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VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND LTD Protein mining of wheat and rice side-streams - Exploring novel technological concepts Emilia Nordlund Bridge2Food - 9th Protein Summit 2016 Lille, France September 19th-21st, 2016
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  • VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND LTD

    Protein mining of wheat and

    rice side-streams - Exploring

    novel technological concepts

    Emilia Nordlund

    Bridge2Food - 9th Protein Summit 2016

    Lille, France

    September 19th-21st, 2016

  • 20.9.2016 2

    VTT Technical Research Centre of

    Finland Ltd

    Net turnover and other operating

    income 272 M for VTT Group in 2015(VTT Groups turnover 185 M in 2015)

    Personnel 2,470 (VTT Group 31.12.2015 )

    Unique research and testing

    infrastructure

    Wide national and international

    cooperation network

    We use

    4 million

    hours of brainpower a

    year to develop

    new technological

    solutions

    A leading R&D organisation

    in Nordic countries

    We provide expert services

    for our domestic and

    international customers

    and partners, both in

    private and public sectors

    36% of Finnish

    innovations

    include VTT

    expertise

    TOP 2VTT is second

    most active

    patenting

    organisation in

    Finland (2014)

  • 20/09/2016 3

    Pathway to novel protein ingredients

    Enrichment

    and

    modification

    technologies

    Up-scaling in

    our food and

    brewing pilot

    Techno-functional

    properties,

    physiological

    response

    Techno-

    economical

    evaluation of the

    concept

    New sources of protein ingredients

    Functional ingredients

    designed for your specific

    needs

    Applicability

    in food

    products

    Raw

    material

    competence

  • 20/09/2016 4

    Side-

    streams and

    non-food raw

    materials

    Novel cell,

    microbe or

    plant factory

    concepts

    New plants

    and species

    for ingredient

    sources

    Novel sources of protein ingredients

  • 20/09/2016 5

    Plant proteins are a megatrend

    Drivers

    Global protein supply security

    Restricted availability of animal proteins

    Consumer interest for high protein foods

    Need

    Plant sources and agro side streams should be

    utilized more efficiently and sustainably

    Challenges

    Enrichment of protein from the matrix

    Technological functionality

    Sensory quality

    Nutritional quality

  • PROMINENT

    Protein Mining Of Cereal Side-streamsExploring Novel Technological Concepts

  • 20/09/2016 7

    PROMINENT project in a nutshell

    Aim

    To develop techno-economically feasible and sustainable

    food protein concepts that meet consumer demands

    To develop technologies to enrich and concentrate protein from

    solid and liquid side streams

    To tailor techno-functional and sensory properties of the protein

    rich fractions

    To use the fractions either as performance proteins or nutrients

    To assess the sustainability and socio-economic performance of

    the process scenarios

    Consortium: VTT (coordinator), Sdzucker AG, AB Enzymes, Upfront Chromatography A/S, United Biscuits (UK) Ltd, Barilla, Olvi, LUKE,

    Bridge2Food

    Schedule: 2015-2018, Budget 3.1m

    Funding: Prominent project is part of the Bio Based Industries Joint Undertaking under the EUs Horizon 2020 research and innovation

    programme

  • 20/09/2016 8

    Cereal raw

    materials

    Fractionation

    and protein

    isolation

    Modification1) technological

    functionality

    2) sensory

    quality

    Pilot-scale

    food

    applications

    LCA & sustainability, safety & regulations, social aspects

    Feasibility and economics

    Prominent work chart

    key evaluation points for success and for the go/no go

    decisions (purity, quality, feasibility, sustainability)

  • 20/09/2016 9

    Raw materials from cereal processing industry

  • 20/09/2016 10

    Rice bran

    11-17% protein

    Wheat bran

    15-20% protein

    Spent grain, DDGS

    27-36% protein

    Cereal side stream raw materials are

    a significant protein source

    Wheat bran and rice bran production is totally around 250 million

    tons per year Bran protein could feed a billion people

    Calculated with 10% raw material protein content and with 50% yield from side streams, and

