cultural and aesthetic values and contribute to an understanding of the natural history of a

    region.

    Caves are therefore legally protected and considered as special management areas.

    Conservation and development planning of cave systems is a vital activity to ensure that the

    ecosystem services and the scientific and educational values of caves are put to good use.

  • P a g e | 10

    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    CHAPTER 2: AREA PROFILE

    2.1 Geographic Location

    Hundred Caves is located in Barangay Tagabinet, Puerto Princesa City and has geographic

    coordinates of N 10 04' 55.4", E 118 50' 56.8". It is bounded on the north by Barangay

    Cabayugan and Marufinas, Barangay Maoyon and Buenavista on the south, Barangay San

    Rafael on the east and Barangay Buenavista and West Philippine Sea on the west. It is

    accessible by land 1.15 hours from the center of Puerto Princesa City and by foot for about

    15-minutes trail walk from the cemented road system going to Sitio Sabang (take off point to

    PPSRNP). Its straight distance is 400 meters parallel to the road system with second growth

    forest over limestone surrounding its periphery. The surrounding land development is

    devoted to agriculture such as rice paddies and farm lots. Hundred Caves is within a Karst

    landscape extending up to the Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park (PPSRNP),

    a UNESCO world heritage site.

  • P a g e | 11

    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    Figure 4. Location Map of Hundred Caves

  • P a g e | 12

    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    2.2 Biophysical Profile

    Hundred caves is a solution-type of cave, the most frequently occurring type of cave in

    the Philippines. It is formed by chemical reaction between circulating groundwater and

    bedrock composed of limestone or dolomite. Hundred caves is a horizontal cave with an

    elevation of 80 meters above sea level.

    a. General topography and physiography

    Based on the New Alternative Spatial Strategies for Bgy. Cabayugan Cluster Map

    (Figure 5) of the city government of Puerto Princesa, Barangay Tagabinet (where the

    Hundred Caves is located) is included in the Northwestern Cluster which topography is

    dominated by hills and mountains. More than three-fourths (76%) of the Clusters land

    area belongs to slope class above 18%. Less than one-fourth (24%) of the Clusters area

    has slopes below 18%.

    Barangay Tagabinet has a total land area of 3,602.5 hectares (SEPP 2007 of the City of

    Puerto Princesa). The barangay serves as a buffer zone of the Puerto Princesa

    Subterranean River National Park (PPSRNP). The territory of the park forms part of a

    core zone of the Palawan Island Biosphere Reserve, recognized under the

    UNESCO MAB Programme in 1990, and a core zone of the Environmentally Critical

    Areas Network (ECAN), the central element of the Strategic Environmental Plan for

    Palawan Province.

    Figure 5. The Hundred Caves including the Agricultural land surrounding it

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    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    Map 1. Barangay Tagabinet as included in the Northwestern Cluster based in Barangay

    Cabayugan.

    The topography of the barangay Tagabinet ranges from sea level to 1,600 meters above sea level

    (masl), mountain range of St. Paul. Land formation varies from flat terrain to rolling hinterlands, from

    hills to mountain peaks. The ridges and mountaintops of St. Paul (1,028 masl) are equally pronounced

    and the slopes are precipitous rendering them laborious and dangerous to conquer the peak. Slightly

    metamorphosed limestone forms the impressive karst landscape around Mt. St. Paul which includes

    the area where Hundred caves is located. The cave area is classified as alienable and disposal lands

    under the DENR Land Classification System.

    i. Accessibility

    Hundred caves is accessible by land one hour and fifteen minutes from the center of Puerto

    Princesa City and by foot for about 15-minutes trail walk from the cemented road system

    going to Sitio Sabang (take off point to PPSRNP). Its straight distance is 400 meters which is

    perpendicular to the cemented road system. A second growth forest over limestone

    vegetation exists around its periphery. Patches of agricultural development such as rice

    paddies and farm lots are prevalent in the area.

    Figure 6. New Alternative Spatial Strategies for Bgy. Cabayugan Cluster Map

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    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    ii. Shape and dimensions

    This cave system is multi-storied and possesses

    a series of continuous narrow maze-like

    and/or winding interconnecting passages and

    vertical pitches which are both challenging and

    beautiful. It has three (3) small

    cavities/openings in which the farthest serves as

    an exit. The caves main entrance is located on

    a ledge, north - northeast direction, at 75 meters

    elevation. It measures 1 meter wide and 0.5

    meter high. The main passage is 5 meters wide

    and 15 meters long. At the end of the main

    passage is a steep drop where the bat chamber

    is located. The chamber possesses wide

    arching walls and high ceiling reaching 15

    meters high. It is sparsely decorated with few

    but large speleothems. The steep drop on the

    left side of the chamber leads to the 2nd cave opening/cavity below. A total of 42 stations

    have been surveyed to complete the mapping of the passages.

    Speleothems are well defined and various concretions were present. The passages of the

    cave network below contain knee-deep water and some of those dry passages have alluvium

    deposits cemented in blocks by chemical/mechanical weathering. Mini-rimstone dams are

    abundant as well as columns and draperies. Special feature of speleogen, such as cave

    scallops (flute casts) are found on the walls and floors of the main entrance. Rock pendants

    also exist in various scales.

    Figure 7. One of the Passages inside the Cave

    Figure 8. Speleothems found inside the Cave

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    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    Generally, Hundred cave was found to be disturbed but still in its active state. The main

    entrance is proliferated by vandals and graffitis along the walls and flooring of the cave

    system. This is may be attributed to uncontrolled tourism and exploration activities. Another

    entrance below the bat chamber also exhibits the same scenario. Uncontrolled edible birds

    nest collection is another reason for such. It has a total consolidated surveyed length of 359.7

    meters. Cave volume is 6711.7 cubic meters and cave depth is 6.2 meters. Average

    inclination is 7.0 degrees and a difficulty of 9.6 (Figures 10, 11 and 12).

