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Transcript of Diabetes/ Lipoproteins
- 1. PEP532:Diabetes, Blood Lipids, and Exercise
2. What is diabetes?
- A condition where the body cannot produce or properly use insulin
- Problematic because insulin is needed to get glucose into cells
- Type I :Body does not produce insulin
- Type II : Insulin is produced, but does not function
- Gestational Diabetes : 5-10% of women develop diabetes (Type II) during pregnancy
- Pre-diabetes : glucose levels are high, but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetic
3. What is diabetes?
- Detected using fasting blood glucose test, or an oral glucose tolerance test (fasting test is preferable)
- Pre-diabetes was formerly referred to as "glucose intolerance", or an inability to regulate glucose well
- Blood glucose is elevated, but not high enough to be considered diabetic
Fasting Blood Glucose Category [mg/dL] Normal 70-100 Pre-diabetes 100-125 Diabetes >125 4. What is diabetes?
- The pancreas is the organ that produces insulin and glucagon (Islets of Langerhans)
- Beta cells of the pancreas produce insulin and monitor blood glucose
5. Type I
- Sometimes referred to as Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)
- Immune system attacks the pancreatic beta cells, so insulin cannot be produced
- These patients must rely on an exogenous supply of insulin
- Accountsfor only 5-10% of diagnosed cases of diabetes
- Generally children or young adults
- Autoimmune, genetic, and/or environmental causes
- No known way to prevent it
6. Type II
- Sometimes referred to as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)
- Usually begins as insulin resistance, then progresses to the point that the pancreas loses the ability to produce it
- Accounts for about 90-95% of the cases of diagnosed diabetes
- Factors are: age, obesity, family history, impaired glucose metabolism, physical inactivity, and ethnicity
7. Ethnicity is a strong predictor 8. Insulin resistance (IR)
- Refers to the body's inability to respond to and use the insulin it produces
- Type II diabetics produce insulin, but doses that are adequate in non-diabetics are not sufficient
- Type II diabetics have to produce increasingly greater amounts of insulin to produce "the same effect"
9. Why is it a problem?
- If diabetes progresses without treatment:
- Kidney damage
- Cardiovascular disease
- Poor wound healing
- 71,000 amputations in 2004 alone
- Typically, other diseases tend to be prevalent in Type II
- High cholesterol and blood pressure, and obesity
- Costs the USA $174 billion in 2007 alone
- $116 billion on direct medical costs
- $50 billion due to disability, work loss, mortality
10. How prevalent?
- Approximately 7.8% of (24 million!) Americans are diabetic
- 6.8% are diagnosed, 1.9% are not diagnosed
Prevalence goes up a great deal with age 11. How prevalent?
- There were 1.6 million NEW cases of diagnosed diabetes in 2007 alone!
12. How prevalent?
- Type II diabetes in children