Direct and Indirect

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Transcript of Direct and Indirect

The art of reporting the words of a speaker is called Narration. It is of two types:-

1. Direct Speech: We quote the actual words of the speaker in inverted commas: He said to me , "I am playing."

2. Indirect Speech: We quote the words or speech of the speaker in our own words, without inverted commas: He told me that he was playing.

In Narration a sentence has two parts:-a) Reporting verb: He said to me,b) Reported speech: "I am playing."Rules of Changing Pronouns1. The pronoun of First Person is changed according to the subject of Reported speech.

2. The pronoun of Second Person is changed according to Object.

3. The pronoun of Third Person is not changed at all.(The formula to change pronoun is 123/SON.)

SON: S - subject, O - object, N - no changePersons : There are three types of persons:-

1. First Person (I, we, my, me, our)

2. Second Person (You, your)

3. Third Person (He, she, it, his, they, them etc.)

Part-I(Assertive Sentences in Present or Future)Rules1. If Reporting Verb is in Present or Future Tense the tense of Reported speech is not changed.

2. (" ") inverted commas are replaced with the conjunction 'that'.

3. Say to is replaced with tell, says to with tells and said to with told.Examples:-

The boys say, "We have learnt the lesson".The boys say that they have learnt the lesson.

Reena will say, "I am going to America".Reena will say that she is going to America.

The servant says to me, "The manager will come in the evening".The servant tells me that the manager will come in the evening.

He has said to them, "You were playing cricket yesterday."He has told them that they were playing cricket yesterday

Part-II(Assertive Sentences in Past)


1. 'said to' is changed into 'told'.

2. Use conjunction 'that' to connect

3. If Reporting Verb is in Past Tense the tense of the Reported Speech is changed according to the rules given below:-

Present Indefinite...changes into...Past Indefinite

Present Continuous ...............Past Continuous

Present Perfect .....................Past Perfect

Present Per. Cont ..................Past Per. Cont.

Past Indefinite ...................... Past Perfect

Past Continuous ................... Past Per. Cont.

Will/Shall .............................Would/Should

Can .................. Could

May ................. Might.

In Reported Speech words showing nearness changes into words showing distance:- This .......becomes...... That

These ....................... Those

Now ......................... Then

Today ....................... That day

Tonight ..................... That night

Yesterday .................. The previous day

Last night ................. The previous night

The next day ............. The following day

Here .......................... There

Ago ........................... Before

Examples:- He said, "I am going to college today."He said that he was going to college that day.

Sunny said to me, "You will get good marks in this test."Sunny told me that I would get good marks in that test.

She said to her mother, "My teacher awarded me yesterday."She told her mother that her teacher had awarded her the previous day.

Rajani said to her friends, "You were shopping in the market."Rajani told her friends that they had been shopping in the market.

I said, "Ritu, you will learn very fast."I told Ritu that she would learn very fast.

"I may go to London next month," he said.He told that he might go to London the following month.

Note: If Reported Speech has an explanation of Universal Truth, Habitual Fact or Historical Fact its Tense is not changed at all.


He said, "The earth moves round the sun."He said that the earth moves round the sun.

She said to me, "Mohan plays with left hand."She told me that Mohan plays with left hand.

The teacher said to the students, "India became independent in 1947."The teacher told the students that India became independent in 1947.

Part-III(Interrogative Sentences)


1. There are questions asked in Interrogative sentences so the said or said to of reporting verb are replaced with asked or enquired.

2. If the interrogative(question) begins with Helping Verb or Modal(is, am, are, do, does, was, were, has, have, had, will, shall, would, can, could, should, may, might, must etc.) the inverted commas(" ") are replaced with the conjunction if or whether.

3. If the interrogative(question) begins with WH-family(Why, what, which, when, whose, who, whom, how etc.) the inverted commas(" ") are not replaced with any conjunction at all.

4. If there are no interrogatives(questions) in indirect speech we place helping verb or modal after the subject.


The teacher said to us, "Have you completed your home work?"The teacher asked us if we had completed our home work.

He said to me, "Did you finish your work yesterday?"He asked me if I had finished my work the previous day.

Rocky said, "Meena, do you want to go to Shimla?"Rocky asked Meena if she wanted to go to Shimla.

I said to him, "Will you return tomorrow ?"I asked him if he would return the next day.

Ravi said to him, "What have you learnt?"Ravi asked him what he had learnt.

She said, "Which train will go to Jaipur?"She enquired which train would go to Jaipur.

Interrogative Sentences in present or future:- She says to them, "Have you taken money?"She asks them if they have taken money.

He will say to me, "What can I do for you?"He will ask me what he can do for me.

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Labels: Grammar, Narrations

Prepositions Part-4

Preposition is a word (or group of words) used esp. before a noun or pronoun to show place, position, time etc. BELOW, at a lower position1. The valley is below the hill.

2. Don't write below this line.

3. The temperature will remain below freezing point.

4. His rank is below an inspector.

5. He got below 50% marks.

ACROSSPart I From one side to another side1. Can he swim across the river?