    Figure 9. Vandals and graffiti along the Cave walls and flooring

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    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    Table 1. Data Summary of Hundred Caves, Tagabinet, Puerto Princesa City

    Number of File = 1

    Number of Survey = 1

    Included Shots = 50

    Included Length = 1180.0 Feet 359.7 Meters 0.22 Miles

    Total Surveyed = 1180.0 Feet 359.7 Meters 0.22 Miles

    Horizontal Length = 1154.6 Feet 351.9 Meters 0.22 Miles

    Cave Depth = 20.3 Feet 6.2 Meters

    Surface Length = 244.5 Feet 74.5 Meters

    Surface Width = 170.2 Feet 51.9 Meters

    Surface Area = 41595.2 Ft2

    3864.3 M2

    Enclosed Volume = 844130.1 Ft3 23903.1 M

    3

    Cave Volume = 237020.0 Ft3

    6711.7 M3

    Average Diameter = 14.2 Feet 4.3 Meters

    Wall Area = 8722.4 Ft2 6384.5 M

    2

    Floor Area = 2739.8 Ft2

    1183.6 M2

    Volume Density = 28.08 %

    Average Inclination = 7.0 Deg.

    Difficulty = 9.6

    Highest Station = ab 9.5 Feet 2.9 Meters

    Lowest Station = h -10.8 Feet -3.3 Meters

    North Most Station = ac 31.1 Feet 9.5 Meters

    South Most Station = e -139.0 Feet -42.4 Meters

    East Most Station = 30 0.0 Feet 0.0 Meters

    West Most Station = 55 -244.5 Feet -74.5 Meters

    Furthest Station = l 458.6 Feet 139.8 Meters 0.09 Miles

    Average Shot Length = 23.6 Feet 7.2 Meters

    Longest Shot = 93.8 Feet 28.6 Meters

    Shortest Shot = 6.0 Feet 1.8 Meters

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    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    Figure 10. Isometric view of Hundred Caves

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    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    Figure 11. Plan view map of Hundred Caves

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    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    Figure 12. Profile view of Hundred Caves

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    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    iii. Hydrology

    Tagabinet serves as streaming/flowing area of Babuyan River which is the longest river in

    Palawan (54 kilometers) that flows from the highlands behind New Panggangan to

    Marufinas, through the Kayasan Certificate of Ancestral Domain Claim (CADC), Barangays

    Cabayugan and Tagabinet, to Honda Bay on the East Coast of Palawan.

    iv. Climatology

    There are two weather conditions prevailing in the area, the wet and the dry season. It is

    usually dry from December to May and rainy the rest of the year. Average temperature is 29o

    C while the annual average rainfall is 1,148 mm/year. The average annual relative humidity

    is high at around 85% (PAGASA, 2001)

    Figure 13. Cave mouth /main entrance

    (outside view)

    Figure 14. Cave Mouth (inside view)

    Figure 15. Second cave opening (outside view) Figure 16. Second cave opening (inside view)

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    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    b. Wetland Type/Cave Classification

    All identified caves must undergo an assessment process using the Cave Assessment

    Form . The cave assessment is a comprehensive data gathering and inventory of cave

    resources and shall be accomplished at the site level.

    Caves maybe classified as either closed or open to the public. After extensive cave

    research, open or closed caves may be subject to reclassification and preparation of

    appropriate cave management plan. Caves are classified as follows:

    Class I are caves with delicate and fragile geological formations, threatened species,

    archeological and paleontological values, and extremely hazardous conditions. Allowable

    use may include mapping, photography, educational and scientific purposes;

    Class II are caves with areas or portions which have sections that have hazardous

    conditions and contain sensitive geological, biological, archeological, cultural, historical,

    and biological values or high quality ecosystem. It may be necessary to close sections of

    these caves seasonally or permanently. It shall be opened to experienced cavers or

    guided educational tours and visits;

    Class III are caves generally safe to inexperienced visitor with no known threatened

    species, archeological, geological, natural history, cultural and historical values. These

    caves may also be utilized for economic purposes such as guano extraction and edible

    birds nest collection.

    After the cave assessment, the composite assessment team reviewed the accomplished

    cave assessment form and the factors to be considered in cave classification/re-

    classification outlined in item IV of Manual on Cave Classification and make

    recommendation as to whether to open or close a cave. Based on the characteristics of the

    cave, it is classified as Class III, limited to low impact ecotourism activity.

    c. Flora and Fauna

    Fauna outside of cave

    There were 47 species of birds recorded within the vicinity of the cave system. Three (3)

    of which are vulnerable and four (4) were near-threatened (IUCN Conservation Status).

    A total of 14 species of mammal were recorded in the area. Six (6) of these species were

    observed outside the cave and eight (8) are cave (bats) residents. Table 2 and 3 list the

    avian and mammals found outside the cave.

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    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    Table 2. List of Avian Species outside the Cave

