Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

of 156 /156
Vinay Prakash Shrivastava 1 Evolution of Planning Perspectives presentation structured on notes of Dr. Alka Bharat

description

Development is index of our pursuit for comfort and for practical implications it has become index of sellable comfort in modern times and thus challenging sustainability. 'Evolution of Planning Perspectives' is a listing of important historical Planning Concepts, Theories and Models to current need of Sustainable Development.

Transcript of Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

Page 1: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

Vinay Prakash Shrivastava

1

Evolution of Planning Perspectives presentation structured on

notes of Dr. Alka Bharat

Page 2: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

1. Evolution of Planning Perspectives

2. Layout Drawings & Concepts

3. Planning as Coordination of Present & Future

CONTENTS

Page 3: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

3

17TH CENTURYMercantilism was the economic philosophy adopted by

merchants and statesmen during the 16th and 17th centuries. Mercantilists believed that a nation's wealth

came primarily from the accumulation of gold and silver. Nations without mines could obtain gold and silver only by selling more goods than they bought from abroad.

Accordingly, the leaders of those nations intervened extensively in the

market, imposing tariffs on foreign goods to restrict import trade, and

granting subsidies to improve export prospects for domestic goods. Mercantilism represented the

elevation of commercial interests to the level of national policy.

System Improving

Mercantilism

ECONOMICS

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 4: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

4

1682

Grid system & neighborhood parks

Pre-Modern Planning:

Focus on Urban Design and Street

System

System Improving

Philadelphia plan

William Penn

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 5: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

5

1695

Radiocentric

Pre-Modern Planning:

Focus on Urban Design and Street

System

System Improving

Annapolis plan

Francis Nicholson

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 6: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

6

EARLY 18TH CENTURYA group of 18th century French philosophers, developed

the idea of the economy as a circular flow of income and output. They opposed the Mercantilist policy of

promoting trade at the expense of agriculture because they believed that agriculture was the sole source of

wealth in an economy.

As a reaction against the Mercantilists' copious trade regulations, the Physiocrats

advocated a policy of laissez-faire, which called for minimal government

interference in the economy.

System Improving

Physiocrats

ECONOMICS

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 7: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

7

LATE 18TH CENTURYBegan with the publication in 1776 of Adam Smith's monumental work, The Wealth of Nations. The book

identified land, labor, and capital as the three factors of production and the major contributors to a nation's wealth.

In Smith's view, the ideal economy is a self-regulating market system that automatically satisfies the economic

needs of the populace.

He described the market mechanism as an "invisible hand" that leads all individuals, in pursuit of their own

self-interests, to produce the greatest benefit for society as a whole. Smith

incorporated some of the Physiocrats' ideas, including laissez-

faire, into his own economic theories, but rejected the idea that

only agriculture was productive.

System Improving

The Classical School

ECONOMICS

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 8: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

8

LATE 18TH CENTURYMarginalist economists emphasized that

prices also depend upon the level of demand, which in turn depends upon the amount of consumer satisfaction provided

by individual goods and services.

AS AGAINST Classical economists theorized

that prices are determined by the

costs of production.

System Improving

Marginalist

ECONOMICS

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 9: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

9

1733

Ward park system

System Improving

Savannah

Oglethorpe

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 10: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

10

1790

Grand, whole city plan

System Improving

Washington

Pierre L’Enfant

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 11: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

11

1798

The link between population growth and resources. Exponantial growth model.

WEIRD IN CONTEXT TO MODERN WORLD BUT DESIGN

BASIS FOR STATISTICAL DOCUMENTATION AND

REINFORCEMENT OF OBSERVATIONS FOR ANALYSIS

IN SOCIOLOGY

based on the demographical structure,Thomas Robert Malthus used the idea of

diminishing returns to explain low living standards.

Population, he argued, tended to increase geometrically,

outstripping the production of food, which increased

arithmetically

Critical theory

DEMOGRAPHY

Malthus, T.

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 12: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

12

1826

AGRICULTURE PRODUCE

German landowner in 1800s

All that matters is transport costs~ stress the distance from the market & the

transport costNear to the market (transport costÔ)Far away from the market (transport

costÓ)Near to the market (the intensityÓ)

~ There is a negative relationship between the distance from the market & the

intensity

SPECIFIC TO AGRI BUT WEIRD IN MODERN DAY IN LIGHT OF TRANSPORTATION.

VALUABLE FOR REALISATION OF COST OF LAND WRT DIST FROM CENTER\

Critical theory

Model of rural

land use.

von Thünen, H.

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 13: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

13

1852-1870

Model for “City Beautiful”

Critical theory

Paris

Napoleon III; Haussmann

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 14: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

14

mid-19th centuryThe Marxist School challenged the foundations

of Classical theory. Writing during the mid-19th century, Karl Marx saw capitalism as an

evolutionary phase in economic development. He believed that capitalism would ultimately destroy itself and be succeeded by a world

without private property.

Social theory

The Marxist School

Marx

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 15: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

15

1856

First major parkland

System Improving

Central Park

F L Olmsted Sr

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 16: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

16

1867

First modern land-use zoning in US (forbad slaughterhouses

in geographic districts)

New Urban Forms Social mobilization

San Francisco

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 17: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

17

1869

Model curved street “suburb”

New Urban Forms Critical theory

Riverside, IL

F L Olmsted Sr

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 18: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

18

1876

US Supreme Court upholds regulation of

private enterprise

New Urban Forms Critical System Improving

“Munn v Illinois”

F L Olmsted Sr

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 19: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

19

1880

Model industrial town

George Pullman

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 20: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

20

1885

Laws of migration.

Ravenstein, E.

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 21: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

21

1892

First federal action on city problems

New Urban Norms Response to the

Emerging Industrial City: The Public Health

MovementSystem Improving

US federal study of

slums

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 22: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

22

1867/1879

First major tenement house controls

New Urban Forms System Improving

New York City

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 23: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

23

1870

-Need for more systematic and forward-thinking action

New Urban Forms System Improving

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 24: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

24

1888

Promotes city and national planning

The Rise of a Social Conscience

System Improving

“Looking Backwards”

Edward Bellamy

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 25: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

25

1890

Focuses on slums and poverty

The Rise of a Social Conscience

System Improving

“How the Other Half Lives” and “Children of the

Poor”

Jacob Riis

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 26: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

26

Burnham, Olmsted Sr,

Columbian Exposition

City Beautiful Movement

Social mobilization

The “White City”

1893

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 27: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

27

Ebenezar Howard

anti-urban, agrarian

Garden City Movement

Critical theory

“Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path to

Real Reform”

1898

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 28: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

28

Institutionalist economists

Institutionalist economists regard individual economic behavior as part of a larger social pattern influenced by current ways of living

and modes of thought. They rejected the narrow Classical view that people are primarily motivated by economic self-interest. Opposing the laissez-faire attitude towards government's role in the economy,

the Institutionalists called for government controls and social reform to bring about a more equal distribution of income.

