Dimensional Approach to Understanding Video Game

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Transcript of Dimensional Approach to Understanding Video Game

  • 1. Dimensional Approach to Understanding Video Game Effects Douglas A. Gentile, Ph.D. Director, Media Research Lab, Iowa State University Associate Director, Center for the Study of Violence Research Fellow, Institute on Science and Society Douglas Gentile 2010
  • 2. My approach today
    • As mentioned yesterday, individual differences matter in how games may have effects on players
    • Furthermore, gamers motivations matter
    • And of course, many other moderating influences matter (e.g., parents)
    • My focus today, however, is on the features of interactions with games that can be influenced by game design, and how these features can change the effects games have
  • 3. Research on Both Intended and Unintended Effects
    • Health video game effects (e.g., Lieberman, 1997)
    • Educational video game effects (e.g., Murphy, Penuel, Means, Korbak, & Whaley, 2001)
  • 4. What Makes a Great Teacher? (Gentile & Gentile, 2008)
    • Have clear objectives, often set at multiple difficulty levels to adapt to the prior knowledge and skills of each learner
    • The pace of the activities can be adjusted for faster or slower learners, novices or experts, to deliver differentiated instruction.
  • 5. Halo 2: Controller Adaptation
  • 6. What Makes a Great Teacher? (Gentile & Gentile, 2008)
    • Have clear objectives, often set at multiple difficulty levels to adapt to the prior knowledge and skills of each learner
    • The pace of the activities can be adjusted for faster or slower learners, novices or experts, to deliver differentiated instruction.
    • Well-sequenced in levels of increasing difficulty, pace, or complexity, with success at later levels contingent on competencies at prior levels
  • 7.
    • Learning is active with practice, feedback, and more practice to the point of mastery
    • Once mastered, the knowledge and skills are practiced further to the point of automaticity
    • Mastery of an objective is reinforced both extrinsically (e.g., with points, weapons, levels, etc.) and intrinsically (higher levels of competence and resulting self-esteem)
    What Makes a Great Teacher? (Gentile & Gentile, 2008)
  • 8.
    • Encourage a close-to-optimal combination of massed and distributed practice
    • Knowledge/skills learned and practiced in multiple ways in a variety of contexts
      • Important if transfer is desired
    • Great teachers get students excited and hooked on topics
    What Makes a Great Teacher? (Gentile & Gentile, 2008)
  • 9. Research on Both Intended and Unintended Effects
    • Educational video game effects (e.g., Murphy, Penuel, Means, Korbak, & Whaley, 2001)
    • Health video game effects (e.g., Lieberman, 1997)
    • Video game effects on
      • Visual attention skills (e.g., Green & Bavelier, 2003)
      • Aggression (e.g., Anderson, Gentile, & Buckley, 2007)
  • 10. Violent Game Exposure (VGE) & Aggressive Fantasies (AF), predicting W3 Aggressive Behavior I VGE S VGE I AF S AF .44 c -.09 + .13 c .04 ns .56 c .45 c Agg Beh W3 -.28 b -.38 c X 2 = 53.8, p < .001 CFI = .99 RMSEA = .04 SRMR = .02 .29 b
  • 11. Violent Game Exposure (VGE) & Normative Beliefs about Aggression (NB), predicting W3 Aggressive Behavior I VGE S VGE I NB S NB .35 c .07 ns .11 c .35 b .37 c .40 c Agg Beh W3 -.32 b -.33 c X 2 = 55.3, p < .001 CFI = .98 RMSEA = .04 SRMR = .02 .19 b
  • 12. Research on Both Intended and Unintended Effects
    • Educational video game effects (e.g., Murphy, Penuel, Means, Korbak, & Whaley, 2001)
    • Health video game effects (e.g., Lieberman, 1997)
    • Video game effects on
      • Visual attention skills (e.g., Green & Bavelier, 2003)
      • Aggression (e.g., Anderson, Gentile, & Buckley, 2007)
      • Prosocial behaviors (e.g., Gentile et al., 2009)
  • 13. Prosocial Game Effects (Gentile et al., 2009)
    • In three new studies, we tested prosocial game effects
    • Study 1 : 727 Singaporean 7 th -8 th graders
      • Correlational : Playing prosocial games predicted helping behavior, empathy, cooperation, and lower hostile attribution bias and attitudes
    • Study 2 : 1,830 Japanese 3 rd -5 th graders
      • Longitudinal : Playing prosocial games predicted later prosocial behavior
    • Study 3 : 161 US college students
      • Experimental : Played game, then had the opportunity to help or hurt another student
  • 14. Research on Both Intended and Unintended Effects
    • Educational video game effects (e.g., Murphy, Penuel, Means, Korbak, & Whaley, 2001)
    • Health video game effects (e.g., Lieberman, 1997)
    • Video game effects on
      • Visual attention skills (e.g., Green & Bavelier, 2003)
      • Aggression (e.g., Anderson, Gentile, & Buckley, 2007)
      • Prosocial behaviors (e.g., Gentile et al., 2009)
      • Obesity (e.g., Vandewater, Shim, & Caplovitz, 2004)
      • School performance (e.g., Gentile, Lynch, Linder, & Walsh, 2004)
      • Attention problems (e.g., Swing, Gentile, & Anderson, 2010)
      • Physical health: e.g., Seizures & repetitive stress disorders (e.g., Ricci & Vigevano, 1999)
      • Advanced laparoscopic surgical skills (e.g., Rosser, Lynch, Haskamp, Yalif, Gentile, & Giammaria, 2004)
  • 15. Research on Both Intended and Unintended Effects
    • Educational video game effects (e.g., Murphy, Penuel, Means, Korbak, & Whaley, 2001)
    • Health video game effects (e.g., Lieberman, 1997)
    • Video game effects on
      • Visual attention skills (e.g., Green & Bavelier, 2003)
      • Aggression (e.g., Anderson, Gentile, & Buckley, 2007)
      • Prosocial behaviors (e.g., Gentile et al., 2009)
      • Obesity (e.g., Vandewater, Shim, & Caplovitz, 2004)
      • School performance (e.g., Gentile, Lynch, Linder, & Walsh, 2004)
      • Attention problems (e.g., Swing, Gentile, & Anderson, 2010)
      • Physical health: e.g., Seizures & repetitive stress disorders (e.g., Ricci & Vigevano, 1999)
      • Advanced laparoscopic surgical skills (e.g., Rosser, Lynch, Haskamp, Yalif, Gentile, & Giammaria, 2004)
    • Video game addiction (e.g., Gentile, 2009)
  • 16. Research on Both Intended and Unintended Effects
    • Educational video game effects (e.g., Murphy, Penuel, Means, Korbak, & Whaley, 2001)
    • Health video game effects (e.g., Lieberman, 1997)
    • Video game effects on
      • Visual attention skills (e.g., Green & Bavelier, 2003)
      • Aggression (e.g., Anderson, Gentile, & Buckley, 2007)
      • Prosocial behaviors (e.g., Gentile et al., 2009)
      • Obesity (e.g., Vandewater, Shim, & Caplovitz, 2004)
      • School performance (e.g., Gentile, Lynch, Linder, & Walsh, 2004)
      • Attention problems (e.g., Swing, Gentile, & Anderson, 2010)
      • Physical health: e.g., Seizures & repetitive stress disorders (e.g., Ricci & Vigevano, 1999)
      • Advanced laparoscopic surgical skills (e.g., Rosser, Lynch, Haskamp, Yalif, Gentile, & Giammaria, 2004)
    • Video game addiction (e.g., Gentile, 2009)
    • And these are just some of the empirically identified effects!
  • 17. How can we make sense of it all?