    with 50 g daily protein need

  • 20/09/2016 11

    Overview of the fractionation approaches -

    Three experimental paths

    Wet/Aqueous-

    processing Wheat and rice bran

    Dry-fractionation by

    air-classification Wheat and rice bran

    Deep eutectic

    solvent extraction Brans, DDGS

    Wet-milling

    to release

    proteins

    Enzymatic

    hydrolysis

    to release

    proteins

    Feasible protein separation

    and concertation

    Pretreatments

    Fat removal

    Milling and sieving trials

    Enzyme tests

    Air classification Feasible protein separation

    and concertation

    Screening trials

    to study different raw

    materials

  • 20/09/2016 12

    Dry fractionation Case rice bran

    Fresh rice bran

    Defatted fresh rice bran

    Pre-treatments Milling

    Air classification

    Sieving

    Enzymes

    Air-classification

    Fat extraction by

    supercritical carbon

    dioxideEffect of different

    pre-treatments on

    protein enrichment

    by air classification

    COARSE fractionFINE fraction

  • Air ClassiFiEr50ATP, Hosokawa Alpine, Scale 50 g 3 kg

    C

    O

    A

    R

    S

    E

    FINE

  • 20/09/2016 14

    FINE fraction

    Air classification

    Protein rich FINE

    Milling

    Milling and/or air classification enable rice pericarp

    removal and protein enrichment

    COARSE fraction

    Pericarp removed by air

    classification

    Protein enriched by

    milling and air

    classification

    Coarse fraction from air

    classification

    Protein enriched by

    milling and air

    classification

    Pre-treatment

    dry processing Air classification

    Fine milling

    Defatted fresh rice

    bran, non-milled

  • 20/09/2016 15

    Dry-fractionation by

    air-classification Wheat and rice bran

    Wheat bran

    processing

    Milling trials

    Enzyme tests

    Rice bran

    processing

    Fat-removal

    Milling and

    sieving

    Enzyme tests

    Wet/Aqueous-processing of solid side streams

    Wet/Aqueous-

    processing Wheat and rice bran

    Deep eutectic

    solvent extraction Brans, DDGS

    Wet-milling

    to release

    proteins

    Enzymatic

    processing

    to release

    proteins

    Feasible protein separation

    and concertation

    Feasible protein

    separation and

    concertation

    Screening trials to study

    different raw materials

  • 20/09/2016 16

    Ultra-fine wet milling on wheat bran releases bran

    components from matrix and tailors technical quality

    Proteins liberated from matrix by wet-milling, but not solubilized

    Dry grinding of wheat bran Wet grinding/ Microfluidization

    Rosa-Sibakov et al., Journal of Cereal Science 64 (2015) 1-10

  • 20/09/2016 17

    Harnessing enzymes for

    bran protein recovery

    Carbohydrases and proteases

    attack the subaleurone proteins of

    bran resulting in protein

    solubilisation ca. 60%

    Activation of bran endogenous

    enzymes causes protein

    solubilisation up to 75%

    Next: exploring the enzyme

    treatments effective in a short

    treatment time

    Best combination of enzymes

    Combined with milling

    Arte et al., Cereal Chem, 2016, 93(2):162-171

    Arte et al., J. Agric. Food Chem. 2015, 63, 8685

  • 20/09/2016 18

    Bioprocessing with enzymes and yeast

    transforms the bran protein bioaccesible

    Bioprocessing a potential tool to better utilize the proteins from cereal

    bran in nutrition

    So

    lub

    le p

    rote

    in %

    fro

    m t

    ota

    l p

    rote

    in

    Time (min)

    Bio-

    processed

    bran

    Native

    bran

    Solubilisation of protein in vitro

    Nordlund et al.2013, J Cereal Sci, 58, 200

  • 20/09/2016 19

    Dry-fractionation by

    air-classification Wheat and rice bran

    Wheat bran

    processing

    Milling trials

    Enzyme tests

    Rice bran

    processing

    Fat-removal

    Milling and

    sieving

    Enzyme tests

    Deep eutectic solvent extraction of solid side

    streams

    Wet/Aqueous-

    processing Wheat and rice bran

    Deep eutectic

    solvent extraction Brans, DDGS

    Wet-milling

    to release

    proteins

    Enzymatic

    hydrolysis

    to release

    proteins

    Feasible protein separation

    and concertation

    Feasible protein

    separation and

    concertation

    Screening trials to study

    different raw materials

  • 20/09/2016 20

    DEStraction: Novel approach for spent grain

    protein recovery

    Extraction of insoluble proteins by a new class of

    solvents has been developed at VTT (patent pending)

    Deep eutectic solvents (DES)

    Formed as a liquid mixture of two high-melting

    components

    Several food-grade combinations

    Unique biopolymer dissolution properties

    Previously: 70-80% of Brewerss spent grain protein

    could be extracted using DES (NaAcO:Urea)

    DES could be removed from the protein concentrate by

    membrane technology

    Demonstrated at pilot scale

    Production of DES:

  • 20/09/2016 21

    DEStraction of distillers spent grain (DDGS)

    raw materials efficient

    Around 50% protein solubilization by DES, with NaOH around 30%

    DDGS = Distillers

    spent grain

    41

    36

    30

    38

    41

    46

    37

    4748

    5349

    55 56

    35

    27

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    Rice bran,fresh

    Rice bran,stabilized

    Wheat bran DDGS (1) DDGS (2)

    Pro

    tein

    yie

    ld (

    %)

    DES1

    DES2

    NaOH, pH 11

  • 20/09/2016 22

    Conclusions and future perspectives

    Air-classification of

    wheat and rice bran

    Analysis of the functionality of the fractions in applications

    Main results

    Hull/pericarp removal

    Protein enrichment

    Next:

    Optimization of dry-

    fractionation

    Pre-treatments

    Air-classification

    Bioprocessing of

    wheat bran

    Main results

    Effective protein

    solubilisation by

    enzymes

    Next:

    Optimization of enzyme

    treatments

    Feasible separation and

    concertation

    Deep eutectic solvent

    extraction

    Main results

    Effective protein

    solubilisation from spent

    grain (DDGS)

    Next:

    Extraction conditions:

    water content and T

    Feasible separation and

    concertation

  • 20/09/2016 23

    Acknowledgements

    Prominent partners: Sdzucker AG, AB Enzymes, Upfront Chromatography A/S, United Biscuits (UK) Ltd, Barilla, Olvi, LUKE, Bridge2Food

    Bio Based Industries Joint Undertaking under the EUs Horizon 2020 research and innovation

    programme

    VTT team on plant protein research

    Dr. Nesli Sozer, solid and semi-solid plant-based food systems

    Dr Outi Mkinen, colloidal plant-based food systems

    Dr. Katariina Rommi, Fractionation and enzyme technologies

    Dr. Dilek Ercili-Cura, colloidal plant-based food systems

    MSc Illkka Kajala, Fractionation and fermentation technologies

    MSc Pia Silventoinen, Fractionation technologies

    Dr. Riikka Juvonen, Fermentation technologies

    Dr Raija-Liisa Heini, Sensory research

    Dr Kysti Pennanen, Consumer research

    Dr. Anna-Marja Aura, In vitro models and research

    Dr. Raija Lantto, Head of research area, Biomass and food processing

    Dr. Emilia Nordlund, Research team leader, Food Solutions

    Prof. Kaisa Poutanen, Research manager

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