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 29: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

29

Letchworth

Welwyn introduces superblock

Garden City Movement

Social mobilization

Two garden city

projects

1903-1920

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 30: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

30

Burnhan & Olmsted Jr

Columbian Exposition

Update of L’Enfant’s Plan

System Improving

McMillan Plan for Washington

DC

1902

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 31: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

31

Daniel Burnham

First major application of City

Beautiful in US

Social mobilization

San Francisco Plan

1906

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 32: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

32

Edward Bennett & Daniel Burnham

First metro regional plan

“Make no little plans; they have no magic…”

Social mobilization

1909 Chicago

Plan

1909

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 33: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

33

Stein and Wright

a neighborhood of the New York City borough of

Queens.

The 77-acre (310,000 m2) low-rise pedestrian-oriented

development was constructed between 1924 to 1929.

Social mobilization

plan for Sunnyside Gardens,

1923

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 34: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

34

Burgess, E.LANDUSE WITH CBD CBD, then “zone of transition”

Working-class homesMiddle-class homesCommuter suburbs

Urban ecology: invasion and succession

specific to settlement location which depend on the CBD

(SARROUNDING THE CENTRAL BUSSINES DISTRICT)

Social mobilization

Concentric circle model of urban land use.

1924

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 35: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

35

Robert E. Park, Ernest W. Burgess, and Roderick D. McKenzie in The City

a city begins with a business district surrounded by a transition zone filled with low-income, high-crime area. Outside of that is a working-class residential

zone, then a middle-class residential zone, and finally an upper-class residential zone.

Homer Hoyt modified it in the sector model

Social mobilization

concentric zone model , bull's eye

model

1925

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 36: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

36

Robert Moses : “If the ends don’t justify the means, then what does?”

•1920s

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 37: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

37

Standard City Planning Enabling Act issued by US Dept of Commerce

•1928

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 38: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

38

–Completion of Radburn NJ, innovative neighborhood design based on Howard’s

theory

••1929

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 39: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

39

- Regionalizing/nationalizing of planning

- Focus on econ development & social policy

Social mobilizationSystem Improving

- Social science as a tool of

planning

1928

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 40: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

40

Miller, A.

System of classifying climate/vegetation regions.

1930

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 41: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

41

Reilly, W.

Law of retail gravitation.

1931

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 42: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

42

German GEOGRAPHER Christaller, W.

To focus on the economic aspects of his theory, Christaller had to create a set of assumptions. He decided for example that the countryside in the areas he was

studying would be flat, so no barriers would exist to impede people's movement across it. In addition, two assumptions were made about human behavior: 1)

Christaller stated that humans will always purchase goods from the closest place that offers the good, and 2) whenever demand for a certain good is high, it will be

offered in close proximity to the population. When demand drops, so too does the availability of the good.

SPECIFIC TO SERVICE PROVIDE OF THE NEAREST SUBSERVICE CENTER, WHICH DEPEND ON THE SIZE

OF SERVICE CENTER. spatial theory in urban geography that attempts to explain the reasons

behind the distribution patterns, size, and number of cities and towns around the world. It also

attempts to provide a framework by which those areas can be studied both for historic reasons and

for the locational patterns of areas today.

Social mobilization

Central place theory.

1933

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 43: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

43

John Maynard Keynes in 1936

Reacting to the severity of the worldwide depression, John Maynard Keynes in 1936 broke from the Classical tradition

with the publication of the General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money. The Classical view assumed that in a recession, wages and prices would

decline to restore full employment. Keynes held that the opposite was true. Falling prices and wages, by depressing people's incomes, would prevent a revival of spending. He insisted that direct government intervention was necessary

to increase total spending.

The Classical view assumed that in a recession, wages and prices would decline to restore full employment. Keynes held that the opposite was true. Falling prices and wages,

by depressing people's incomes, would prevent a revival of spending. He insisted that direct government intervention

was necessary to increase total spending.

General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money

1936

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 44: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

44

Cities as engines of growth

Increasing Importance of

Cities

Social mobilization

Our Cities: Their Role in the

National Economy.

•1937

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 45: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

45

Jefferson, M.

MAIN CITY & DEPENDANTS the primate city is commonly at least

twice as large as the next largest city and more than twice as significant.

“The second and subsequently smaller cities represent a proportion of the

largest city”.

Concept of the primate city.

1939

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 46: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

46

Hoyt, H.

Middle class always moves outwardVacancy chains start

Fastest growing suburbs = poorest inner city

Central activities expand out by sectorHigh-end housing in attractive sector

Industrial near transportationMiddle-class housing next to high-end

Lower-class housing gets the rest

LANDUSE WITH SECTORS Economic Status displayed via housing within the urban area

Sector model of urban land use.

1939

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 47: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

47

Local Planning Administration, by Ladislas Segoe, first of "Green Book"

series

1939

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 48: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

48

Harris, Chauncy and Ullman, E.

Multiple nuclei land use.

Geographers in 1945sCBD isn’t the only center

Commercial, industrial, port, etc. “nodes”

Expanding nodes intersect

based on the activities of land use

Classification of settlement

functions.

1945

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 49: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

49

Post-WWII ModernismSuburbanization & Central City Decline

1945

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 50: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

50

WALTER FIERY

This theory says that the pre-requisites like the services, houses etc. may and may not meet the demand of the

human factors. When the systems are running in a perfect manner, then there is hardly any room for personalized

services; that there is state of “anonymity”. But everybody wants a little more of his share – which is the basic human

nature.

Geographers in 1945sCBD isn’t the only center

Commercial, industrial, port, etc. “nodes”

Expanding nodes intersect

EXPLORATORY

SOCIAL VALUES IN PLANNING THEORY

1947

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 51: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

51

Zipf, G. 1949 Rank size rule.