2. The child ran across the ground.

3. Draw a line across the page.

Part II On the other side1. My house is across the street.

2. Please wait for me across the road.

ABOUT relating to, on the point of1. Do you know anything about him?

2. I have no knowledge about it.

3. They are about to go.

4. The movie was about to start.

5. Has he written a book about China?

TOWARDS, in the direction of1. They ran towards the crossing.

2. He hit the ball towards the goal.

3. It is the first step towards greater unity between India and Pakistan.

4. Parents should be friendly towards the children.

THROUGH, in one side and out another side of1. The tiger jumped through the ring.

2. They went through a tunnel.

3. The river yamuna flows through Delhi.

4. The boys ran through the street.

5. I came to know about this computer through a newspaper advertisement.

6. The news spread throughout the country.

ALONG, on a course parallel to1. We can go along this wall.

2. They went along the track/canal.

3. let's have a stroll along the river bank.

ALONGWITH, in addition to1. The company is giving a vcd free alongwith television.

2. I gave him a pen alongwith the book.

SINCE, (point of time)1. It has been raining since morning.

2. He has been living in Delhi since 1987.

3. I haven't visited him since his last birthday party.

BESIDE, at the side of, next to, near1. You may sit beside me.

2. Please keep this chair beside the bench.

BESIDES, in addition to1. Besides vegetables she bought apples.

2. Besides WagonR they have a Ford Ikon .

UP, from a lower to a higher point1. Why are they going up the hill?

2. climb up these stairs.

DOWN, from a higher to a lower point

1. They ran down the slope.

2. The stone rolled down the hill.

3. Her hair were hanging down.

ONTO, moving to a position on1. He climbed onto the horse.

2. He moved the books onto the third shelf.

AMID/AMIDST/IN THE MIDST OF, in the middle of, surrounded by1. Amid noise I was unable to hear anything.

2. It was difficult for him to work in the city amidst such cirsumstances.

3. Amid confusion she lost her way.

4. In the midst of clappings he announced this scheme.

BENEATH, to a lower position1. There was a toy beneath the leaves.

2. I can't do this work as it is beneath my dignity.

3. The boat sank beneath the waves.

BEYOND, on the far side of1. It was beyond his power.

2. The kidnappers have gone beyond the reach of the police.

3. This bike is beyond repair now.

4. Don't study beyond midnight.

AROUND, on all sides1. They drove around the city.

2. Build a wall around this garden.

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Labels: Grammar, Prepositions

Prepositions Part-3

Preposition is a word (or group of words) used esp. before a noun or pronoun to show place, position, time etc.

OFFPart I Separation1. The button of my shirt has come off.

2. He fell off a ladder.

3. Please keep off the grass.

Part II Disconnection1. Who cut off the telephone wire ?

2. Please switch off the T.V.

AGAINST, resting on1. They can't speak against their leader.

2. He won't go against your advice.

3. He was leaning against the wall.

BYPart I Person1. The tiger was killed by the hunter.

2. This story was written by Premchand.

Part II Transport1. He will go by air.

2. I sent the documents by mail.

3. They will travel by bus.

Part III Selling1. Milk is sold by the litre.

2. Bananas are sold by the dozen.

Part IV Time (Period)1. I had completed this work by 5 PM.

2. They will pay off the loan by June.

Misc. He walked by me without speaking.

May I pay by cheque?

He earns his bread and butter by writing.

Switch it on by pressing that button.

You can get promotion by working hard.

I caught the thief by the neck.

This room is 15' by 20'.

The bullet missed him by one centimetre.

Is the curtain short by one feet?

He is an advocate by profession.

She swore by God.

Keep a dictionary by you while reading.

I am an Indian by birth.

WITHOUT, not having1. You can't leave a country without a passport.

2. Don't touch anything without my permission.

3. She posted the letter without a stamp.

4. Never act without thought.

5. Has he left without speaking?

BEHIND, at the back of1. The thief was hiding behind the door.

2. My house is behind the school.

3. The train is behind the time.

4. The sun disappeared behind he clouds.

5. My family is behind me in my ambition to become an engineer.

6. India is behind China in business.

7. Advise him to stand behind the counter.

DURING, within a specified period of time1. They did nothing during the last week.

2. She will complete this course during the summer vacation.

3. Raise this issue during the discussion.

OVER, higher than

1. There is no fan over the table.

2. The aeroplane is hovering over our colony.

3. We are passing over London.

4. He jumped over the wall.

Misc. They held an umbrella over her.

Turn over the page.

He ruled over a great empire.

He has little control over his emotions.

Spread a cloth over the table.

Bridge over a river, famous all over the world, argument over money, consider over the application, etc.

UNDER, lower than1. They took rest under a tree.

2. The books are under the pillow.

3. Please push this table under the fan.

Misc. The water flows under the bridge.

Tthe children under 4 are not admitted.

He has a staff of ten working under him.

India was under British rule till 1947.

Under the terms you have to pay the penalty.

The matter is still under consideraion.

He did it under the influence of his friends.

