Diabetes/ Lipoproteins

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1 PEP532: Diabetes, Blood Lipids, and Exercise

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  • 1. PEP532:Diabetes, Blood Lipids, and Exercise

2. What is diabetes?

  • A condition where the body cannot produce or properly use insulin
    • Problematic because insulin is needed to get glucose into cells
  • Type I :Body does not produce insulin
  • Type II : Insulin is produced, but does not function
  • Gestational Diabetes : 5-10% of women develop diabetes (Type II) during pregnancy
  • Pre-diabetes : glucose levels are high, but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetic
  • http://www.diabetes.org/about-diabetes.jsp

3. What is diabetes?

  • Detected using fasting blood glucose test, or an oral glucose tolerance test (fasting test is preferable)
  • Pre-diabetes was formerly referred to as "glucose intolerance", or an inability to regulate glucose well
    • Blood glucose is elevated, but not high enough to be considered diabetic

Fasting Blood Glucose Category [mg/dL] Normal 70-100 Pre-diabetes 100-125 Diabetes >125 4. What is diabetes?

  • The pancreas is the organ that produces insulin and glucagon (Islets of Langerhans)
    • Beta cells of the pancreas produce insulin and monitor blood glucose

5. Type I

  • Sometimes referred to as Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)
  • Immune system attacks the pancreatic beta cells, so insulin cannot be produced
    • These patients must rely on an exogenous supply of insulin
  • Accountsfor only 5-10% of diagnosed cases of diabetes
    • Generally children or young adults
    • Autoimmune, genetic, and/or environmental causes
    • No known way to prevent it

6. Type II

  • Sometimes referred to as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)
  • Usually begins as insulin resistance, then progresses to the point that the pancreas loses the ability to produce it
  • Accounts for about 90-95% of the cases of diagnosed diabetes
  • Factors are: age, obesity, family history, impaired glucose metabolism, physical inactivity, and ethnicity

7. Ethnicity is a strong predictor 8. Insulin resistance (IR)

  • Refers to the body's inability to respond to and use the insulin it produces
  • Type II diabetics produce insulin, but doses that are adequate in non-diabetics are not sufficient
    • Type II diabetics have to produce increasingly greater amounts of insulin to produce "the same effect"

9. Why is it a problem?

  • If diabetes progresses without treatment:
    • Blindness
    • Kidney damage
    • Cardiovascular disease
    • Poor wound healing
      • 71,000 amputations in 2004 alone
  • Typically, other diseases tend to be prevalent in Type II
    • High cholesterol and blood pressure, and obesity
  • Costs the USA $174 billion in 2007 alone
    • $116 billion on direct medical costs
    • $50 billion due to disability, work loss, mortality

10. How prevalent?

  • Approximately 7.8% of (24 million!) Americans are diabetic
    • 6.8% are diagnosed, 1.9% are not diagnosed

Prevalence goes up a great deal with age 11. How prevalent?

  • There were 1.6 million NEW cases of diagnosed diabetes in 2007 alone!

12. How prevalent?

  • Type II diabetes in children