Explains the size cities in a country

Critical theory

Second largest town or city is half the size of the size, the third would be a

third the size etc…. an empirical law formulated using mathematical

statistics, refers to the fact that many types of data studied in the physical and

social sciences can be approximated with a Zipfian distribution, one of a family of related discrete power law

probability distributions.

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 52: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

52

1950 Social Activism Federal Policy

Regional CitiesCollaborative planning

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 53: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

53

Urban Renewal and General Planning

- Social science strengthened &

challenged

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 54: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

54

•1949 Housing Act (Wagner-Ellender-Taft Bill)

- Planning optimism- Rise of community voice

& social protest - Political action for reform

and transformationCritical theory

–First comprehensive housing legislation

–Aimed to construct 800,000 housing units–Inaugurated urban

renewal

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 55: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

55

Murphy, R. and Vance, J. 1950's

Advocacy planning

Delimiting the boundary

of the CBD.

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 56: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

56

Auguste Comte 1950's

Descriptive science becomes a tool of normative planning in striving for a better society. This approach is evident in the notion of ‘public interest’, formulated as the goal of rational-

comprehensive planning. Public interest meant planning solutions that were of common benefit. By means of scientific analysis the parameters of

such solutions were to be defined: wide roads without traffic jams

“father of sociology”, Auguste Comte sought to apply the methods of observation and

experimentation. He believed that persistent social problems might be solved by the

application of certain hierarchical rules. Comte was maintained in the rational comprehensive

planning theory that gained ground in the 1950s and 1960s – the ideas which, to a considerable degree, are still at the core of urban planning

thought. First and foremost, Comte’s association of the methods of classical science with the study

of societies and social phenomena is central to the theory of rational-comprehensive planning.

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 57: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

57

August Losch 1954

German economist

modified Christaller's

central place theory

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 58: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

58

Housing Act of 1954.

–Stressed slum prevention and urban renewal rather than slum clearance and urban redevelopment as in the

1949 act. –stimulated general planning for cities under 25,000 (Section 701)–"701 funding" later extended to foster statewide, interstate, and

substate regional planning.

System Improving

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 59: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

59

Perroux

Growth pole theory (Perroux) A dynamic and highly integrated set of

industries organized around a propulsive leading sector or industry (\'industrie

motrice\').

A growth pole is capable of rapid growth and of generating growth through spillover and multiplier

effects in the rest of the economy .The apparent simplicity of the notion, its

suggestion of dynamism and its ability to wed problems

Advocacy planning

Growth pole theory

1955

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 60: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

60

Rostow, W.

Growth pole theory (Perroux) A dynamic and highly integrated set of industries

organized around a propulsive leading sector or

industry (\'industrie motrice\').

1960

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 61: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

61

Kevin Lynch

Image of the City –

Urban Design Theorists

1960

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 62: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

62

LONDON WINGO JR.

The complexity of urban dynamics is complicated by different temporal rates of change among its main

components. While land use and transportation networks are very slow to change, their associated

movements can change and adapt very quickly. As a result, changes in an urban area will range accordingly.

Wingo said that a city is an accumulated demand for transportation. The trips made from a residential area for different purposes, are in a limited number compared to the trips made in a commercial center. Industrial areas and recreational areas have more trips but there is an

inflated demand for these trips at a particular period of time. If we can assign certain values of these demands

created by a specific land use and systematically analyze them, then we can put them together and form a

systematic transportation in the city.

EXPLORATORY

TRANSPORTATION ORIENTED THEORY

1961

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 63: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

63

Modeling

The urban growth simulation model

emerges in the Penn-Jersey Transportation

Study.

1962

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 64: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

64

Paul Davidoff, T A Reiner

“determinations of what serves the public interest, in a society containing many

diverse interest groups, are almost always of a highly contentious nature”.

Davidoff claimed that the planner should make clear what are the values underlying his choices, and indeed he

should do more: “he should affirm them; he should be an advocate of what he deems proper”. Davidoff argued that public sector planning needed genuine alternatives based on different value .Davidoff’s model of advocacy planning

was perhaps better suited to the context of the USA, where local governments have less autonomy and

authority in the face of private sector interests (especially business) than in most European countries.

EXPLORATORY

Choice Theory Of Planning

1962

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 65: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

65

Kansky, K.

Factors influencing the development

of transport networks.

1963

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 66: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

66

Taaffe, E., Morrill, R. and Gould, P.

Model of transport network evolution

in developing countries.

1963

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 67: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

67

Alonso1964

Each household represents a balance between land, goods,

and accessibility to the workplace.

The assumptions on which this theory rests range from

all land being of equal quality to lack of planning

constraints. This means that the theory is a long way from

reality, although it does reflect some aspects of urban

morphology.

Urban land use is based on the work of Alonso (1964) and Muth (1969): Bid Rent

and Location Gradients: patterns of land use are

determined by land values that are, in turn, related to

transportation costs. We will find that each type of urban activity will have its own bid

rent function and the combination of several bid

rent functions will define the rent gradient.

W. Alonso's (1964) explanation of urban land use and land values. It is grounded on the concept of bid rents whereby the urban land user seeks central locations, but is willing to accept a location further from the city

centre if rents are lower in compensation. The use that can extract the greatest return from a site will be the successful bidder. To this basis, Alonso, in a study of housing, added the quantity of land required, and variations in the amount of disposable income used on land and transport costs on one hand, and on all goods and services on the other. If the amount of

goods and services is held constant, the price of land should decrease with increasing distance from the

centre. The well-off will choose to live at lower densities at the edge of the city; the poor remain in

high density occupancy near the city centre. The quantity of land that may be bought should increase with distance from the centre, but commuting costs

will rise with distance from the centre so that the quantity of wealth available for land will decrease.

Each household represents a balance between land, goods, and accessibility to the workplace.

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 68: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

68

•1964 T.J. Kent publishes The Urban General Plan.

aesthetics and form

•aesthetics and form–rejected historic precedent as a source

of architectural inspiration –considered function as the prime

generator of form–employed materials and technology in

an honest way.

Modernism–style-free plan–universal space

–walls freed from the function of load bearing

–cantilevers–glass at corners of buildings

use of concrete

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 69: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

69

Charles E. Lindblom1965a method of bargaining and

compromise-seeking between the interest groups concerned with a

planning issue.

