Diploma. ii es unit 3.3 environment noise pollutioon

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Noise Pollution Unit:3 Environmental Science

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Noise Pollution

Noise PollutionUnit:3Environmental ScienceWHAT IS NOISE POLLUTION?Sound that is unwanted or disrupts ones quality of life is called as noise. When there is lot of noise in the environment, it is termed as noise pollution.

Sound becomes undesirable when it disturbs the normal activities such as working, sleeping, and during conversations.

It is an underrated environmental problem because of the fact that we cant see, smell, or taste it.

World Health Organization stated that Noise must be recognized as a major threat to human well-being

Health EffectsAccording to the USEPA, there are direct links between noise and health. Also, noise pollution adversely affects the lives of millions of people.

Noise pollution can damage physiological and psychological health.

High blood pressure, stress related illness, sleep disruption, hearing loss, and productivity loss are the problems related to noise pollution.

It can also cause memory loss, severe depression, and panic attacks.Sources of Noise PollutionTransportation systems are the main source of noise pollution in urban areas.

Construction of buildings, highways, and streets cause a lot of noise, due to the usage of air compressors, bulldozers, loaders, dump trucks, and pavement breakers.

Industrial noise also adds to the already unfavorable state of noise pollution.

Loud speakers, plumbing, boilers, generators, air conditioners, fans, and vacuum cleaners add to the existing noise pollution.

Solutions for Noise PollutionPlanting bushes and trees in and around sound generating sources is an effective solution for noise pollution.

Regular servicing and tuning of automobiles can effectively reduce the noise pollution.

Buildings can be designed with suitable noise absorbing material for the walls, windows, and ceilings.

Workers should be provided with equipments such as ear plugs and earmuffs for hearing protection.

Solutions for Noise PollutionSimilar to automobiles, lubrication of the machinery and servicing should be done to minimize noise generation.

Soundproof doors and windows can be installed to block unwanted noise from outside.

Regulations should be imposed to restrict the usage of play loudspeakers in crowded areas and public places.

Factories and industries should be located far from the residential areas.Solutions for Noise PollutionCommunity development or urban management should be done with long-term planning, along with an aim to reduce noise pollution.

Social awareness programs should be taken up to educate the public about the causes and effects of noise pollution. SOIL POLLUTIONSOIL POLLUTIONDefinition : Soil pollution is defined as the build-up in soils of persistent toxiccompounds, chemicals, salts, radioactive materials, or diseasecausing agents, which have adverse effects on plant growth andanimal health

1Types of Soil PollutionAgricultural Soil Pollution i) pollution of surface soil ii) pollution of underground soil Soil pollution by industrial effluents and solid wastesi) pollution of surface soil ii) disturbances in soil profile

Pollution due to urban activities i) pollution of surface soilii) pollution of underground soil

Causes of Soil PollutionSoil pollution is caused by the presence of man-made chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment. This type of contamination typically arises from the rupture of underground storage links, application of pesticides, percolation of contaminated surface water to subsurface strata, oil and fuel dumping, leaching of wastes from landfills or direct discharge of industrial wastes to the soil. The most common chemicals involved are petroleum hydrocarbons, solvents, pesticides, lead and other heavy metals. This occurrence of this phenomenon is correlated with the degree of industrialization and intensities of chemical usage.

Pollution in soil is associated with

Indiscriminate use of fertilizers

Indiscriminate use of pesticides, insecticides and herbicides

Dumping of solid wastes

Deforestation2 Causes in brief: Polluted water discharged from factories Runoff from pollutants (paint, chemicals, rotting organic material) leaching out of landfill Oil and petroleum leaks from vehicles washed off the road by the rain into the surroundinghabitat Chemical fertilizer runoff from farms and crops Acid rain (fumes from factories mixing with rain) Sewage discharged into rivers instead of being treated properly Over application of pesticides and fertilizers Purposeful injection into groundwater as a disposal method Interconnections between aquifers during drilling (poor technique) Septic tank seepage Lagoon seepage Sanitary/hazardous landfill seepage Cemeteries Scrap yards (waste oil and chemical drainage) Leaks from sanitary sewers Effects of Soil Pollution Agricultural Reduced soil fertility Reduced nitrogen fixation Larger loss of soil and nutrients Deposition of silt in tanks and reservoirs Reduced crop yield Imbalance in soil fauna and flora Industrial Dangerous chemicals entering underground water Ecological imbalance Release of pollutant gases Release of radioactive rays causing health problems Increased salinity Reduced vegetation Urban Clogging of drains Inundation of areas Public health problems Pollution of drinking water sources Foul smell and release of gases Waste management problems Control of soil pollutionThe following steps have been suggested to control soil pollution. To help prevent soil erosion, we can limit construction in sensitive area. In general we would need less fertilizer and fewer pesticides if we could all adopt the three R's: Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle. This would give us less solid waste. Reducing chemical fertilizer and pesticide useApplying bio-fertilizers and manures can reduce chemical fertilizer and pesticide use.Biological methods of pest control can also reduce the use of pesticides and thereby minimize soil pollution. Reusing of materialsMaterials such as glass containers, plastic bags, paper, cloth etc. can be reused at domestic levels rather than being disposed, reducing solid waste pollution. Recycling and recovery of materialsThis is a reasonable solution for reducing soil pollution. Materials such as paper, some kinds of plastics and glass can and are being recycled. This decreases the volume of refuse and helps in the conservation of natural resources. For example, recovery of one tone of paper can save 17 trees. ReforestingControl of land loss and soil erosion can be attempted through restoring forest and grass coverto check wastelands, soil erosion and floods. Crop rotation or mixed cropping can improve the fertility of the land. Solid waste treatmentProper methods should be adopted for management of solid waste disposal. Industrial wastescan be treated physically, chemically and biologically until they are less hazardous. Acidic and alkaline wastes should be first neutralized; the insoluble material if biodegradable should be allowed to degrade under controlled conditions before being disposed.References/Sources


Book/Web Resources Environmental Pollution: Causes, Effects & Control by K.C Agarawal