Don't open an account under a false name.

ABOVE, higher than1. Fix a tube light above the table.

2. There is no map above the chair.

3. His head was above water.

4. He got above 60% marks.

5. The water came above his knee.

6. We are flying above the clouds.

7. It weighs above 5 kgs.

8. She is above suspicion.

9. He must be above 18.

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Labels: Grammar, Prepositions

Prepositions Part-2

Preposition is a word (or group of words) used esp. before a noun or pronoun to show place, position, time etc.

ATPart I Small cities, town, villages, colonies1. They live at Sonipat.

2. I live at Moti Nagar.

Part II Age1. He retired at 56.

2. She wrote her first poem at 9.

Part III Time1. We reached there at 9pm.

2. Do you get up at 5am?

At dawn, at sunrise, at noon, at sunset, at night

Part IV Near a place or thing1. Who is standing at the door?

2. They were playing at the river.

3. The students are sitting at the table.

Part V Selling1. The apples are being sold at Rs.30/- a Kg.

Misc. My father is not at home.

Pakistan and India are at peace.

Open you book at page no.23.

At first they became angry, at last they agreed.

He aimed at the bird.

They were gossiping at the corner of street.

At school, at hotel, at head office, at the moment, at the end, at the weekend, at Christmas, smile at, shout at, at ease, at war, delighted at result, etc.

FROMPart I Place1. They have just come from Mumbai.

2. Withdraw money from the bank.

Part II Person1. You can borrow money from your friend.

2. I have taken this book from Raja.

Part III Time1. He works from morning till evening.

2. We shall start this work from Monday.

Part IV Source1. The light comes from the sun.

2. She has taken the story from this book.

TOPart I Place/direction1. Who is going to market ?

2. They are going to America in May.

Part II Before a verb1. He wants to go there.

2. To take exercise is good for health.

Part III Time1. He works from 9am to 7pm.

2. They lived in our house from April 1996 to June 1999.

3. It is ten minutes to five.

Misc. She is secretary to the managing director.

He won by five goals to three.

Don't compare it to her.

I prefer tea to coffee.

This machine is superior to that.

There are 100 centimetres to the metre.

She is devoted to her family.

FORPart I Reason, Purpose1. I have bought a gift for you.

2. Can you prepare a cup of tea for me ?

Part II Time1. He has been living here for ten years.

2. We lived there for six months.

Misc. They walked for ten miles.

He bought this book for Rs.200/-

The people mistook him for the minister

She is planning to run for MLA in the election.

WITH, in the company ofPart I Person1. He is sitting with his friends.

2. Were you quarrelling with your neighbours ?

Part II Instruments/Things1. Wear this tie with yellow shirt.

2. Why did you beat him with a stick?

Misc. He played with skill.

I am pleased with your decision.

We left with our father's permission.

My brother is sick with flu.

Everybody grows older with the days.

I can complete this work with your help.

Was the child trembling with fear?

With all her faults I still liked her.

WITHIN, in the specified period, area etc.1. He will come back within ten minutes.

2. Did you pay off the loan within an year?

3. Please live within your rights.

4. He finds it hard to live within his income.

5. Please keep this information within the family.

OF belonging to, concerningPart I Relation1. Who is the owner of this car?

2. Has he become the manager of this bank?

3. This is the responsibility of a nurse.

4. The people of this area love to grow plants.

Part II Material1. The ring is made of gold.

2. I bought a shirt made of cotton.

Misc. I have never heard of such a place.

She is a lover of classical music.

The love of mother is necessary for a child.

Has he any hope of victory?

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Labels: Grammar, Prepositions

Prepositions Part-1

Preposition is a word (or group of words) used esp. before a noun or pronoun to show place, position, time etc. AFTERPart I, later than1. I shall meet you after Monday.

2. He came after 3pm.

Part II, behind (movement)

1. The police ran after the thief.

BEFOREPart I, earlier than1. Please meet me before 6pm.

2. I shall complete this work before June.

3. He arrived before me.

4. I put my work before everything.

Part II, in front of1. Mohan was brought before the principal.

2. he made a statement before the police.

AMONG/AMONGST, in the middle (more than two)1. He distributed toffees among children.

2. I have to deliver speech among them.

3. You should work among the poor.

4. Who amongst you are ready to go there?

BETWEEN, in the middle (only two)1. He distributed mangoes between Meena and Rajani.

2. There was no agreement between workers and management.

3. Meet me between 7 to 8 am.

ONPart I On Something1. The books are on the table.

2. There is no name plate on the door.

3. Let's sit on the grass.

4. Don't hit anybody on the head.

Part II Day and date1. I shall come to meet you on Monday.

2. He will return this money on 5th Sep.

3. He reached on the morning of 9th june.

Misc. He has gone to Mumbai on business.

Are you going on picnic ?

On reaching home he called his friend.

He read a lesson on philosophy.

This car runs on patrol only.

He was arrested on a charge of cheating .

Nine percent interest will be charged on loan.

They live on bread and tea.

Is he on leave now-a-days?