    Family Common Name Scientific Name IUCN Status Endemicity

    Columbidae Emerald Dove Chalcophaps indica Least Concern Resident

    Columbidae Zebra Dove Geopelia striata Least Concern Introduced

    species

    Columbidae Green Imperial Pigeon Ducula aenea Least Concern Resident

    Psittacidae Blue-headed Racquet-

    tail

    Prioniturus platenae Vulnerable Endemic

    Psittacidae Blue-naped Parrot Tanygnathus

    lucionensis

    Near-threatened Endemic*

    Cuculidae Plaintive Cuckoo Cacomantis merulinus Least Concern Resident

    Cuculidae Asian Drongo-Cuckoo Surniculus lugubris Least Concern Resident

    Cuculidae Common Koel Eudynamys

    scolopaceus

    Least Concern Resident

    Cuculidae Greater Coucal Centropus sinensis Least Concern Resident

    Strigidae Palawan Scops Owl Otus fuliginosus Near-threatened Endemic

    Strigidae Spotted Wood Owl Strix seloputo Least Concern Resident

    Podargidae Large-tailed Nightjar Caprimulgus macrurus Least Concern Resident

    Apodidae Pygmy Swiftlet Collocalia troglodytes Least Concern Endemic*

    Apodidae Glossy Swiftlet Collocalia esculenta Least Concern Resident

    Apodidae Uniform Swiftlet Aerodramus

    vanikorensis

    Least Concern Resident

    Apodidae Edible-nest Swiftlet Aerodramus fuciphagus Least Concern Resident

    Alcedinidae Collared Kingfisher Todiramphu schloris Least Concern Resident

    Bucerotidae Palawan Hornbill Anthracoceros marchei Vulnerable Endemic

    Dicruridae Hair-crested Drongo Dicrurus hottentottus Least Concern Resident

    Monarchidae Black-naped Monarch Hypothymis azurea Least Concern Resident

    Monarchidae Blue Paradise-

    flycatcher

    Terpsiphone

    cyanescens

    Near-threatened Endemic

    Corvidae Slender-billed Crow Corvus enca Least Concern Resident

    Paridae Palawan Tit Parus amabilis Near-threatened Endemic

    IncertaeSedis Rufous-tailed

    Tailorbird

    Orthotomus sericeus Least Concern Resident

    Pycnonotidae Black-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus atriceps Least Concern Resident

    Pycnonotidae Olive-winged Bulbul Pycnonotus plumosus Least Concern Resident

    Pycnonotidae Grey-cheeked Bulbul Criniger bres Least Concern Resident

    Pycnonotidae Sulphur-bellied

    Bulbul

    Iole palawanensis Least Concern Endemic

    Timaliidae Ashy-headed Babbler Malacocincla

    cinereiceps

    Least Concern Endemic

    Timaliidae Falcated Wren-

    Babbler

    Ptilocichla falcata Vulnerable Endemic

    Timaliidae Striped Tit-Babbler Macronous gularis Least Concern Resident

    Irenidae Asian Fairy-bluebird Irena puella Least Concern Resident

    Sturnidae Asian Glossy Starling Aplonis panayensis Least Concern Resident

    Turdidae White-vented Shama Copsychus niger Least Concern Endemic

    Chloropseidae Yellow-throated

    Leafbird

    Chloropsis

    palawanensis

    Least Concern Endemic

    Dicaeidae Palawan Flowerpecker Prionochilus plateni Least Concern Endemic

    Dicaeidae Pygmy Flowerpecker Dicaeum pygmaeum Least Concern Endemic*

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    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    Family Common Name Scientific Name IUCN Status Endemicity

    Nectariniidae Brown-throated

    Sunbird

    Anthreptes malacensis Least Concern Resident

    Nectariniidae Purple-throated

    Sunbird

    Leptocoma sperata Least Concern Resident

    Nectariniidae Olive-backed Sunbird Cinnyris jugularis Least Concern Resident

    Nectariniidae Lovely Sunbird Aethopyga shelleyi Least Concern Endemic*

    Nectariniidae Little Spiderhunter Arachnothera

    longirostra

    Least Concern Resident

    Passeridae Eurasian Tree

    Sparrow

    Passer montanus Least Concern Resident

    Estrildidae White-bellied Munia Lonchura leucogastra Least Concern Resident

    Estrildidae Black-headed Munia Lonchura malacca Least Concern Resident

    Motacillidae Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava Least Concern Resident

    Pittidae Hooded Pitta Pitta sordida Least Concern Resident

    Table 3. List of Mammals outside the Cave

    Family Common/Local Name Scientific Name IUCN Status

    Tupaiidae Palawan Tree Shrew Tupaia palawanensis Least Concern ver 3.1

    Sciuridae Northern Palawan Tree

    Squirrel

    Sundasciurus juvencus Least Concern ver 3.1

    Cercopithecidae Long-tailed Macaque Macaca fascicularis Least Concern ver 3.1

    Pteropodidae Lesser Dog-faced Fruit

    Bat

    Cynopterus brachyotis Least Concern ver 3.1

    Pteropodidae Geoffrey's Rousette Rousettus amplexicaudatus Least Concern ver 3.1

    Pteropodidae Dagger-toothed Long-

    nosed Fruit Bat

    Macroglossus minimus Least Concern ver 3.1

    Fauna found inside the cave

    Among the recorded species, four (4) were observed nested inside the cave. Collocalia

    esculenta and C.troglodytes were nested near the cave opening, while Aerodramus

    vanikorensis and A. fuciphagus were residing in the inner cave recesses. A. fuciphagus was

    more secretive in terms of nest location (attached on the wall) compared to A. vanikorensis

    wherein nests are more visible and found sitting on cave structures.

    Figure 17. Other lesser known fauna found outside the cave

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    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    Most bat species observed inside the cave are insectivorous. A total of eight (8) bat species

    are recorded inside the cave (see Table 4) and these belong to three families (Rhinolopidae,

    Hipposiderodae and Vespertelionidae). Hipposideros diadema were observed most and was

    found to be adaptive to presence of cave intruder, while Rhinolophidae bats flew as

    observers presence was felt in the area. Vespertenionidae are observed mostly in the cave

    bell-holes and less tolerant to observers presence.