Charles E. Lindblom, in his book “The Intelligence of Democracy” presented theory of “partisan mutual adjustment” as a model of decision-

making in public planning. Similarly to Davidoff, Lindblom sought to bring pluralism to the realm of public planning. But Lindblom’s theory can be seen as more advanced in the sense that he was

not only concerned with how to bring the interests of different groups into the agenda of

public planning, but, furthermore, how agreement could be reached between these

diverse and conflicting adjustment”

1963

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 70: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

70

Boserup, E.

Theory about the link between

population growth and resources.

1965

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 71: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

71

J.R. Boudeville 1966

He also pointed to the regionally differentiated growth that such a

spatial strategy might generate. The precise meaning of the term \'growth

pole\' is difficult to pin down, however, because it is frequently used in a far looser fashion to denote any

(planned) spatial clustering of economic activity.

Theory was translated into spatial terms by J.R. Boudeville (1966). On

the bases of external economies and economies of agglomeration,

Boudeville argued that the set of industries forming the growth pole (or

\'pole de croissance\') might be clustered spatially and linked to an

existing urban area.

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 72: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

72

•1968 Pittsburg Community Redevelopment Model

Social mobilization

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 73: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

73

McCarty, H. and Lindberg, L.

The optima and limits model of

agricultural production.

1966

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 74: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

74

Guttenberg

Accessibility Emphasis

Theory1968

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 75: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

75

Smith, D.

Maximum profit model of

industrial location.

1971

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 76: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

76

Haggett, P.

Deviations from a straight course

by transport routes.

1969 & 1977

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 77: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

77

Carson, M. and Kirkby, M.

Classification of mass

movements.1972

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 78: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

78

Privatisation

1980 - Post-modern critique of rationality

- Segmentation of voices of communities into communities with voice

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 79: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

79

Brandt, W.1980 & 1983

Findings and suggestions of the 'Brandt Commission'.

Kearsley1983

Model of urban structure.

Barke, M. andO'Hare, G.

1984Model of economic

development in developing countries. - Focus on interaction,

communication, process

Evolution of Planning Perspectives

Page 80: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

1. Evolution of Planning Perspectives

2. Layout Drawings & Concepts

3. Planning as Coordination of Present & Future

CONTENTS

Page 81: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

How a common man looks at Urban Planning ?

– Common Man looks at it in a much simple, point to point, rather than issues as a matrix of the system. As it was in much early days of Urban Planning. The review of those concepts as ‘Few important concepts of Early Urban Planning.’

Page 82: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

Few important concepts of Early Urban Planning

PHYSICAL PLEASANCE & COMFORT

Page 83: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

Few important concepts of Early Urban Planning

FORMULATION OF LAYOUT

Page 84: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

The Linear City MovementThe linear city was an urban plan for an elongated urban formation. The city would consist of a series of functionally specialized parallel sectors. Generally, the city would run parallel to a river and be built so that the dominant wind would blow from the residential areas to the industrial strip.

The sectors of a linear city would be:

1. a purely segregated zone for railway lines,2. a zone of production and communal enterprises, with related scientific, technical and educational institutions,3. a green belt or buffer zone with major highway,4. a residential zone, including a band of social institutions, a band of residential buildings and a "children's band",5. a park zone, and

6. An agricultural zone with gardens and state-run farmsAs the city expanded, additional sectors would be added to the end of each band, so that the city would become ever longer, without growing wider.

Few important concepts of Early Urban Planning

Page 85: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

Few important concepts of Early Urban Planning

CITY COORDINATIONS

Page 86: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

Few important concepts of Early Urban Planning

FORMULATION OF FUNCTIONAL LAYOUT

Page 87: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

Daniel Burnham The City Beautiful Movement

Few important concepts of Early Urban Planning

Ebenezer Howard and the Garden City Movement

Page 88: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

Few important concepts of Early Urban Planning

FORMULATION OF LAYOUT WITH ZONES

Page 89: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

Few important concepts of Early Urban Planning

Page 90: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

Few important concepts of Early Urban Planning

Page 91: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

The Garden City Physical Form

Few important concepts of Early Urban Planning

FORMULATION IN GRADES

Page 92: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

Raymond Unwin

Few important concepts of Early Urban Planning

Garden Cities in Europe & America

Page 93: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

• The Impact of WW I on British Housing & Housing Policy

• A.D. Sanderson Furniss and Marion Phillips Housing Program for Working Women

• “Modern Housing” in Europe

• Catherine Bauer visits Europe...

Women and Housing In Europe

Few important concepts of Early Urban Planning

Page 94: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

• Modern Housing

• Origins of American Housing Policy

Catherine Bauer

Few important concepts of Early Urban Planning

Page 95: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

• The Origins of Sustainable Urban Development

• Louis Mumford and Geddes

Patrick Geddes

Few important concepts of Early Urban Planning

Page 96: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

• The Barlow Commission and

WW II

• The Plan for Greater London and Britain’s New Towns Program

Wartime and Post-War British Planning: Patrick Abercrombie

Few important concepts of Early Urban Planning

Page 97: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

97

Van

Thun

en

(1783 – 1850) TheoryBased on the data of his experience of farming and classical economic theoryIt’s a partial equilibrium approach for a deterministic and normative agricultural productionHow & why agricultural landuse varies with distance from the marketModel I – INTENSITY OF PRODUCTION DECREASES WITH DISTANCE FROM MARKET.INTENSITY OF PRODUCTION – AMOUNT OF THE INPUTS (MONEY LABOUR WATER ETC.) PER UNIT LAND. Model II – THE TYPE OF LANDUSE VARIES WITH THE DISTANCE FROM THE MARKET.ASSUMPTIONS TO SIMPLIFY THE REAL WORLD SITUATION.

Few important concepts of Urban Planning

Page 98: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

98

The basic principle is economic rent

(locational rent = LR) .LR = Y (m-c) –Y tdY = yield per unit landm = market price per unit of productc = production cost per unit of productd = distance from per unit of land

Few important concepts of Urban Planning

Van

Thun

en

Page 99: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

99

Van Thunen (1783 – 1850) TheoryModel I – INTENSITY THEORYINTENSITY OF PRODUCTION DECREASES WITH DISTANCE FROM MARKET.INTENSITY OF PRODUCTION – AMOUNT OF THE INPUTS (MONEY LABOUR WATER ETC.) PER UNIT LAND.

Few important concepts of Urban Planning

Van

Thun

en

Page 100: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

100

Van Thunen (1783 – 1850) TheoryModel II – THE TYPE OF LANDUSE VARIES WITH THE DISTANCE FROM THE MARKET.