The factory was on fire.

UPON, on (movement)1. He threw books upon the table.2. The tiger jumped upon the jackal.3. The last date of income tax payment is almost upon us. (very near)

INPart I inside1. They are sitting in the room.

2. There is no pencil in the box.

in the street, in the sky, in the newspaper, in the bed, in the fire, etc.

Part II with countries and big cities etc.1. He lives in Delhi.

2. They opened a shop in America.

3. It is the highest mountain in the world.

Part III Time1. He will complete this work in three months.

2. We shall buy a new car in October.

In the morning, In the afternoon, In the evening, In the night, in the past, in 2001, etc.

Misc. He has faith in God.

They were bathing in the river.

They are interested in reading books.

He has spent his life in politics.

In uniform, in the rain, in English, in ink, in groups, in rows, in two parts, in thousands, in cash, in loud voice, in business, etc.

INTO Movement from out side to inside.1. They went into the room.

2. He poured coffee into the cups.

Misc. He translated the story into English.

Turn this portion into a study room.

He came into power two years ago.

Fold the napkins into triangles.

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Labels: Grammar, Prepositions

Co-relative Conjunctions


1. He is both intelligent and hard working.

2. Mahesh was both punished and fined.


1. Either Meena or Geeta has won the competition.

2. He would like to take either Pepsi or Coke.


1. Neither he nor his brother took admission in the college.

2. He met neither Ravi nor Mohan.


1. He is so weak that he cannot walk.


1. This book is as interesting as that.

SO.....AS (for negative sentences)

1. She is not so wise as her mother.


1. They would rather starve than beg.


1. I must win the race whether anybody helps me or not.

2. He won't care whether you pass or fail.


1. This is not the same design as yours.

2. Is this the same watch as Ravi's ?


1. She is too tired to cook food.

2. This news is too good to be true.


1. Exercise is good not only for the body but also for the mind.

2. You are not only diligent but intelligent also.


1. I will help you as much as I can.

2. He ran as much as he could.


1. No sooner did I reach at home than rain started.

2. No sooner does he see a comedian than he begins to laugh.


1. He had hardly got into the bus when it started.


1. Although he is rich yet he is very kind-hearted


1. There is no such country in the world as they have mentioned.

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Labels: Conjunctions, Grammar

Conjunctions(Connectors) Part-2

Conjunction is a word (sometimes group of words too) which is used to join two words or sentences


1. We were unable to go since it was raining.

2. I have not met him since he left this colony.


1. He is rich yet he doesn't help others.

2. She was ill however she attended the class.

3. He is here nevertheness I can't talk to him.


1. This is the book that he bought yesterday.

2. I am happy that you are going abroad.


1. He is taller than his friend.

2. Sohan was wiser than his grandfather.


1. We shall go there after you come.

2. He reached the bus stop after the bus had left.


1. Supposing he comes how will you talk?

2. Supposing they are dismissed what will they do?


1. You may sit here, only keep silence.


1. He as well as his brother is a doctor.

2. Rita as well as her mother went there.


1. He is working hard so that he may pass.

2. He save money so he could buy a good mobile.


1. As soon as rain started we came in.


1. As far as I know he is a very wise person.


1. I love you as much as I love her.

2. Our parents do for us as much as they can.


1. You need not worry about anything as long as I am here.

2. The children didn't make a noise as long as he was in the room.

IN ORDER TO (for the purpose of, due to)

1. The people rushed there in order to help the victims.

2. We must improve our English in order to get good jobs.


1. I no less than you was busy on Sunday.

2. Anil Ambani no less than Mukesh Ambani is to blame for present problem in Reliance Industries.


1. India cannot win this match even if Sachin Tendulkar scores a century.


1. We don't know what he wants.

2. This is exactly what I expected.


1. We are going to Agra where we shall see Taj Mahal and Fateh Pur Sikri.


1. This is the boy whom I know very well.

2. The man whom you met in the morning is a scientist.


1. That is the boy whose father is an MLA.


1. He asked me which bike I would buy.

2. I don't know which house he bought last week.


1. I shall accompany you wherever you go.


1. Whenever you go to market please inform me.


1. Whoever makes a noise will be punished.


1. You can buy whatever you want.

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Labels: Conjunctions, Grammar

Conjunctions(Connectors) Part-1

Conjunction is a word (sometimes group of words too) which is used to join two words or sentences


1. Mohan and Ravi went to the library.

2. He came in and I went out.


1. I rang you up yesterday but you were not at home.


1. If you go to market please bring apples for me.


1. Mohan had gone for a walk before I got up.


1. We shall go to watch a movie when he comes back from college.


1. She was studying while her brother was playing.


1. He is a politician whereas his brother is a poet.

IN CASE/PROVIDED THAT (in the condition that, only if)

1. She will prepare tea in case you bring sugar.

2. He will help you to get this license provided (that) you give him Rs.50,000/-


1. John had missed his bus so he got late.

2. He had fever therefore he didn't go to office yesterday.


1. You will succeed because you are working hard.

AS (because, in the same way, like)