    Table 4. List of Mammals inside the Cave

    Family Common/Local Name Scientific Name IUCN Status

    Rhinolophidae Creagh's Horseshoe Bat Rhinolophus creaghi Least Concern ver 3.1

    Rhinolophidae Yellow-faced Horseshoe

    Bat

    Rhinolophus virgo Least Concern ver 3.1

    Rhinolophidae Arcuate Horseshoe Bat Rhinolophus arcuatus Least Concern ver 3.1

    Hipposiderodae Diadem Leaf-nosed Bat Hipposideros diadema Least Concern ver 3.1

    Vesperteliniodae Schreiber's Bent-winged

    Bat

    Miniopterus schreibersii Near Threatened ver

    3.1

    Vesperteliniodae Great Long-fingered Bat Miniopterus tristis Least Concern ver 3.1

    Vesperteliniodae Little Long-fingered Bat Miniopterus australis Least Concern ver 3.1

    Vesperteliniodae Pallid Large-footed

    Myotis

    Myotis macrotarsus Near Threatened ver

    3.1

    Figure 18. Nests found inside the cave

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    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    Bat Species Inside Hundred Caves

    Figure 23. Cynopterus brachyotis (Short-nosed fruit bat), Family Pteropodidae

    Figure 22. Eonycteris spelaea

    Family Pteropodidae

    Figure 21. Macroglossus minimus

    Dagger-toothed Bat

    Family Pteropodidae

    Figure 19. Miniopterus australis

    False Vampire Bat

    Family Megadermatidae

    Figure 20. Megaderma spasma

    Little Bent-winged Bat

    Family Vespertilionidae

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    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    Flora species outside the cave

    Hundred Caves is surrounded by diverse flora and fauna. Mix forest flora that grow over the

    limestone/karst substrate. Because of limited time and knowledge of the flora species, only

    40 flora species which were observed common in the area are identified (see Table 5). Most

    dominant tree species was Amugis and Malugay. Moraceae family were observed have the

    highest number of species which has nine (9) identified species followed by Anacardiacea

    family with six (6) identified species.

    Table 5. List of Flora Species outside Cave

    Family Species Common/

    Local Name IUCN Status

    Anacardiaceae Koordersiodendron pinnatum Amugis NA

    Anacardiaceae Buchanania arborescens Balinghasai NA

    Anacardiaceae Anacardium occidentale Kasoy NA

    Anacardiaceae Buchanania nitida Balintantan NA

    Anacardiaceae Mangifera monandra Malapaho EN

    Anacardiaceae Mangifera altissima Pahutan VU

    Apocynaceae Alstonia scholaris Dita LC

    Figure 25. Miniopteris australis

    Little bent wing bat

    Family: Vespertilionidae

    Figure 24. Rhinolopus virgo

    Yellow-faced Horseshoe Bat

    Family Rhinolophidae

    Figure 26. Rhinolophus creaghi

    Family Rhinolophidae

    Near Threatened (IUCN)

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    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    Family Species Common/

    Local Name IUCN Status

    Apocynaceae Alstonia macrophylla Batino LC

    Apocynaceae Tabernaemontana pandacaqui Pandakaking-gubat NA

    Aspleniaceae Asplenium nidus Pakpak-lauin

    Dipterocarpaceae Dipterocarpus sp. Apitong

    Dryopteridaceae Diospyros philippinesis Kamagong EN

    Ebenaceae Diospyros pyrrhocarpa Anang LC

    Ebenaceae Diospyros pilosanthera Bolongeta NA

    Euphorbiaceae Bananato

    Euphorbiaceae Macaranga grandifolia Takipasin VU

    Gnelaceae Gnetum gnemon Bago/Lamparan/Alalod LC

    Lauraceae Dehaasia incrassata Basa/Kayaban NA

    Leguminosae Intsia bijuga Ipil VU

    Moraceae Ficus nota Tibig NA

    Moraceae Artocarpus odoratissimus Marang NA

    Moraceae Artocarpus heterophyllus Nangka NA

    Moraceae Ficu sulmifolia Is-is VU

    Moraceae Ficus balete Balite NA

    Moraceae Artocarpus blancoi Antipolo VU

    Moraceae Ficus latsoni Tangisang-layugan NA

    Moraceae Ficus variegata Tangisang-bayawak NA

    Moraceae Ficus septica Hauili NA

    Myrtaceae Syzygium xanthophyllum Malatampoi NA

    Rubiaceae Mussaenda sp. Kahoy-dalaga NA

    Rubiaceae Nauclea orientalis Bangkal NA

    Rubiaceae Neonauclea formicaria Hambabalud NA

    Sapindaceae Pometia pinnata Malugai-liitan NA

    Sapotaceae Palaquium luzoniense Red nato VU

    Malvaceae Pterocymbium tinctorium Taluto NA

    Sterculiaceae Pterospermum diversifolium Bayog NA

    Poaceae Schizostachyum diffusum Balikaw NA

    Fabaceae Parkia timoriana Kupang NA

    Cannabaceae Trema orientalis Anabiong NA

    d. Geology

    Palawan is subdivided into two tectonic terrains, namely the North Palawan Continental

    terrain and the Southern Palawan Continental terrain, which are separated by the Sabang

    thrust. The region north of Mt. St. Paul is dominated by metamorphic rocks of the

    basement complex with volcanic rocks around Cleopatras needle, and sedimentary

    Bangley formation to the west. Slightly metamorphosed limestone forms the impressive

    karst landscape around Mt. St. Paul.

    Barangay Tagabinet is underlain by rock formations that consist of recent alluvium,

    sandstone and shale. The recent alluvium is made up of transported clay, silt, sand and

    pebbles. Soils vary from clay, sand, and loam. (Biodiversity in and around Protected

    Areas, SAGUDA Palawan Inc., February 2002.)

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    e. Vulnerability Studies

    There are identified flood-prone areas such as those in Buenavista Centro and in the

    Puroks of Masagana and Maligaya in Barangay Tagabinet. Moreover, portions of

    Tagabinet are vulnerable to landslides while all coastal areas of the Cluster are potentially

    at risk to storm surge and sea level rise.