Few important concepts of Urban Planning

Van

Thun

en

Page 101: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

101

Alfred Weber formulated a least cost theory of industrial location which tries to explain and predict the location pattern of the industry at a macro-scale. It emphasizes that firms seek a site of minimum transport and labour cost.

The point for locating an industry that minimizes costs of transportation and labor requires analysis of three factors: Material Index, Labor & Agglomeration and de agglomeration

Few important concepts of Urban Planning

Alfr

ed W

eber

Page 102: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

Park and Burgess (1925) developed a theory of urban ecology which proposed that

cities are environments like those found in nature, governed by many of the same forces of Darwinian evolution, i.e. competition, that affects natural ecosystems. When a city is formed and grows, people and their activities cluster in a particular area, i.e. the process of "concentration". Gradually, this central area becomes highly populated, so there is a scattering of people and their activities away from the central city to establish the suburbs, i.e. "dispersion". They suggested that, over time, the competition for land and other scarce urban resources leads to the division of the urban space into distinctive ecological niches, "natural areas" or zones in which people share similar social characteristics because they are subject to the same ecological pressures. As a zone becomes more prosperous and "desirable", property values and rents rise, and people and businesses migrate into that zone, usually moving outward from the city centre in a process Park and Burgess called "succession" (a term borrowed from plant ecology) and new residents take their place. At both a micro and macro level, society was thought to operate as a superorganism, where change is a natural aspect of the process of growth and neither chaotic nor disorderly. Thus, an organised area is invaded by new elements. This gives rise to local competition and there will either be succession or an accommodation which results in a reorganisation. But, during the early stages of competition, there will always be some level of disorganisation because there will be disruption to, or a breakdown in, the normative structure of the community which may or may not lead to deviant behaviour. Thus, although a city was a physical organisation, it also had also social and moral structures that could be disorganised.

102

Few important concepts of Urban Planning

Burg

ess

Page 103: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

Their model, known as Concentric Zone Theory and first published in The City (1925) predicted that, once fully grown, cities would take the form of five concentric rings with areas of social and physical deterioration concentrated near the city centre and more prosperous areas located near the city's edge. This theory seeks to explain the existence of social problems such as unemployment and crime in specific Chicago districts, making extensive use of synchronic mapping to reveal the spatial distribution of social problems and to permit comparison between areas. In the post-war period, the cartographic approach was criticised as simplistic in that it neglected the social and cultural dimensions of urban life, the political and economic impact of industrialisation on urban geography, and the issues of class, race, gender, and ethnicity.

103

Few important concepts of Urban Planning

Burg

ess

Page 104: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

Geddes shared the belief with Alejandro Reinosa that social processes and spatial form are related. Therefore, by changing the spatial form it was possible to change the social structure as well. This was particularly important in the late 19th and early 20th century when industrialization was dramatically altering the conditions of life.Geddes demonstrated this theory through his work in Edinburgh's Old Town. Here, in this most dilapidated area, he used associations with prominent thinkers who lived there in the 18th and 19th century (like Adam Smith), to establish residential halls. The building in question is still part of the University of Edinburgh complex. Here he situated his famous Outlook Tower, a museum of local, regional, Scottish, and world history.

104

Few important concepts of Urban Planning

Gedd

es

Page 105: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

Geddes ideas on Regional Planning - Regional Planning and Design with Nature The Origins of Sustainable Urban Development

105

Few important concepts of Urban Planning

Gedd

es

Page 106: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

In his influential book The City in History, which won the National Book Award, Mumford explores the development of urban civilizations. Harshly critical of urban sprawl, Mumford argues that the structure of modern cities is partially responsible for many social problems seen in western society. While pessimistic in tone, Mumford argues that urban planning should emphasize an organic relationship between people and their living spaces.Mumford uses the example of the medieval city as the basis for the "ideal city," and claims that the modern city is too close to the Roman city (the sprawling megalopolis) which ended in collapse; if the modern city carries on in the same vein, Mumford argues, then it will meet the same fate as the Roman city.

"The physical design of cities and their economic functions are secondary to their relationship to the national environment and to the spiritual values of human community." 106

Few important concepts of Urban Planning

Mum

ford

Page 107: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

Gravity Model The relative strength of a bond between two places is determined by multiplying the population of city A by the population of city B and then dividing the product by the distance between the two cities squared. The gravity model, as social scientists refer to the modified law of gravitation, takes into account the population size of two places and their distance. Since larger places attract people, ideas, and commodities more than smaller places and places closer together have a greater attraction, the gravity model incorporates these two features.

107

Grav

ity M

odel

Page 108: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

Stakeholder in 20th Century

Urb

an P

lann

ing

Page 109: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

109

POPULATION

Urban Planning

Page 110: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

Planning has an integrated social backdrop

110

Urb

an P

lann

ing

Page 111: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

111

•PARENTS BROTHERS SISTERS

•RELATIVES•FAMILY•ENVIRONMENT•NEEDS

CLOSE RELATIONS•FRIENDS•DAILY INTERACTIONS•ENVIRONMENT•ATTRACTIONS

INSTITUTE AND CLUBS•SCHOOL•SOCIAL ACTIVITIES•MEDIA CINEMA

MUSIC•INTERNET•ENVIRONMENT •AMBITION

Social Structure of Settlements

Self-actualization

Physiological needs

Safety needs

Love and belonging Esteem

FIVE BASIC NEEDSOF A MAN – MASLOW'S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS

FOOD SHELTER BELONGING RESPECT

INFLUENCE ENVIRONMENTOF DEEDS

Page 112: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

Sociology

112

Sociology is the study of human societies.

It is a social science (with which it is informally synonymous) that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop and refine a body of knowledge and theory about human social activity, often with the goal of applying such knowledge to the pursuit of social welfare.

Subject matter ranges from the micro level of agency and interactionto the macro level of systems and social structures.