1. Let's go to bed as it is 11.30 PM.

2. We can't employ him as he is lazy.

3. I want to succeed in life as my father did.

4. Now write on the paper as I say.


1. Do not make a noise otherwise Ill punish you.

2. Work hard else you will not get good marks.

3. Call him or he will be angry.

CONSEQUENTLY (as a result)

1. He did not work hard consequently he failed.


1. Wait here till I come back.

2. Do not switch on the T.V. untill I complete my homework.

UNLESS (condition)

1. He will not lend you money unless you sign on this agreement.

ALTHOUGH/THOUGH (regardless of the fact that)

1. She didn't call me although I was at home.

2. He doesn't help anybody though he is rich.

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Labels: Conjunctions, Grammar

Adverbs of Daily Use


1. He often goes to meet them.

2. They often play video games.


1. They usually watch social movies.

2. He generally wears white dresses.


1. They come here now and then.

2. Sometimes she listens to music.


1. Please come to meet me some time.


1. We are extremely happy today.

2. She was extremely beautiful.


1. She rarely talks to her neighbours.

2. They rarely come to meet us.


1. My friend hardly reads a newspaper.

2. I hardly talk to them.


1. Somehow we arranged money.

2. Somehow we shall reach there on time.


1. I have lost my book somewhere.

2. They have gone somewhere.

ANYWHERE(Mostly for interrogative or negative sentences)

1. Have you seen him anywhere?

2. The child cannot go anywhere.


1. I am really very sorry.

2. They were really very happy.


1. Actually I was busy that day.

2. In fact this minister is a criminal.


1. He was very busy.

2. He is not very clever.

TOO (but should not)

1. She was too worried.

2. He is too happy.


1. She was too much tired.

2. I have too much work.


1. Have you ever met the PM?

2. Has she ever eaten pizza ?


1. She has not even taken breakfast.

2. They have not even seen Taj Mahal.

3. Even he obtained 70% marks.


1. They are about to go to market.

2. The movie was about to start.


1. He has just taken tea.

2. We just want to see him.

Any longer (for more time)

1. We can't wait any longer.

NO longer (not now as formerly)

1. They no longer go for morning walk together.

2. He no longer smoked.

Note: Adverbs modify the meaning of the verb. Most of the adverbs are made by adding 'ly': beautifully, secretly, happily, openly, clearly, wisely, foollishly, luckily, certaily, definitely.

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Labels: Adverbs, Grammar

Some Words of Quantity/Numbers (Determiners)

LITTLE (for uncountable things)

1. There is little tea in the kettle.

2. He has little patience.

A LITTLE1. Have you a little money?

2. There is a little food in the kitchen.

FEW (for countable things)

1. She has few good dresses.

2. He gave me few grapes.

A FEW1. I have a few books on grammar.

2. He gave the children a few toffees.

SOME (for countable & uncountable things)

1. Have you some money ?

2. I have some good dresses.

ANY1. He didn't buy any pen?

2. Have you any solution to this problem?

MANY1. Many students are absent.

2. Many persons came to meet me.

BOTH1. Both of them are hard-working.

2. I have eaten both the mangoes.

ENOUGH 1. I have enough money to buy the books.

2. There is enough money in my account.

PLENTY1. There is plenty of food in the kitchen.

2. We have plenty of time.

A LOT OF/ LOTS OF1. There are a lot of mangoes in the basket.

2. Lots of people come to see him everyday.

MUCH (generally neg. & int. sentences)

1. They don't have much sugar.

2. Did he give you much trouble?

ANOTHER (for one thing)

1. Please show me another book.

2. You can take another topic for conversation.

OTHER (for more than one)

1. Have you talked to other children?

2. Please show me other mobiles.

ALL (Mostly for uncountable things)

1. He has eaten all the grapes.

2. We all went there.

WHOLE (For uncountable things)

1. The child can not eat the whole apple.

2. The whole class was punished.

EACH OTHER (only for two persons)

1. Ram and Meena help each other.

2. They love each other.

ONE ANOTHER (For more than two)

1. The clerks were gossipping with one another.

2. Do not quarrel with one another.

EACH (One of the two or more)

1. Each girl was doing her home work.

2. I gave one chocolate to each child.

3. Each of them can try for this award.

EVERY1. Every student is expected to reach on time.

EITHER (One of the two persons or things)

1. You may buy either of these suits.

2. Either of you will stand first in the class.

NEITHER (No one of the two persons or things)

1. Neither of us went on picnic.

2. I purchased neither of those mobiles.

NONE, NO ONE (for more than two)1. None of them attended the meeting.2. I shall visit none of those places.

NO1. No one wants to go.

2. He had no money at that time.

MOST (Largely, majority)

1. Most of the students were present.

2. I saw most audience going out of the hall.

LESS (not much, smaller number or quantity)

1. He has got less marks in this test.

2. They were given less money.

Determiners: Words of quantity or numbers are a part of determiners. This, that, these, those, my, our, your, their, his, her, its and articles (a, an, the) are also called determiners.