    2.3 Socio-cultural Profile

    a. Anthropological/paleontological/archeological data

    When the different cave mouths were inspected for archaeology, the survey did not yield

    any traces of prehistoric human activity thus Hundred caves is negative for

    archaeological significance as of the moment. However, an extensive archaeological

    works should be conducted on the whole area to verify the study. Barangay Tagabinet is

    still part of a massive limestone formation inundated by a number of caves and rock

    shelters. The prospect of the area for ancient human occupation is high. During the

    fieldwork, the local farmers have already reported and identified several other caves that

    might be archaeologically significant.

    b. IKSP with emphasis on resource management

    Palawan is known to be a home of several indigenous groups. In Tagabinet there is an

    identified indigenous community however they are residing far from the cave and their

    Indigenous Knowledge System and Practices (IKSP) have not yet been documented. Due

    to the time constraint during the conduct of the assessment, IKSP was not been part of the

    study.

    c. Historical

    The history of Barangay Tagabenit started when Sebastian Lumibao, Ramon

    Lumibao and Patente Basaya, all members of theTagbanua Tribe arrived in the area.

    According to them the area is abundant with wildlife, wild fruits and root crops and

    marine life. The area serves as a hiding place of the Tagbanuas during the 18th

    century

    Muslim-Tagbanua War. The place was formerly called Tagumbenit which are two

    tagbanua words which mean tagum hiding place and benit just

    beside/nearby/alongside. The first Masicampo, Tribal Chieftain during the Muslim-

    Tagbanua War was Masicampo Sebastian Lumibao who leads his people to hide in

    Tagumbenit until later on after the war the village was just simply called Tagabenit.

    In 1956-58, nine (9) lowlander families from Cuyo, Palawan (Lauro Ponce de

    Leon) and Provinces of Romblon (Teodolo Mingua), Aklan (Felomino Bendolo,

    Francisco Mameng, Rufino Cajilig Sr., Alberto Bendolo, and Vicente Mameng) and

    Antique (Jose Orcajada and Fortunato Orcajada thru the leadership of Mr. Teodulo

    Mingua arrived in the lowland areas of Tagabinet and decided to settle in the area.

    Marine and forest life are still abundant, however, these families started to clear the area

    and started to introduce Kaingin farming and planted upland rice, root crops and

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    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    vegetables. The succeeding years from 1959-1970s, kaingin farming became more

    widen and more or less 20% of the forest land of the barangay was cleared, population

    increases, permanent crops like coconut , mango, jackfruits and other fruit trees were also

    introduced and rain-fed lowland rice was also established.

    Tagabinet is the mother barangay of Cabayugan and other sitios existing within the

    PPUR area.

    d. Demography

    Total Population and Households

    Based on the 2009 CBMS Survey, Barangay Tagabinet has a total population of 1,239

    individuals and 251 households which are distributed in seven puroks. Table 6 list the

    number of households found in each purok, with Nasuduan as the highest populace and

    Liyang as the lowest. It has an average household size of five.

    Table 6. Number of Households in Tagabinet, 2009

    Population Distribution by Sex

    Table 7 shows that majority of the population in Tagabinet is male (54%) and only 46%

    comprised the female population.

    Table 7. Population Distribution by Sex, Barangay Tagabinet, City of Puerto Princesa, 2009

    Purok/Sitio Total

    Households

    Total

    Persons

    Male Female

    Nasuduan 48 249 130 119

    Maligaya 45 206 107 99

    Makirawa 42 221 126 95

    Bayatao 39 181 91 90

    Pagkakaisa 31 158 87 71

    Kayasan 30 144 80 64

    Liyang 16 80 43 37

    T o t a l 251 1,239 664 575

    Purok/Sitio No. of Households

    Nasuduan 48

    Maligaya 45

    Makirawa 42

    Bayatao 39

    Pagkakaisa 31

    Kayasan 30

    Liyang 16

    Total 251

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    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    Population Distribution by Age

    46.7% of the residents of Barangay Tagabinet are 0 to 16 years old and the rest is from 17

    and above.

    Table 8. Population by Age, by Gender Disaggregation 2009

    Age Male Female Total Percentage

    0 to 5 years old 112 104 216 17.40%

    6 to 12 years old 127 114 241 19.50%

    13 to 16 years old 61 61 122 9.8

    17 and above 364 296 660 53.30%

    Total 664 575 1,239 100%

    Population Density

    Barangay Tagabinet is sparsely populated with a population density of .34 people per

    hectare. This happened because the area is classified as a buffer zone of the Puerto Princesa

    City Subterranean River National Park, thus entry of people and activities in the area are

    regulated.

    Religion

    Religious groups that can be found in the barangay includes the following: 1) Roman

    Catholic, 2) Seventh Day Adventist, 3) Jehovahs Witness, 4) Pentecostal Church of God,

    and 5). Life Church. However, no data are available as to the number of membership of the

    above listed religious groups.

    Ethnic Group

    Majority of the ethnic group that resides in the barangay are Tagbanua, Aklanon,

    Rombloanon, Antiqueos, and Cuyunon, however there is no available data as for their

    number.

    Tagabinet Neighborhood Tourism Association (TNTA)

    The Tagabinet Neighborhood Tourism Association is a group of individuals that join together

    in the intention to manage the Hundred Caves and serve as their source of alternative

    livelihood. Members of the association are the owners of the land surrounding the cave

    ecosystem. Members of the TNTA are formerly known as ACTS multi-purpose cooperative.

    It is composed of 76 members generally households with low income generating capacity.

    The association is a Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) registered entity.

    Determined to protect, conserve and manage the karst ecosystem where Hundred Caves is

    located, the lot owners formed a group which is now the TNTA. The association will

    undertake the caves conservation program through low impact ecotourism activity within

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    specified areas of the cave identified by the PCSD. Under the Community-Based Sustainable

    Tourism (CBST) Program of the City of Puerto Princesa, the group is praying and applying

    for the management of hundred caves ecotourism activity of Hundred caves.

    The officials of the TNTA are the following:

    President - Mr. Ardes Cayaon

    Vice President - Mrs. Susan Orcajada

    BOD Chairman - Mr. Arturo Hermoso

    BOD Member - Mr. Gonzalo Coching

    BOD Member - Mr. Mario Juderial

    BOD Member - Mr. Jose Arnulfo Flores

    BOD Member - Mr. Charlie Flores

    BOD Member - Mrs. Deorita Cardejon

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    2.4 Economic Profile

    a. Land Use

    Existing land use pattern in areas adjacent to cave are settlements and agriculture.