FAMILY•PARENTS BROTHERS SISTERS

•RELATIVES

CLOSE RELATIONS•FRIENDS•DAILY INTERACTIONS

INSTITUTE AND CLUBS•SCHOOL•SOCIAL ACTIVITIES

SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR

Social Structure of Settlements

Page 113: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

SOCIAL STRUCTURE

113

ORIENTATIONS

NATION & REGION

COMMUNITY, ASSOCIATIONS, GROUPS

(WORKPLACE & RESIDENCE & IDEOLOGICAL

ASSOCIATIONS)

FUTURE PERSPECTIVE

(CAREER, DEPENDANCY & ORIENTATIONS

OF PLACEMENTS)

Social Structure of Settlements

Page 114: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

Sociology is both topically and methodologically a very broad discipline. Its traditional focuses have included

social stratification (i.e., class relations), religion, secularization, modernity, culture and deviance

114Social Structure of Settlements

Page 115: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

115

(1) the evolved human capacity to classify and represent experiences with symbols, and to act imaginatively and creatively; and

(2) the distinct ways that people living in different parts of the world classified and represented their experiences, and acted creatively.

Cities have historically been the driver of culture. Most cultural institutions throughout the world are located in central cities.

Culture

Social Structure of Settlements

Page 116: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

Social classes are the hierarchical arrangements of people in society as economic or cultural groups.

Class is an essential object of analysis for sociologists, anthropologists, political economists and social historians. In the social sciences, social class is often discussed in terms of 'social stratification'.In sociology and political philosophy, the most basic class distinction is between the powerful and the powerless.

In Marxist theory and historical materialism, social class is caused by the fundamental economic structure of work and property.

116Social Structure of Settlements

Page 117: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

In sociology and other social sciences, social stratification refers to the hierarchical arrangement of individuals into divisions of power and wealth within a society. The term most commonly relates to the socio-economic concept of class, involving the "classification of persons into groups based on shared socio-economic conditions ... a relational set of inequalities with economic, social, political and ideological dimensions.“The term stratification derives from the geological concept of strata - rock layers created by natural processes. In modern Western societies, stratification is typically described as a composition of three main layers: upper class, middle class, and lower class. Each class may be further subdivided into smaller classes (eg. occupational).[2] These categories are particular to state-level societies as distinguished from, for instance, feudal societies composed of nobility-to-peasant relations. It is debatable whether the earliest hunter-gatherer groups may be defined as 'stratified', or if such differentials began with agriculture and broad acts of exchange between groups. To this extent social stratification may start with society itself, and vice versa. 117

Social Structure of Settlements

Page 118: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

ISSUES

POVERTYPOPULATION EXPLOSIONURBANIZATIONUNEMPLOYMENT & YOUTH UNRESTILLITERACY COMMUNALISM & REGIONALISATIONBACKWARD CLASSESCHILD ABUSE & CHILD LABOURDOWNTRODDEN WOMEN CORRUPTION TERRORISM … SO ON

118Social Structure of Settlements

Page 119: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

119

The easiest route to understand stakeholder is to start with Marxist

philosophy

Page 120: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory are terms that cover work in philosophy that is strongly influenced by Karl Marx's materialist approach to theory or that is written by Marxists. It may be broadly divided into Western Marxism, which drew out of various sources, and the official philosophy in the Soviet Union, which enforced a rigid reading of Marx called "diamat" (for "dialectical materialism"), in particular during the 1930s.The phrase "Marxist philosophy" itself does not indicate a strictly defined sub-field of philosophy, because the diverse influence of Marxist theory has extended into fields as diverse as aesthetics, ethics, ontology, epistemology, and philosophy of science, as well as its obvious influence on political philosophy and the philosophy of history.

The key characteristics of Marxism in philosophy are its materialism and its commitment to political practice as the end goal of all thought.

Louis Althusser, for example, defined philosophy as "class struggle in theory", thus radically disjoining himself from those who claimed philosophers could adopt a "God's eye view" as a purely neutral judge. Just as the young Marx had left university and German Idealism to encounter the proletariat, which permitted him to modify his perspective on practice and theory, "intellectuals" couldn't content themselves with instructing from their chairs the masses (as the "organic intellectual" conception denounced by Antonio Gramsci) but had themselves to take part in the social struggles of their times.

120

Marx

Social Structure of Settlements

Page 121: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

Historical materialism is a methodological approach to the study of society, economics, and history, first articulated by Karl Marx (1818-1883). Marx himself never used the term but referred to his approach as "the materialist conception of history."

Historical materialism looks for the causes of developments and changes in human society in the means by which humans collectively produce the necessities of life.

The non-economic features of a society (e.g. social classes, political structures, ideologies) are seen as being an outgrowth of its economic activity. The classic brief statement of the theory was made by Marx in the Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy (1859):

121

Marx

Social Structure of Settlements

Page 122: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

“ My inquiry led me to the conclusion that

neither legal relations nor political forms could be comprehended whether by themselves or on the basis of a so-called general development of the human mind, but that on the contrary they originate in the material conditions of life,

the totality of which Hegel, following the example of English and French thinkers of the eighteenth century, embraces within the term "civil society"; that the autonomy of this civil society, however, has to be sought in political economy. The study of this, which I began in Paris, I continued in Brussels, where I moved owing to an expulsion order issued by M. Guizot. The general conclusion at which I arrived and which, once reached, became the guiding principle of my studies can be summarised as follows: next slide please

122

Marx

Social Structure of Settlements

Page 123: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

In the social production of their existence, men inevitably enter into definite relations, which are independent of their will, namely relations of production appropriate to a given stage in the development of their material forces of production. The totality of these relations of production constitutes the economic structure of society, the real foundation, on which arises a legal and political superstructure, and to which correspond definite forms of consciousness. The mode of production of material life conditions the general process of social, political, and intellectual life. It is not the consciousness of men that determines their existence, but their social existence that determines their consciousness. At a certain stage of development, the material productive forces of society come into conflict with the existing relations of production or — this merely expresses the same thing in legal terms — with the property relations within the framework of which they have operated hitherto. From forms of development, of the productive forces, these relations turn into their fetters.

123

Marx

Social Structure of Settlements

Page 124: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

124

Marx Then begins an era of social revolution.

The changes in the economic foundation lead, sooner or later, to the transformation of the whole, immense, superstructure.In studying such transformations, it is always necessary to distinguish between the material transformation of the economic conditions of production, which can be determined with the precision of natural science, and the legal, political, religious, artistic, or philosophic — in short, ideological forms in which men become conscious of this conflict and fight it out.

Just as one does not judge an individual by what he thinks about himself, so one cannot judge such a period of transformation by its consciousness, but, on the contrary, this consciousness must be explained from the contradictions of material life, from the conflict existing between the social forces of production and the relations of production.