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Articles- A, An, The

There are three articles: A, An, The. (They are also called determiners)

A or An is called the Indefinite Article, because it is used when we do not speak of any particular/definite person or thing:He met a boy in the park.It is an orange.The is called the Definite Article, because it is used when we speak of some particular/definite person or thing: This is the shirt that I bought yesterday. He is the doctor who treated my brother.

Use of 'A'

Before:-1. Words beginning with the sound of a consonant: a book, a player, a table.2. Vowels having the sound of 'yu': a European, a useful thing, a utensil.3. 'O' when it is sounded as 'wa': a one-rupee note, a one-way traffic.

Use of 'An'

Before:-1. Words beginning with a vowel sound: an apple, an umbrella, an hour, an honest girl, an honourable person.2. Abbreviations starting with a vowel sound: an M.A., an MLA

Use of 'The'

1. When we refer to some particular person or thing; as , This is the shirt I bought yesterday. Call the boy sitting in the corner.The shawls of Kashmir are famous.

2. When a singular Noun is used to indicate a whole class:The elephant is a big animal The dog is a faithful animal.

3. With superlative degree:This is the best book on this subject.He is the richest person of our colony.

4. With an adverb in such sentences:The higher we climb the cooler it is.

5. Before rivers, range of mountains, group of islands, oceans, gulfs and bays:The Ganga, the Jamuna, the Himalayas, the Andaman islands, the Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal, the Persian Gulf.

6. With the name of directions, planets etc:The east, the west, the sky, the sun, the moon

7. Before the names of well-known books, newspapers, public buildings, institutions, associations, etc.:The Gita, the Ramayana, the Times of India, the Taj Mahal, the University of Delhi, the Golden Temple, the United Nations.

8. Before the names of peoples (nations), races and Adjectives formed from Proper Nouns, Common Nouns, etc: The English, the Hindus, the Sikhs, the Indians, the Japanese, the rich, the poor, the needy

9. With part of a body:He was struck on the head.

10. With a proper noun being used as a common noun:Kashmir is the Switzerland of India.He is the Mahatma Gandhi/Edison of our college.

11. Countries/states named due to geographical divisions:the U.S.A., the U.K., the U.P., the Madhya Pradesh

12. Miscellaneous uses:This is the same book.All the boys went on picnic.He ate the whole meal.Have you read about the French Revolution?He met the prime minister of India yesterday.They want to join the military service.Who is the principal of your school?He was the first man to reach there.Has she joined the Congress?

Repetition of Article

A. Compare the two sentences:(i) She had a red and white saree.(ii) She had a red and a white saree.The first sentence means that he had only one saree which was partly red and white.The second sentence means that he had two sarees, one red and other black.(i) The Principal and Manager was present there.(ii) The Principal and the Manager were present there.The first sentence shows that only one person who was both Principal and Manager was present there.The second sentence shows that two persons, one Principal and the Manager, were present there.

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Labels: Articles, Grammar

Causative Verbs


1. Use get according to tense, 2. Place object after the causative verb, 3. Main verb always in 3rd form: Causative Verb(CV) + Object + V 3rd (main verb).


1. I have got the sums solved.

2. She will get the letter written by Ravi.

3. Are you getting your house pained?


1. Use make according to tense, 2. Object is the person who is compelled, 3. Main verb always in first form: CV + Object + V 1st form (main verb)


1. He made me laugh.

2. She made the children clean the room.

3. Who is making her cry?

4. Please don't make him tell a lie.


1. Use help according to tense, 2. Object is the person who is helped, 3. Main verb always in first form: CV + Object + V 1st form (main verb). (In these sentences a person is helped to do a certain things).


1. Help the guests wash their hands.

2. She helped the children do the work.


(Same as GET in use and meaning)


1. I have had the sums solved.

2. He will have the letter written by Meena.

3. They had the tiger killed by the hunter.


CV + Object (person) + V 1st form + ing. There is generally a period of time in these sentences.


1. They kept her washing the clothes for 2 hours.

2. Did you kept him waiting for one hour?


CV + Object (person) + V 1st form. Instead of a person there are circumstances, things etc. which compel a person to do a certain thing.


1. Fatigue caused him to sleep.

2. Does poverty cause people to commit crime ?

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Use of MODALS Part-4


COULD HAVEThey could have gone. (but they didn't)

MAY HAVERaju may have taken my book. (possibility in present)

MUST HAVEThey must have completed their home work. (definite possibility in present)

WOULD HAVEIf he had money he would have bought books. (imagination in past - conditional)

NEED HAVE1. You need not have waited for him. (You didn't need to wait for him.)2. Need Rita have borrowed money. (Did Rita need to borrow money.)

MIGHT HAVEIndia might have won the match. (possibility in past)

SHOULD HAVEYou should have gone to office.

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Use of MODALS Part-3

Some more uses of:


Lest1. Work hard lest you should fail.2. Run fast lest you should miss the bus.


Purpose1. He is saving money so that he may (or can) buy a house. 2. She works hard so that she may obtain good marks.