    Agricultural crops such as coconuts and bananas are planted alongside few fruit trees of

    papaya and mango. Open areas are dominated by rice paddies. The concentrations of

    local population are located in Purok Nasuduan (48 Households); Maligaya (45

    Households); Makirawa (42 Households); and Bayatao (39 Households). Cultivated rice

    lands are very much limited and the remaining forests areas especially in Bayatao and

    Kayasan are utilized by both IPs and non-IPs in the gathering of non-timber forest

    products. The concentrations of centuries-old almaciga trees are located in the higher

    slopes of forest areas.

    b. Resource use

    The proximity of the area to a UNESCO World Heritage Site regulates extractive

    resource utilization. Thus, only almaciga and rattan gathering are the major sources of

    livelihood among the local inhabitants aside from fishing and limited farming. Soft

    impact ecotourism activities also occur in the area such as the bird watching and caving

    in Ugong Rock.

    Tourism/Recreational

    Hundred caves exploration/visitation started late in year 2005. Through word of

    mouth, the beautiful cave formations of the Hundred caves, which is just adjacent to

    the Ugong Rock, spreads to other people and resulted to a number of visits.

    Educational

    During the conduct of the assessment, no data were gathered pertaining to Hundred

    caves as venue for educational purposes.

    Agriculture

    The surrounding area of Hundred caves was presently utilized as rice paddies and

    farm lots for staple crops and fruits. Most of the beach forests in the barangay have been

    converted to coconut plantations and residential areas.

    Remaining Forest

    The barangay has still remaining old growth forest. Species of Amugis, Ipil, Apitong,

    Rumarao, Lagara, Pupuan, Nato and Baan trees are still, common and relatively

    dense compared to other species like Kamagong and Narra. The utilization of these

    resources varies according to demands and uses. Among the species that are rarely

    utilized are Apitong, Rumarao, Lagara and Antipolo. Apitong was the tree species

    that was heavily logged in the 1973-1976 by New Pagdanan Timber Company

    (NPTC) logging company.

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    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    Resource extraction

    Hundred caves is identified to be a source of edible birds nests (EBN), thus

    collection of nests is seasonally done by gatherers.

    Other forest resources like rattan, pandan, balitbit, buho, bamboo, nito, orchids,

    anibong and pulot (honey) are among the non-timber forest products that are still

    common and regularly extracted or utilized by the locals as sources of livelihood.

    c. Economic Activities/livelihood/enterprises

    Farming, fishing and forestry are the main sources of income and employment of the

    residents. Some are also involved in tourism-related income generating

    industries/activities. Undetermined number of residents has dual or more source of

    income.

    2.5 Political Profile

    a. Political set up

    Barangay Tagabinet is under the jurisdiction of the City of Puerto Princesa and

    technically considered as buffer zone of the PPRSNP area. It is governed by a

    Barangay Chairman, along with its 10 board members or Sangguniang barangay

    officials.

    b. Jurisdictional arrangements

    In the Province of Palawan, the lead government agency tasked to implement the Caves

    Act (RA 9072) is the Palawan Council for Sustainable Development, pursuant to

    Republic Act No. 7611 or the Strategic Environmental Plan for Palawan Act (SEP Law)2.

    RA 7611 provides a comprehensive policy on the protection, development, and

    conservation of Palawans natural resources through the pursuit of sustainable

    development3, which is the general philosophy of an environment and natural resource

    management framework called the SEP.

    The SEP framework is singled out by RA 7611 as the guide of the local government and

    government agencies in the formulation and implementation of plans, programs and

    projects (PPPs) affecting Palawan. The legal effect of this guiding framework is

    emphasized and its incorporation in the Regional Development Plan (MIMAROPA) is

    2 Section 4, RA 9072.

    3 Section 2 of SEP Law (Declaration of Policy) reads:

    It is hereby declared the policy of the State to protect, develop and conserve its natural resources. Toward this

    end, it shall assist and support the implementation of plans, programs and projects formulated to preserve and

    enhance the environment, and at the same time pursue the socio-economic development goals of the country.

    It shall support and promote the sustainable development goals for the province through proper conservation,

    utilization and development of natural resources to provide optimum yields on a continuing basis. []

    It shall also adopt the necessary measures leading to the creation of an institutional machinery including among

    others, fiscal and financial programs to ensure the effective and efficient implementation of environmental

    plans, programs and projects.

    It shall also promote and encourage the involvement of all sectors of society and maximize people participation

    (including tribal groups) in natural resource management, conservation and protection.

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    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    prescribed. As defined in RA 7611, sustainable development of Palawan means the

    improvement in the quality of life of its people in the present and future generations

    through the use of complementary activities of development and conservation that protect

    life-support ecosystem and rehabilitate exploited areas to allow upcoming generations to

    sustain development growth. This philosophy shall have three criteria, to wit:

    1. Ecological viability - The physical and biological cycles that maintain the

    productivity of natural ecosystems must always be kept intact.

    2. Social acceptability - The people, through participatory process, should be fully

    committed to support sustainable development activities by fostering equity in

    access to resources and the benefits derived from them.

    3. Integrated approach - This allows for a holistic view of problems and issues

    obtaining in the environment as well as opportunities for coordination and sharing

    that will eventually provide the resources and political will to actually implement

    and sustain SEP activities.

    This tripartite feature of the SEP framework can serve as the guiding principles of a Cave

    Management Plan to be formulated in Palawan.

    Section 10 of PCSD A.O. No. 03-08 states that the PCSD may enter into agreements

    pertaining to the management, protection and conservation of caves within the province

    of Palawan. Under such scheme, people and community empowerment will be socially

    addressed as well as gender sensitivity issues and IEC pertaining to conservation of caves

    and cave resources, including the karst environment mainstreamed into grassroots level.

