DIETING AND WEIGHT MANAGEMENT

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DIETING AND WEIGHT MANAGEMENT. HEALTH EDUCATION. Prevalence of Dieting. 40% of all women 25% of all men. Diet products are a 33 billion dollar industry. Almost All Diets are Unsuccessful. 50% regain all weight within 2 years 5-10% keep weight off permanently. Why do diets fail?. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of DIETING AND WEIGHT MANAGEMENT

  • DIETING AND WEIGHT MANAGEMENTHEALTH EDUCATION*

  • *Prevalence of Dieting40% of all women25% of all menDiet products are a 33 billion dollar industry.

  • *Almost All Diets are Unsuccessful50% regain all weight within 2 years5-10% keep weight off permanentlyWhy do diets fail?

  • *Cycle of Dieting

  • * Yo-Yo DietingIncreased resistance to weight loss Increased efficiency of weight gain

  • *Problems with Fad DietsWeight loss is often water lossSupplements may be dangerousDiet may lack essential nutrientsMetabolism may slow down if caloric intake is very low.Most (if not all) simply do not work for people long term!

  • Dangers of the Atkins DietLow carb diets are not a panacea as is typically claimed but the extreme aspects of the Atkins diet are even more problematic. The diet may yield modest weight loss in the short term but long term studies show negative consequences.

    The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine has been working to counter the pro-Atkins media and slow the hype about the Atkins diet.

  • *Principles of Weight Control (A balance between intake and expenditure)

  • *Guidelines for Losing Body FatNeed to create a caloric deficit (2 ways to do it!) Eat less! Exercise more!Lab 15b info

  • *Lifestyle Approach!Healthy eating patternsRegular activity patternsA simple AND effective method for long-term weight control.

  • *Healthy Eating PatternsEating a variety of foodsEating smaller, more frequent mealsAvoiding bingeing Reducing fat intakeFat is calorically dense (high in calories)Fat is more easily stored than carbohydrates or protein

  • *Regular Activity PatternsBenefits of Exercise for Weight ControlBurns caloriesIncreases metabolismPromotes greater fat lossSuppresses appetiteWhat type of exercise is best?Aerobic exerciseStrength or muscle endurance exercise

  • *Weight Loss Calculations1 pound of fat = 3500 calories

    Maximum weight loss should be no more than 1-2 pounds per week:

    500 calories/day x 7 days/week = 3500 calories/week (1 pound)

    1000 calories/day x 7 days/week = 7000 calories/week (2 pounds)

  • *Guidelines for Gaining Muscle MassYoung people often have difficulty in gaining weight or muscle mass.Changes in the frequency and composition of meals are important to gain muscle mass.Physical activity is important in gaining muscle mass.

  • *Behavior Change Principles for Weight ControlSet realistic behavioral goalsModeration in behaviorConsistency in behaviorSocial support

  • Do You Know How Food Portions Have Changed in 20 Years? National Heart, Lung, and Blood InstituteObesity Education Initiative

  • BAGEL 20 Years AgoToday140 calories 3-inch diameter How many calories are in this bagel?

  • 140 calories 3-inch diameter Calorie Difference: 210 calories350 calories 6-inch diameterBAGEL 20 Years AgoToday

  • How long will you have to rake leaves in order to burn the extra 210 calories?* *Based on 130-pound personMaintaining a Healthy Weight is a Balancing ActCalories In = Calories Out

  • If yourake the leaves for 50 minutes you will burn the extra 210 calories.* *Based on 130-pound personCalories In = Calories Out

  • CHEESEBURGER20 Years AgoToday333 caloriesHow many calories are in todays cheeseburger?

  • Calorie Difference: 257 calories590 calories CHEESEBURGER20 Years AgoToday333 calories

  • Maintaining a Healthy Weight is a Balancing ActCalories In = Calories OutHow long will you have to lift weights in order to burn the extra 257 calories?* *Based on 130-pound person

  • If you lift weights for 1 hour and 30 minutes, you will burn approximately 257 calories.* *Based on 130-pound personCalories In = Calories Out

  • SPAGHETTI AND MEATBALLS20 Years AgoToday500 calories1 cup spaghetti with sauce and 3 small meatballsHow many calories do you think are in today's portion of spaghetti and meatballs?

  • Calorie Difference: 525 calories1,025 calories 2 cups of pasta with sauce and 3 large meatballs20 Years AgoToday500 calories1 cup spaghetti with sauce and 3 small meatballsSPAGHETTI AND MEATBALLS

  • How long will you have to houseclean in order to burn the extra 525 calories?* *Based on 130-pound personMaintaining a Healthy Weight is a Balancing ActCalories In = Calories Out

  • *Based on 130-pound personIf you houseclean for 2 hours and 35 minutes, you will burn approximately 525 calories.* Calories In = Calories Out

  • FRENCH FRIES 20 Years AgoToday210 Calories2.4 ounces How many calories are intodays portion of fries?