Other uses:1. He is used to (habitual of) taking tea in the morning.2. They were not used to sleeping at noon.3. Children will get used to discipline.4. We got used to the climate of England.5. They will get used to working hard.


Saying something in Present like Future1. Father would be (or may be) in the room.2. He would be sleeping at this time.

Preference, LikingI would like to take coffee.

Past Habit1. He would go to temple daily.2. She would often listen to music.

Would that (I wish)1. Would that I had one crore rupees!2. Would that I were prime minister!(I wish I were prime minister!)

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Labels: Grammar, Modals

Use of MODALS Part-2


A. Past Habit or happening1. He used to fly kites in childhood.2. Ravi used not to study in our school.3. Used she to go for a walk daily?


A. To Give or Take Permission (formal)1. May I go, sir?2. May I take your pen? 3. You may sit here.

B. Possibility (no interrogatives)1. It may rain today. 2. He may not go to Nainital.3. May be he is in his room.4. Raju may be with his friends.5. Children may be sleeping.

C. Wish1. May God give you success in life!2.May he live happily!


A. Past of WillHe told that he would go to Mumbai.

B. Polite request, invitation etc.Would you take tea?


Only negative and interrogative sentences.1. You need not go with him.2. Need we write a letter?As a verb: We need some money today.


Only negative and interrogative.1. He dare not oppose me.2. Dare she swim across this river?3. How dare you open my letter?As a verb: They didn't dare to enter the room.


A. Possibility in Past 1. Rajan said that he might go to Mumbai.

B. Permission in Past 1. Sita asked the teacher if she might come in.

C. Purpose in past1. Sita worked hard so that she might pass in the examination.2. Rajesh saved money so that he might buy a car.


Moral Obligation (Duty, Advice etc.)(old use)1. You ought to obey your parents.2. She ought to fulfill her promise.3. You ought to serve your country.

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Use of MODALS Part-1


A. Ability, Power and Capacity1. Ravi can drive a car. 2. Can you lift this weight?3. He can speak English fluently.4. They can not help at this time.

B. To Give or Take Permission (informal)1. Can I take your pen? 2. You can go now.

C. Possibility (Mostly used for negative and interrogative sentences)1. This news can not be true.2. He can not come today?3. Can he be angry?


A. Ability, Power and Capacaity in Past1. He could drive a car. 2. They could win this competition. 3. He ran as fast as he could.

B. Permission/Possibility in Past1. He asked me if he could take my pen.2. He told her that he could not give her his car.

C. Use in Present (More polite and hesitant than can)1. Could you give me your pen?2. Could you tell me the way to the railway station ?


Duty, Advice etc.1. You should meet him tomorrow. 2. Should we attend the function?


1. He should have played the match.2. Should they have told a lie?


Must is used to express Duty, Necessity etc.1. You must go to school daily.2. You must work hard if you want to succeed.

"Be" is used in place of verb or while adding "ing" with a verb. It is a use in present, not future. 1. She must be in the office.2. You must be sixteen.3. Rajat must be sleeping.4. Teacher must be teaching the class.

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Labels: Grammar, Modals

Auxiliaries (Modals)


1. He is to go to market.2.They are to play the match.3. I am to take tea.


1. She was to wash the clothes.2. We were to pluck the flowers.

HAS TO, HAVE TO, HAD TO(obligation)

A. 1. Geeta has to wash the clothes daily.2. He has to cook the food daily.3. Ravi and Suresh have to work very hard.

B. 1. I had to go to the station.2. Mohan had to take medicine.3. We had to help him.


1. I shall have to accompany him tomorrow.2. Meena will not have to go to office.3. Shall we have to take the exam again?


Present Indefinite

1. She does take exercise in the morning.2. They do play cricket on Sunday.3. We do read at night.

Past Indefinite

1. She did steal.2. I did go there.


1. Do meet me tomorrow.2. Do go there.3. Never tell a lie.

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Use of It and There

(as a subject without meaning)

IT : Time, day, date, weather, etc.

1. It is raining.2. It is not hot today.3. Was it cold yesterday?4. It was Monday yesterday?5. It is 10 AM by my watch.6. Will it be 19th Sep. tomorrow?7. It will take us two hours to reach there.8. It is hailing outside.

There : Number, quantity, position etc.

1. There are 5 members in my family.2. How much water is there in the jug?3. There are clouds in the sky.4. How many books are there in your bag?5. There may be Rs. 20,000/- in my bank account.6. There are 11 players in a cricket team.7. There is a great rush in the market.

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Labels: Grammar, Use of It and There

Imperative Sentences

1. There is request, advice, order, suggestion etc. in imperative sentences.2. Subject is always you but it is not written. (It is hidden)3. Use first form of the verb.4. Negative sentence starts with Dont

Part IExamples:

Write this letter today.

Dont go there.

Please meet me tomorrow.

Dont disturb him.

Part IIExamples: Let me go now.

Let her wash the clothes.

Do not let them play here.

Part IIIExamples:

Let us go to market.

Lets play together in the park.