    Local Government Code of the Philippines or RA 7160 states that caves are owned by the

    government. If a cave is found inside a titled land, the owner of the land may enter into

    an agreement with the government for the protection, conservation and management of

    the cave. In case of the Hundred Caves, the barangay local government of Tagabinet has

    the jurisdiction over the area where Hundred caves is located. In order to protect and

    conserve the karst system, the Barangay council issued a resolution to the Tagabinet

    Neighborhood Tourism Association (TNTA) giving them the temporary rights to manage

    the Hundred caves.

    c. Institutional systems

    Section 4 of RA 9072 or the National Caves and Caves Resources Management and

    Protection Act states that The DENR shall be the lead agency tasked to implement the

    provisions of this Act in coordination with the Department of Tourism (DOT), the

    National Museum, the Natural Historical Institute and concerned local government units

    (LGUs) for specific caves, except that in the Province of Palawan, the Palawan Council

    for Sustainable Development shall be the lead implementing agency pursuant to Republic

    Act 7611 or the Strategic Environmental Plan for Palawan Act.

    One of the broad powers and functions of the PCSD is to formulate [1] plans and

    [2] policies as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of the SEP Law. The

    plan formulation function is already a legal basis for undertaking cave planning

    initiatives in Palawan. Section 10 of PCSD AO No. 8, s. 2003, further provides for

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    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    the PCSDs formulation of Palawan Cave Management, Protection and

    Conservation Program (PCMPCP) in coordination with concerned agencies. The

    following are the identified components of the Program:

    (1) Cave Resource Assessment - inventory and mapping of caves, classification and documentation of the biological, geological, hydrological,

    paleontological, archaeological and historical resources and other relevant

    cave information.

    (2) Resource Management and Utilization - regulation of consumptive and non-consumptive use of caves and cave resources.

    (3) Conservation, Education and Public Awareness - promote/raise awareness, appreciation and understanding on the importance of and benefits from

    caves and cave resources and draw out actions for their protection and

    conservation.

    (4) Human Resource Development - conduct training and workshops to improve the manpower capability in the implementation of cave

    management and conservation activities.

    (5) Research and Development - development and implementation of research/studies to support cave management and policy formulation.

    The PCSD/S is empowered to enter into a Memorandum of Agreement with any Local

    Government Unit for the preservation, protection, development, and management of cave

    and cave resources located in the territorial jurisdiction of such LGU under Section 5.2 of

    R.A. 9072;

    The PCSD/S may also enter into a tripartite agreement with the LGU and the

    Landowner/s for the conservation, management and protection of caves and cave

    resources accessible through the Landowner's property.

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    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    CHAPTER 3: LEGAL STATUS AND REGULATIONS/FRAMEWORK

    a. Existing laws and regulations

    Conservation, Protection, and Management of Caves and Cave Resources

    The primary law on cave and cave resources management and protection in the Philippines is

    Republic Act No. 9072 (RA 9072), known as "National Caves and Cave Resources

    Management and Protection Act. The law states that it is the policy of the State to

    conserve, protect and manage caves and cave resources as part of the countrys natural

    wealth. To achieve this, the State shall strengthen cooperation and exchange of information

    between governmental authorities and people who utilize caves and cave resources for

    scientific, educational, recreational, tourism and other purposes4.

    Cave Conservation, Development, and Logistic Support

    In 1990, Palawan was recognized by UNESCOs Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB)

    as part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves, providing a standard against which

    can be measured the effects of mans impact on his environment5. Biosphere reserves are

    internationally recognized areas of terrestrial and coastal/marine ecosystems that constitute a

    tool for the conservation of biodiversity and the sustainable use of its components6.

    Article 3 of The Statutory Framework of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves (1995)

    provides three complementary functions for biosphere reserves:

    1. Conservation - contribute to the conservation of landscapes, ecosystems, species and

    genetic variation;

    2. Development - foster economic and human development which is socio-culturally and

    ecologically sustainable;

    3. Logistic support - support for demonstration projects, environmental education and

    training, research and monitoring related to local, regional, national and global issues

    of conservation and sustainable development.

    The combination of these three functions enables biosphere reserves to strive to be sites of

    excellence to explore and demonstrate approaches to conservation and sustainable

    development. These broad functions at the regional scale of Palawan may be devolved to the

    local scale of city. They can be applied as well to ecosystems and smaller management units

    like forests, reefs, protected areas, and caves.

    4 Section 2, RA 9072. The text is available online:

    www.pawb.gov.ph/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=27&Itemid=294 [Accessed

    November 2013] 5 Citation for Palawan.

    6 The Statutory Framework of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves (1995)

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    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    Wise Use of Cave

    Another broad management principle that is applicable to the caves of Puerto Princesa is the

    wise use of resources. The concept of wise use is the philosophy for wetlands under the

    Ramsar Convention. There are, in fact, two wetlands in Palawan which were included in the

    Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance: the Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park and

    the Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park.

    The wise use of wetlands in the Ramsar philosophy is defined as the maintenance of their

    ecological character, achieved through the implementation of ecosystem approaches, within

    the context of sustainable development"7.Although not all the caves of Puerto Princesa City

    are not wetlands, their locations and their proximity to internationally important wetlands

    make the concept applicable to these caves.

    The Ramsar wise use concept may in fact be applied to all wetlands and water resources8 in

    Philippine or Palawan territory. Its application ensures that critical ecosystems can continue

    to support biodiversity and human welfare. The wise use concept of the Ramsar

    Convention is compatible to the sustainable development of a cave and readily complements

    its management plan objectives.

    ECAN Zoning

    The SEP framework relies on a strategy called the Environmentally Critical Areas Network

    (ECAN), which is a graded system of protection and development control over the whole of

    Palawan1. The caves of Palawan are necessarily subsumed under the established ECAN. The

    outcomes of the ECAN, enumerated below, may be used for cave management planning and

    development.

