Development of Personality

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This presentation includes various theories of human development. Each stage of development and growth are also mentioned with related pictures and exapmles.

Transcript of Development of Personality

  • 1. In the Name of The Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful

2. DEVELOPMENTDEVELOPMENT OFOF PERSONALITYPERSONALITY Presentation ByPresentation By SYED NOSHAD HUSSAINSYED NOSHAD HUSSAIN Lecturer in Pakistan StudiesLecturer in Pakistan Studies DPS D.G.KhanDPS D.G.Khan Syed_noshad@hotmail.comSyed_noshad@hotmail.com 3. The Holy Quran SaysThe Holy Quran Says 4. What is meant byWhat is meant by Personality?Personality? The word Personality is taken from a LatinThe word Personality is taken from a Latin wordword PERSONAPERSONA which means mask.which means mask. Personality is defined as the distinguishingPersonality is defined as the distinguishing characteristics of an individual whichcharacteristics of an individual which differentiate him/her from others whendifferentiate him/her from others when displayed in a wide variety of situations anddisplayed in a wide variety of situations and circumstances especially social onescircumstances especially social ones.. 5. In fact, the development of personality which is theIn fact, the development of personality which is the outcome of interaction between genetic make-up ofoutcome of interaction between genetic make-up of an individual and his environment starts parentallyan individual and his environment starts parentally or even before conception since genetics hasor even before conception since genetics has something to do with it.something to do with it. Positive Personality Negative PersonalityPositive Personality Negative Personality Introversion Personality ExtroversionIntroversion Personality Extroversion PersonalityPersonality 6. DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITYDETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY ENVIRINMENTAL FACTORSENVIRINMENTAL FACTORS CulturalCultural RacialRacial SocioeconomicSocioeconomic EducationalEducational Social guidanceSocial guidance Health conditionsHealth conditions Parental educationParental education Emotional statesEmotional states Social interactionSocial interaction 7. TheThe IntrinsicIntrinsic FactorsFactors BiologicalDrivessuchasBiologicalDrivessuchas HomeostaticHomeostatic SexualSexual DefensiveDefensive andAssimilatorydrivesandAssimilatorydrives HereditaryTemperamentalDifferences.HereditaryTemperamentalDifferences. 8. Theories of PersonalityTheories of Personality DevelopmentDevelopment There are a number of theories regardingThere are a number of theories regarding development like Learning Theory, Humanisticdevelopment like Learning Theory, Humanistic Theory , Cognitive Theory , Biological Theory ,Theory , Cognitive Theory , Biological Theory , Psychoanalytic Theory of personality. But thisPsychoanalytic Theory of personality. But this presentation is mainly based on followingpresentation is mainly based on following theoriestheories.. 1.1. Psychosexual/PsychoanalyticPsychosexual/Psychoanalytic Development : Sigmund FreudDevelopment : Sigmund Freud 2.2. Psychoanalytic Theory :Eric Erikson andPsychoanalytic Theory :Eric Erikson and Stack SullivanStack Sullivan 9. Sigmund FreudsSigmund Freuds TheoryTheory ofof Psychosexual DevelopmentPsychosexual Development According to Freud personalityAccording to Freud personality development takes place in fivedevelopment takes place in five stages:stages: The Oral StageThe Oral Stage The Anal StageThe Anal Stage The Phallic StageThe Phallic Stage The Latent PeriodThe Latent Period Genital StageGenital Stage Libido , Fixation , Oedipus or Electra ComplexLibido , Fixation , Oedipus or Electra Complex 10. Psychoanalytic Theory : EricPsychoanalytic Theory : Eric Erikson and Stack SullivanErikson and Stack Sullivan Developed form of the Freud theoryDeveloped form of the Freud theory They have divided development ofThey have divided development of personality into eight stages:personality into eight stages: Infancy StageInfancy Stage Toddler HoodToddler Hood Preschool StagePreschool Stage School Age StageSchool Age Stage Adolescence StageAdolescence Stage Young AdulthoodYoung Adulthood Middle Adulthood StageMiddle Adulthood Stage Older Adulthood StageOlder Adulthood Stage 11. Development Stages and theirDevelopment Stages and their Major CharacteristicMajor Characteristic 12. INFANCY STAGEINFANCY STAGE ( O to 1 Year)( O to 1 Year) The nurturing persons mustThe nurturing persons must limitate their behavi in addition tolimitate their behavi in addition to fulfilling their needs such as foodfulfilling their needs such as food and warmth..and warmth.. Infants need stimulating andInfants need stimulating and socializing experiences forsocializing experiences for developing into a person.developing into a person. The sense of confidence isThe sense of confidence is established when the infant gainsestablished when the infant gains a feeling that caregivers have fora feeling