Social Structure of Settlements

Page 125: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

RURAL URBAN EQUATIONS

125

person person

Growth of Urban Centers.

system

system

RURAL EQUATION

URBAN EQUATION

Infrastructure

pressure

sDENSITY

REGION

Social Structure of Settlements

Page 126: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

Cities generally have advanced systems for sanitation, utilities, land usage, housing, and transportation. The concentration of development greatly facilitates interaction between people and businesses, benefiting both parties in the process. A big city, or metropolis, usually has associated suburbs. Such cities are usually associated with metropolitan areas and urban sprawl, creating numerous business commuters traveling to urban centers of employment. Once a city sprawls far enough to reach another city, this region can be deemed a conurbation or megalopolis.

126citie

s

Page 127: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

127

It wasn't until the 1920s that modernism began to surface. Based on the ideas of Le Corbusier and utilising new skyscraper building techniques, the modernist city stood for the elimination of disorder, congestion and the small scale, replacing them instead with preplanned and widely spaced freeways and tower blocks set within gardens. There were plans for large scale rebuilding of cities, such as the Plan Voisin (based on Le Corbusier's Ville Contemporaine), which proposed clearing and rebuilding most of central Paris. No large-scale plans were implemented until after World War II however. Throughout the late 1940s and 1950s, housing shortages caused by wartime destruction led many cities to subsidize housing blocks. Planners used the opportunity to implement the modernist ideal of towers surrounded by gardens. The most prominent example of an entire modernist city is Brasilia, constructed between 1956 and 1960 in Brazil.

mod

erni

sm

Page 128: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

128

ADVOCATING GOOD AS NEW ;

By the late 1960s and early 1970s, many planners realized that modernism's clean lines and lack of human scale also sapped vitality from the community. The symptoms were high crime rates and social problems

mod

erni

sm

Page 129: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

129

fabr

ic

The composite demographics of an area, its ethnic composition, wealth, education, employment rate and regional values.

Page 130: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

• From Municipal Health to Environmental Justice• From the Linear City Transit Oriented Development• The Enduring City Beautiful• Garden Cities for Today• Geddes & Mumford: Design with Nature and the New Regionalism• Post-Modern Housing and the New Urbanism

Rise of Urban Centres.

Growth of Urban Centres.

Page 131: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

131

Planning as Consensus Seeking

John Forester makes a crucial distinction between two dimensions of planning problems. The first dimension, with which Lindblom was concerned, is uncertainty: the lack of information of the planned object in its present and some future state, and the lack of time and resources for the rational programming of planning work. This is the technical dimension of planning. But there is also the political dimension that concerns the legitimacy of the ends and means of planning.

Few important concepts of Urban Planning

Growth of Urban Centres.

Page 132: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

132

Planning as Consensus Seeking

There is also the political dimension that concerns the legitimacy of the ends and means of planning. Problems of legitimacy in planning have to do with ambiguity, according to Forester. Facing uncertainty, the planner is in need for more information; facing ambiguity, he is in need of practical judgment.

Few important concepts of Urban Planning

Growth of Urban Centres.

Page 133: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

133

Planning as Management Of Conflicts

The possibility of communicative rationality is based on the assertion that a shared context of life worldly values and understandings is achievable as soon as each participant withdraws from the use of power. There is a good case for a counterargument that in the present world we lead our lives in a society too differentiated into subcultures that a shared life world is no longer readily

Few important concepts of Urban Planning

Growth of Urban Centres.

Page 134: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

1. Evolution of Planning Perspectives

2. Layout Drawings & Concepts

3. Planning as Coordination of Present & Future

CONTENTS

Page 135: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

Stakeholder in 21st Century

Urb

an P

lann

ing

Page 136: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

136

Growth of Urban Centers.

Natural growth results from an excess of births over deaths within a city; this is growth caused by the natural reproduction of the city's residents. Net migration produces urban growth when migration into the city exceeds migration out of the city. Migrants into a city usually share the same nationality as their urban-born counterparts and originate from the country's rural areas. Many things attract these people to the city: most importantly, they may need to escape a rural environment increasingly incapable of sustaining them, and they may be attracted of by an urban environment that seems to offer a better standard living.

Page 137: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

REGIONS

137

Regions can be defined by physical characteristics, human characteristics, and functional characteristics. As a way of describing spatial areas, the concept of regions is important and widely used among the many branches of geography, each of which can describe areas in regional terms. For example, ecoregion is a term used in environmental geography, cultural region in cultural geography, bioregion in biogeography, and so on. The field of geography that studies regions themselves is called regional geography.

Regions defined based on landform characteristics are called "physiographic" or "geomorphic" regions.

A functional region or Nodal region, is a region that has a defined core that retains a specific characteristic that diminishes outwards. To be considered a Functional region, at least one form of spatial interaction must occur between the center and all other parts of the region. A functional region is organized around a node or focal point with the surrounding areas linked to that node by transportation systems, communication systems, or other economic association involving such activities as manufacturing and retail trading.

In politics, regionalism is a political ideology that focuses on the interests of a particular region or group of regions, whether traditional or formal (administrative divisions, country subdivisions, political divisions, subnational units). Regionalism centers on increasing the region's influence and political power, either through movements for limited form of autonomy (devolution, states' rights, decentralization) or through stronger measures for a greater degree of autonomy (sovereignty, separatism, independence). Regionalists often favor loose federations or confederations over a unitary state with a strong central government. Regionalism may be contrasted with nationalism.

Page 138: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

138

Urban, city, and town planning integrates land use planning and transport planning to improve the built and social environments of communities. Regional planning deals with a still larger environment, at a less detailed level.

Regi

onal

pla

nnin

g

Page 139: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

139

Regionalisation is the tendency to form regions, or the process of doing so. Regionalisation can be observed in various disciplines:In geography, it is the process of delineating the Earth into regions. In globalization discourse, it represents a world that becomes less interconnected, with a stronger regional focus.

In politics, it is the process of dividing a political entity or country into smaller jurisdictions (administrative divisions or subnational units) and transferring power from the central government to the regions; the opposite of unitarisation.

In sport, it is when a team has multiple "home" venues in different cities. Examples of regionalised teams include a few teams in the defunct American Basketball Association, or the Green Bay Packers when they played in both Green Bay and Milwaukee.