    Forest conservation and protection through the imposition of a total commercial

    logging ban in all areas of maximum protection and in such other restricted use zones

    as the PCSD may provide;

    Protection of Watersheds;

    Preservation of biological diversity;

    Protection of tribal people and the preservation of their culture;

    Maintenance of maximum sustainable yield;

    Protection of the rare and endangered species and their habitat;

    Provision of areas for environmental and ecological research, education and training;

    and

    Provision of areas for tourist and recreation.

    The ECAN zones of Puerto Princesa City are already established and adopted by the city.

    Hundred Caves is zoned as Multiple Use Zone of the ECAN (Figure 27).

    7 Ramsar Convention [website]. What is the "wise use" of wetlands? Available online: http://www.ramsar.org/cda/en/ramsar-about-faqs-what-is-wise-use/main/ramsar/1-36-37%5E7724_4000_0__ [Accessed April 2013]. 8 For a broad definition of wetlands under the Ramsar Conventions, see: http://www.ramsar.org/cda/en/ramsar-about-faqs-what-are-wetlands/main/ramsar/1-36- 37%5E7713_4000_0__

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    Hundred Caves Management Plan 2016 2020

    Figure 27. ECAN Map of the Hundred Caves

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    b. Administrative and executive issuances

    Palawan Cave Management, Protection and Conservation Program

    One of the broad powers and functions of the PCSD is to formulate [1] plans

    and [2] policies as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of the SEP

    Law. The broad provision on the planning and management of caves is

    contained in Section 11 of the same Order to wit:

    Any person or institution that discovers a cave/caves shall report the location

    to the nearest PCSDS office. The PCSDS shall then plan the appropriate

    activities to be undertaken on the reported cave.

    The selected pertinent PCSD issuances with bearing on cave management are

    listed in Annex B and C.

    Policies related to Cave Management and Conservation

    Uses of Caves and Cave Resources

    Caves may be used for various reasons, including scientific, economic,

    educational, ecotourism, and other purposes. The appropriate use and allowable

    activities in caves shall be made by PCSD, in collaboration with concerned

    entities, based on the assessment and classification of the subject caves.

    Such activities may be subject to the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)

    System and other related rules and regulations. The regulatory measures on the

    collection of animal derivatives (e.g., edible bird's nests and guano) and all

    other wildlife resources found inside the caves are guided by PCSD AO No. 12,

    s. 2011.

    Cave Wildlife-Related Permits

    Collection, extraction, and transporting of all wildlife resources and their

    derivatives (e.g., edible birds nest and guano) found inside caves shall likewise

    be guided by PCSD AO No. 12, s. 2011. The same Order shall cover special use

    permit for the collection of species from the wild for direct trade and for

    farming.

    Visitor permits for caves classified for ecotourism shall be issued by the PCSD

    upon prior clearance from the appropriate tourism office. The PCSD shall not

    issue permits for the removal of stalactites and stalagmites or any cave

    resources when doing so may adversely affect the value of a significant cave.

    Section 17 of National Cultural Heritage Act of 2009 (RA 10066) authorizes

    the National Museum (NM) to collect, maintain and develop the national

    reference collections of Philippine flora and fauna, rocks and minerals through

    research and field collection of specimens including Important Cultural

    Property within the territorial jurisdiction of the Philippines. NM is likewise

    exempted from all permitting systems regulating the same. Nevertheless, NM

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    shall inform the Department of Environment and Natural Resources and the

    Department of Agriculture of such collection. In Palawan, the NM may extend

    courtesy call to the PCSD whenever there is an activity related to systematic

    research in natural history.

    Research Inside Caves

    The clearance for undertaking research inside caves shall be covered by any one

    of two PCSD AOs, depending on the scope of the research. All wildlife-related

    research shall be covered by regulations under PCSD AO No. 12, s. 2011.

    Otherwise, the SEP Clearance System (PCSD AO No. 6, s. 2008) shall regulate

    the research.

    When it comes to cultural, archaeological, or anthropological research by

    foreign nationals, the authority to regulate and supervise such activity resides in

    the NM, pursuant to the provisions of RA 10066. With respect to historical

    anthropological matters, the National Historical Commission of the Philippines

    will be the authority. Researches by Filipinos, especially members of

    indigenous cultural communities, are encouraged.

    Treasure Hunting and Archaeological Exploration and Excavation in Caves

    The NM reserves the right to issue permits and licenses pertaining to treasure

    hunting as per RA 10066. It shall formulate rules and regulations that will

    govern such undertaking.

    Any terrestrial and/or underwater archaeological explorations and excavations

    specifically to obtain materials and data of cultural value shall require written

    authority from the NM. Further, the archaeologists and/or representatives of the

    NM shall have direct site supervision of these activities.

    The NM shall have direct jurisdiction and supervision of excavations,

    explorations, and all earth-moving activities in caves, rock shelters, and their

    vicinities all over the Philippines, when such areas may have been used in the

    prehistoric past by man either for habitation, religious and/or sacred and burial

    purposes, Mining in caves shall likewise require a written permit and clearance

    from the NM. Laymen are prohibited from doing excavations in caves.

    Discovery of Any Cultural or Historical Property

    Section 30 (b) of RA 10066 provides for the procedure to be followed when

    cultural or historical property is discovered in a cave, to wit:

    When the presence of any cultural or historical property is discovered, the

    National Museum or the National Historical Institute shall immediately suspend

    all activities that will affect the site and shall immediately notify the local

    government unit having jurisdiction of the place where the discovery was made.

    The local government shall promptly adopt measures to protect and safeguard

    the integrity of the cultural property so discovered and within five (5) days from

    the discovery shall report the same to the appropriate agency. The suspension

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    of these activities shall be lifted only upon the written authority of the National

    Museum or the National Historical Institute