that caregivers have for them.them. Erikson has thought about whenErikson has thought about when he considered trust Vs mistrust tohe considered trust Vs mistrust to be the psychosocial crisis duringbe the psychosocial crisis during this period of lifethis period of life 13. The Developmental Tasks of InfancyThe Developmental Tasks of Infancy Learning To WalkLearning To Walk Beginning To TalkBeginning To Talk Communicate With OthersCommunicate With Others Beginning To Have EmotionalBeginning To Have Emotional Relationships CaregiversRelationships Caregivers Learning To Eat Solid FoodsLearning To Eat Solid Foods Developing Stable SleepDeveloping Stable Sleep Eating PeriodsEating Periods 14. TODDLERS HOOD STAGETODDLERS HOOD STAGE ( 1 to 3 Year)( 1 to 3 Year) During this stage, increased motorDuring this stage, increased motor development permits increased physicaldevelopment permits increased physical autonomy.autonomy. At this stage, the child's curiosityAt this stage, the child's curiosity increases.They now explore new dimensionsincreases.They now explore new dimensions of relationships with parents.of relationships with parents. In order to maintain a satisfactory relationshipIn order to maintain a satisfactory relationship with parents, the child has to obey rules.with parents, the child has to obey rules. The bond between caregiver and childThe bond between caregiver and child becomes intense and the child stronglybecomes intense and the child strongly resists separationresists separation 15. The Developmental Tasks of Toddlers Tolerating Separation From the Primary Caregiver Using Words To Communicate With others, Becoming Less Dependent On The Primary Caregiver 16. PRESCHOOL STAGEPRESCHOOL STAGE ( 3 to 6 Year)( 3 to 6 Year) During this stage, there is tremendousDuring this stage, there is tremendous growth in vocabulary and continuousgrowth in vocabulary and continuous chatter is a characteristic.chatter is a characteristic. In addition, persistent questioning is theIn addition, persistent questioning is the tool by which the preschooler explores thetool by which the preschooler explores the environment.environment. During this stage, a child becomes moreDuring this stage, a child becomes more cooperative with his/her family as he/shecooperative with his/her family as he/she becomes eager to parental demands.becomes eager to parental demands. The child is still emotionally linked andThe child is still emotionally linked and dependent on his/her parents.dependent on his/her parents. The child becomes socially interacting andThe child becomes socially interacting and cooperative.cooperative. 17. The Developmental Tasks of Preschoolers increasing the ability toincreasing the ability to communicate and understandcommunicate and understand others,others, performing self-care activities,performing self-care activities, learning the difference betweenlearning the difference between sexes and developing sexualsexes and developing sexual modesty,modesty, learning right from wrong andlearning right from wrong and good from bad and developinggood from bad and developing family relationshipsfamily relationships 18. School Age StageSchool Age Stage ( 6 to 12 Year)( 6 to 12 Year) This stage is the time for entering school.This stage is the time for entering school. Children move out of their homes into worldsChildren move out of their homes into worlds therefore their self concepts, value systems andtherefore their self concepts, value systems and cognitive capacities change.cognitive capacities change. In addition, children enter the world of peerIn addition, children enter the world of peer groups and their behavior is influencedgroups and their behavior is influenced Attending school implies new expectations fromAttending school implies new expectations from a child. They now represent their families whoa child. They now represent their families who want to be proud of their child.want to be proud of their child. At this stage, the child starts comparing him/herAt this stage, the child starts comparing him/her self with class mates or playmates.self with class mates or playmates. Such circumstances stimulate the child to be asSuch circumstances stimulate the child to be as better as possible.better as possible. 19. This is the time when transition fromThis is the time when transition from ascribed to achieved status starts toascribed to achieved status starts to take place.take place. In school, a child is treated as a partIn school, a child is treated as a part of a collectivity rather than asof a collectivity rather than as individual at home.individual at home. This requires the child to forget manyThis requires the child to forget many desires that may not enable him to fitdesires that may not enable him to fit into the group.into the group. The school child's evaluation of himThe school child's evaluation of him self starts when adults, school matesself starts when adults, school mates and playmates evaluate him/her.and playmates evaluate him/her. A new set of values is acquired byA new set of values is acquired by the c