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Labels: Grammar, Imperatives

Tenses : Present, Past, Future

Present Tense

1a) PRESENT INDEFINITE/SIMPLEAffirmative: Sub+V1I write a letter.She makes a doll.Note:Use s/es with the 1st form of the verb if the Subject is He/She/It or singular Noun (boy, player, teacher, Mohan, Sita etc).Negative: Sub+do/does+not+V1We do not write poems.Ram does not play football.Interrogative: Do/Does+sub+V1Do you go to market?Does he go for a walk?Int. & Neg.: Do/Does+sub+not+V1Do we not work?

1b) PRESENT CONTINUOUSAffirmative: Sub+is/am/are+V1+ingMohan is reading.Negative: Sub+is/am/are+not +V1+ingThey are not playing cricket.Interrogative: Is/Am/Are+sub+V1+ingIs he going?Int. & Neg.: Is/Am/Are+sub+not+V1+ingAre you not playing cricket?

1c) PRESENT PERFECTAff.: Sub+has/have+V3She has made tea.Neg.: Sub+has/have+not+V3They have not taken medicine.He has not come since Monday.Int.: Has/Have+sub+V3Have they slept?Int. & Neg.: Has/Have+sub+not+V3Have you not done your home-work?

1d) PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUSAff.: Sub+has/have+been+V1+ing+since/forI have been reading since 5 O'clock.Neg.:Sub+has/have+not+been+V1+ ing+ Since/forRavi has not been playing since evening.Int.: Has/Have+sub+been+V1+ing+since/forHave you been working for ten minutes?Int. & Neg.:Has/Have+sub+not+been+VI+ing+since/forHas she not been praying for five minutes?

Since: (For point of time) 10am, 6 O'clock, morning, 21st May, January,2002, when, then, yesterday, last year/month etc.

For: (For period of time) 2 days, 4 minutes, 2 hours, 7 months, 3 years, many days/months etc.

Note: Since or for is also used in perfect tense.

Past Tense

2a) PAST INDEFINITEAff.: Sub+V2He wrote a letter.Neg.: Sub+did+not+V1They did not play match yesterday.Int.: Did+sub+V1Did they go for a walk?Int. & Neg.: Did+sub+not+V1Did you not take your lunch?

2b) PAST CONTINUOUSAff.: Sub+was/were+V1+ingGita was making tea.Neg.: Sub+was/were+not+V1+ingYou were not reading.Int.: Was/Were+sub+V1+ingWere they running?Int. & Neg. : Was/Were+sub+not+V1+ingWere children not taking bath?

2c) PAST PERFECTAff.:Sub+had+V3We had watched TV.The train had left by then.Neg.: Sub+had+not+V3I had not played.Rakesh had not come for three months.Int.: Had+sub+V3Had they won?Int. & Neg.: Had+sub+not+V3Had they not washed the clothes?

Note: Mostly the sentences are made in this tense when an action completed before a point of time in past: i) The guests had not reached till Sunday. ii) The movie had started before I reached home. iii) She had completed her work before 3pm.

2d) PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUSAff.: Sub+had+been+V1+ing+since/forShe had been helping me for three years.Neg.:Sub+had+not+been+V1+ing+since/forHe had not been watching TV since noon.Int.: Had+sub+been+V1+ing+since/forHad they been gossipping for 2 hours?Int. & Neg.:Had+sub+not+been+V1+ing+ since/forHad you not been going to office for last two days?

Future Tense

a) FURURE INDEFINITEAff.: Sub+will/shall+V1We shall play match.They will meet you tomorrow.Neg.: Sub+will/shall+not+V1They will not go to market.Int.:Will/Shall+sub+V1?Shall I take breakfast ?Int. & Neg. : Will/shall+sub+not+V1Will washerman not iron the clothes?Shall we not going for a walk?Note: Use shall with I and we only.

3b) FUTURE CONTINUOUSAff. :Sub+will/shall+be+V1+ingHe will be playing the match.Neg.:Sub+will/shall+not+be+V1+ingWe shall not be cooking food.Int.: Will/Shall+sub+be+V1+ingWill Gardener be watering the plants?Int. & Neg.: Will/Shall+sub+not+be+V1+ingWill they not be going to see film?

3c) FUTURE PERFECTAff.: Sub+will/shall+have+V3Ravi will have killed the snake.The farmer will have ploughed in the fields.Neg. : Sub+will/shall+not+have+V3She will not have taken tea.Int.: Will/shall+Sub+have+V3Will she have won the match?Int. & Neg.:Will/shall+sub+not+have+V3Will they have not gone to Rama's house?

3d) FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUSAff.:Sub+willshall+have+been+VI+ing +since/forThey will have been flying kites since 6 O'clock.Neg.: Sub+willshall+not+have+been+V1+ing +since/forSita will not have been waiting for 1 hour.Int.: Will/shall+sub+have+been+V1+ing +since/forShall we have been writing since 10am?Int. & Neg.:Will/shall+sub+not+have+been +V1+ing+since/forWill students not have been learning the lesson since morning?