In linguistics, it is when a prestige language adopts features of a regional language, such as how, in medieval times, Church Latin developed regional pronunciation differences in Italy, France, Spain, and England.Re

gion

alis

ation

Page 140: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

The goal of socioeconomic study is generally to bring about socioeconomic development, usually in terms of improvements in metrics such as

GDP, life expectancy, literacy, levels of employment, etc

Although harder to measure, changes in less-tangible factors are also considered, such as personal dignity, freedom of association, personal safety and freedom from fear of physical harm, and the extent of participation in civil society 140

soci

oeco

nom

ic st

udy

Page 141: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

141

Urbanisation is the physical growth of urban areas as a result of global change. Urbanization is also defined by the United Nations as movement of people from rural to urban areas with population growth equating to urban migration.

urba

nisa

tion

Page 142: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

Urbanism is a focus on cities and urban areas, their geography, economies, politics, social characteristics, as well as the effects on, and caused by, the built environment.Urbanism is distinct from new urbanism in that it shies away from greenfield development in favor of revitalizing existing urban areas.

The of urbanism posits that traditional cities are vitally important to society. Cities or other dense human settlements are said to serve a variety of important functions.

142urba

nism

Page 143: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

Urbanism is a focus on cities and urban areas, their geography, economies, politics, social characteristics, as well as the effects on, and caused by, the built environment. Urbanism is distinct from new urbanism in that it shies away from greenfield development in favor of revitalizing existing urban areas. Urbanism as a philosophyThe of urbanism posits that traditional cities are vitally important to society. Cities or other dense human settlements are said to serve a variety of important functions.

143regi

on

Page 144: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

144

Planning

• Ensure proper utilization of land in the interest of the residents of the area• Provision of an efficient traffic and transportation network• Make provisions for civic amenities and social facilities to cater to the

present and future needs of the residents community• Reserve sites for public utilities, transport and other services to meet

present as well as future requirements of the area• Preserve buildings and areas of historical, religious and cultural significance• Improve existing living conditions, physical quality of life, and guide future

development.

plan

ning

Page 145: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

145

Aspects of planning

1. Urban Aesthetics2. Safety3. Slums4. Urban Decay5. Reconstruction & Renewal6. Transport

plan

ning

Page 146: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

Development is index of our pursuit for comfort and has thus become index of sellable comfort in modern times and is challenging sustainability through consumption of natural resources and damage to the delicate balance of Environment through multiple means. When Planners talk about Urban issues, they mention forces in the system of a settlement and public habits and prescribe step by step evolution of corrections in the settlements rather than one time ready to use designs .

146

The context is development as a consequence.

Page 147: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

147

CoSGOP is not a planning method but a process model. It provides a framework for communication and joint decision-making in a structured process characterised by feed-back loops and it facilitates a learning process of all the stakeholders involved.

The essential elements of CoSGOP are : Analysis of stakeholders (This is oriented towards identifying stakeholders’ perception of problems and their interest and expectations);Analysis of problems and potentials (This analysis does not only include an overview over objective problems but also of problems and potentials as perceived by stakeholders);Development of goals, improvement priorities and alternatives (The definition of goals, objectives for development requires intensive communication and an active participation of the concerned stakeholders);Specification of an improvement programme and main activities

Colla

bora

tive

Stra

tegi

c Goa

l O

rient

ed P

rogr

amm

ing

Page 148: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

RURAL AREA

TRANSITION PHASE

URBAN

AREA

148sust

aina

ble

deve

lopm

ent

NEEDS

RESOURCES

CONSUMPTI

ON

LOSS

Page 149: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

Agenda 21

149

The Agenda 21 addresses the pressing problems of today and also aims at preparing the world for the challenges of the next century. Integration of environment and development concerns and greater attention to problems will lead to fulfillment of basic needs, improved living standards for all, better protected and managed ecosystems and a safer, more prosperous future. However, successful implementation is first and foremost the responsibility of Governments, also, national strategies, plans, policies and processes are crucial in achieving this. (United Nations Division for Sustainable Development, 1999)

Nongkhai, located in North-East Thailand, used Local Agenda 21 to create a community-based land-use planning and management process. The community, in partnership with local government and other agencies developed and adopted the land use plans. Nongkhai's communities initiated the bottom-up planning approach as a result of community problems and the desire to impart local cultural and social structure to the local government. Representatives from local government and the community formed a Project Team to tackle pressing land use concerns. As a result, community workshops were held and land use plans developed and integrated into community development plans.

Page 150: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

The Kyoto mechanisms are:

Emissions trading – known as “the carbon market"

Clean development mechanism (CDM) Joint implementation (JI).

Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions .These amount to an average of five per cent against 1990 levels over the five-year period 2008-2012.

150

Page 151: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

CARBON BUDGETING

The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.The cycle is usually thought of as four major reservoirs of carbon interconnected by pathways of exchange.

151

Page 152: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

CARBON foot printingThe Ecological Footprint has emerged as the world’s premier measure of humanity’s demand on nature. It measures how much land and water area a human population requires to produce the resource it consumes and to absorb its wastes, using prevailing technology.

The carbon footprint is a measure of the exclusive total amount of carbon dioxide emissions that is directly and indirectly caused by an activity or is accumulated over the life stages of a product."

152

Page 153: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

Quantitative Ecologymeasure the variability present in the natural world and to understand the causes of that variability. However, the spatial and temporal pattern in which nature varies can affect both our ability to measure a particular phenomenon and our perception of its causes, and it is for this reason that the concept of ‘‘scale’’ is important.

Consider, first, the issue of measurement. A trivial example illustrates the problem. If one desires to measure a representative air temperature for a site, one must be aware that there are both daily and seasonal fluctuations. Measurements made solely at night in January or at noon in July would not be accurate predictors of the temperature for a time chosen at random. Knowledge of the major temporal scales of variation in temperature (in this case, scales of one day and one year)

153

Page 154: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

Sustainable Development"Development which meets the needs and aspirations of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs“ (The Bruntland Report, 1987)

Most societies want to achieve economic development to secure higher standards of living, now and for future generations. They also seek to protect and enhance their environment, now and for their children. Sustainable development tries to reconcile these two objectives.

154

Page 155: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

155sust

aina

ble

deve

lopm

ent

Some planners say that modern lifestyles use too many natural resources, polluting or destroying ecosystems, increasing social inequality overheating urban heat islands, and causing climate changes. Many urban planners therefore advocate sustainable cities.

Page 156: Development of Settlements - Planning Perspectives

A CONCIOUS DEVELOPMENT THROUGH PLANNING

156

THANK YOU

However, sustainable development is a recent, controversial concept – where development comes with momentum of ‘consumption and better needs’.