Development of a Cheddar Cheese Using Biological Preservatives as Substitute for Chemical...

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In here i try to evaluate preservative ability of biological preservative over chemical preservatives.

Transcript of Development of a Cheddar Cheese Using Biological Preservatives as Substitute for Chemical...

  • Development of a Cheddar Cheese Using Biological Preservatives as Substitute for Chemical Preservatives
  • Introduction Milk is the most natural and nutritious, single food on the earth Cows milk use for make several types of foods Cheese is a preserved form of milk made by using live cultures to transform the milk through chemical process, and then by the coagulation
  • Problem and Justification Cheese have high nutritional value Preservatives use for the prevent the spoilage Preservatives Chemical Biological
  • By using chemical preservatives Can use biological preservatives
  • Nisin Lysozyme Lactic Acid Bacteria
  • Objectives General Objective Development of a Cheddar cheese using biological Preservatives as substitute for chemical preservatives Preservatives
  • Specific Objectives To evaluate sensory properties of the cheddar cheese To assess the microbial properties of cheddar cheese To evaluate the physico-chemical properties of the cheddar cheese
  • Methodology Step 1 Preliminary studies Step 2 Cheese making process Step 3 Analysis of samples
  • Raw milk Cooling milkPasteurizationStandardization Add preservatives Add CaCl2 Starter inoculation Add rennet Incubation Remove whey Heat/Cooking 1 Cut curd Milling Heat/ Cooking 2 Remove wheyPressing Salting Cheddar cheese Waxing & Storing Molding Cheddar Cheese Making Process
  • Preliminary Studies Study 01 - Select optimum time for the incubation pH were measured in each samples Treatment Temperature Time T1 32C 30 minutes T2 32C 45 minutes T3 32C 60 minutes T4 32C 75 minutes
  • Study 02 - Select the optimum level of Rennet Flavor was checked in each sample during storage Treatment Amount Time T1 0.05% 30 minutes T2 0.04% 30 minutes T3 0.06% 30 minutes
  • Study 03 - Select the optimum temperature for cooking Flavor and odor were checked in each sample during storage Treatment Temperature Time T1 32C 40 minutes T2 35C 40 minutes T3 38C 40 minutes
  • Selection of the best sample made by using different preservatives Treatment Preservative T1 - T2 Lysozyme T3 NaNO3 T4 Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) T5 Nisin
  • Sensory Evaluation Used 35 untrained panelists Ranking test (5-like very much to 1-dislike very much) Color, Flavor, Texture, Odor and Overall acceptability
  • Analysis of Cheese Samples A. Physico-chemical analysis B. Microbial analysis C. Proximity analysis D. Sensory evaluation Week 0 Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 A B A B A B D A B A B C
  • 1. Physico-chemical Analysis Dry matter percentage (DM %) - Oven dry method Moisture percentage (M %) - (100 DM%) Texture - Instron machine pH - pH meter Titratable acidity - Titrating with NaOH
  • 2. Proximate analysis Fat content - Gerber method Protein content - Kjeldhal method Ash content - Ignition in Muffle furnace
  • 3. Microbial Analysis Yeast and Mold count - PDA Total lactic acid bacteria count - MRS agar Coliform count - Violet red bile agar
  • Data Analysis Parametric data analysis ANOVA for significance under =0.05 level using SAS Data from sensory analysis Friedman non parametric test using Minitab Data from microbial analysis Compare with Sri Lankan Standards (SLS 773-1987)
  • Study 01 - Select optimum time for the incubation 45 min in 32C incubated sample (T2) was given optimum pH (5.6-5.9) Treatment pH T1 6.4 T2 5.8 T3 5.1 T4 4.7 Results and Discussion
  • Study 02 - Select the optimum level of rennet 0.05% and 0.06% had bitter taste (1 week storage) 0.04 % able to obtain a fine textured cheese without bitter taste 0.06 %0.04 % 0.05 %
  • Study 03 - Select the optimum temperature for cooking T3 sample (38C in 40 min) was better than other No bitter taste and off odor during storage
  • Sensory Evaluation The best sample is nisin incorporated sample There was a significant difference in all attributes except in colour 0 1 2 3 4 5 Colour Flavour OdorTexture Overall acceptability Control Lysozyme NaNO3 Lactic acid bacteria Nisin
  • Physico-chemical Analysis Titratable acidity variation of samples 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 0 1 2 3 4 Titratableacidity Weeks Control Lysozyme NaNO3 LAB Nisin
  • pH variation of samples 4.00 4.50 5.00 5.50 6.00 6.50 7.00 7.50 0 1 2 3 4 pH Weeks Control Lysozyme NaNO3 LAB Nisin
  • Texture variation of samples 0.020 0.021 0.022 0.023 0.024 0.025 0.026 0.027 0.028 0.029 0.030 0 1 2 3 4 Texture(N) Weeks Control Lysozyme NaNO3 LAB Nisin
  • Dry matter content variation of samples 50.00 55.00 60.00 65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 0 1 2 3 4 Drymatter% Weeks Control Lysozyme NaNO3 LAB Nisin
  • Moisture content variation of sample 20.00 25.00 30.00 35.00 40.00 45.00 50.00 55.00 0 1 2 3 4 Moisture% Weeks Control Lysozyme NaNO3 LAB Nisin
  • Proximate Analysis Fat content a a a a a 0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 16.00 18.00 Fat% Cheese Samples Control Lysozyme NaNO3 LAB Nisin
  • Protein content a a a a a 8.25 8.3 8.35 8.4 8.45 8.5 8.55 8.6 8.65 8.7 8.75 Protien% Cheese Samples Control Lysozyme NaNO3 LAB Nisin
  • Ash content a a a a a 9.20 9.40 9.60 9.80 10.00 10.20 10.40 10.60 10.80 11.00 11.20 Ash% Cheese Samples Control Lysozyme NaNO3 LAB Nisin
  • Microbial Analysis Yeast and Mold count 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 0 1 2 3 4 cfu/g Weeks Control Lysozyme NaNO3 LAB Nisin
  • Total lactic acid bacteria count Coliform count were zero during storage 7.90 8.00 8.10 8.20 8.30 8.40 8.50 8.60 8.70 0 1 2 3 4 Logcfu/g Weeks Control Nisin
  • Conclusion Biological preservative can be used to preserve the Cheddar cheese effectively without affecting the sensory qualities Nisin is the best biological preservative among the tested preservatives
  • Suggestions Use biological preservatives as a blend and evaluate the preservative ability Incorporation of starter culture with probiotic microorganisms may bring additional benefits and preservative ability
  • Cost Benefit Analysis Preservative g per 100l of milk Price for kg Nisin 0.5 Rs. 18000 Lysozyme 2.5 Rs. 22000 NaNO3 1.5 Rs. 8500 LAB 5 Rs. 42000 1l 40g 50g