  • 610 Calories6.9 ouncesCalorie Difference: 400 Calories FRENCH FRIES 20 Years AgoToday210 Calories2.4 ounces

  • How long will you have to walk leisurely in order to burn those extra 400 calories?* *Based on 160-pound personMaintaining a Healthy Weight is a Balancing ActCalories In = Calories Out

  • *Based on 160-pound personIf you walk leisurely for 1 hour and 10 minutes you will burn approximately 400 calories.* Calories In = Calories Out

  • 85 Calories 6.5 ouncesHow many calories are in todays portion?SODA20 Years AgoToday

  • Calorie Difference: 165 Calories 250 Calories 20 ounces 85 Calories 6.5 ouncesSODA20 Years AgoToday

  • How long will you have to work in the garden to burn those extra calories?* *Based on 160-pound personMaintaining a Healthy Weight is a Balancing ActCalories In = Calories Out

  • If you work in the garden for 35 minutes, you will burn approximately 165 calories.* *Based on 160-pound personCalories In = Calories Out

  • 320 calories How many calories are in todays turkey sandwich?TURKEY SANDWICH20 Years AgoToday

  • Calorie Difference: 500 calories 820 calories 320 calories TURKEY SANDWICH20 Years AgoToday

  • How long will you have to ride a bike in order to burn those extra calories?* *Based on 160-pound personMaintaining a Healthy Weight is a Balancing ActCalories In = Calories Out

  • *Based on 160-pound personIf you ride a bike for 1 hour and 25 minutes, you will burn approximately 500 calories.* Calories In = Calories Out

    Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7eConcepts of Fitness and Wellness 7eMcGraw Hill - www.mhhe.comConcept 15*3Dieting is a national obsession in our country. It has been estimated that 40% of all men and 25% of all women in the U.S. are on a diet at any one time. Overall, the weight loss industry has been valued at over 33 billion dollars (1992 estimate).

    The dieting craze is largely caused by our societies preoccupation with appearance and in particular leanness. (Issues regarding body image can be discussed at this point if desired).

    Concept 15Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7eConcepts of Fitness and Wellness 7eMcGraw Hill - www.mhhe.comConcept 15*4Most "diets" are unsuccessful.

    It has been estimated that over 50% of people gain weight back within 2 years (reference) Only 5-10% manage to keep most of the weight off. (see Kramer et al.(1989) Int. J. Obesity 13:123-126 Wadden, J. et al. (1988) J. Consult. Clin. Psych. 56:925-928)

    Why do diets fail?- Short term (quick fix!)- Not a change in lifestyle

    Concept 15Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7eConcepts of Fitness and Wellness 7eMcGraw Hill - www.mhhe.comConcept 15*5This figure shows the typical cycle of dieting

    People begin a diet and have good initial motivation. They may see some initial positive results but eventually they will have trouble with compliance (party, eating out, stress). They may give up and blow diet and gain the weight back. Eventually, people regain inspiration and decide to try again.

    Because of the initial positive results, most people blame themselves and believe that dieting works. They keep trying new diets to try to find one that they can live with. Because most diets are inherently short term they will all fail when people come off of the diet. Only long term lifestyle changes will be effective in keeping the weight off.

    Concept 15Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7eConcepts of Fitness and Wellness 7eMcGraw Hill - www.mhhe.comConcept 15*7The concept of weight cycling or Yo-Yo dieting has recently received a lot of attention in the literature. Some evidence suggests that with repeated cycles of dieting there is increased resistance to weight loss and increased efficiency of weight gain (Essentially the body adapts to fewer calories and becomes more efficient).

    Some studies have suggested that repeated cycles of weight loss can increase a person's risk for CHD (usually attributed to tendency to store fat in the abdominal region. A recent review in JAMA (1994) suggests that this risk is unfounded and that individuals should persist in their efforts at weight loss. Essentially, they argued that the health risks of obesity far outweigh the potential health risks associated with weight cycling.

    Concept 15Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7eConcepts of Fitness and Wellness 7eMcGraw Hill - www.mhhe.comConcept 15*10

    The main problem with fad diets is that they are inherently temporary. If the change is not a part of a healthy lifestyle adherence will be poor.

    The weight loss that is seen is often water loss and is gained back very quickly

    The diet treatments (appetite suppressants) can often be addictive and or dangerous.

    Diet may lack essential vitamins and minerals and create health problems.

    Extreme caloric restriction may also cause the bodies metabolism to slow down and resist further weight loss.

    Concept 15Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 7eConcepts of Fitness and Wellness 7eMcGraw Hill - www.mhhe.comConcept 15*Review issues with Atk