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  • Designing future experiences of the everyday

    Turku, Finland, June 12, 2019Constructing Social Futures 2019

    Claudia Garduño García &İdil Gaziulusoy

  • Systematic literature review

    1. Scoping / Mapping

  • 2. Systematized review

    Systematic literature review

  • Experiential futures

  • Experientialscenarios

    Embodied experience

    Speculative design

    Everyday life

    Alternative realityVirtualreality

    Experiential futures

    Candy (2010)

  • Experientialscenarios

    Embodied experience

    Performing arts

    Dance

    Drills

    Installations Prehearsals

    VisualizationPrototyping

    Participatory processes

    Pre-enactments

    No spectators, only participants

    Inhabiting uncertainty

    Future preparedness

    Visionary adaptation

    Role-playing

    Speculative design

    Everyday life

    Alternative realityVirtualreality

    Experiential futures

    Candy (2010) Kuzmanovic & Gafney (2017)

  • Experientialscenarios

    Embodied experience

    Performing arts

    Dance

    Drills

    Installations Prehearsals

    VisualizationPrototyping

    Participatory processes

    Pre-enactments

    No spectators, only participants

    Inhabiting uncertainty

    Future preparedness

    Visionary adaptation

    Role-playing

    Speculative design

    Everyday life

    Alternative realityVirtualreality

    Experience design& theatre

    Future studies& theatre

    Embodied future

    Embodiment & Art

    Alternative reality& experience

    Applied futures

    Experiential futures

    Candy (2010) Kuzmanovic & Gafney (2017)

  • Experientialscenarios

    Embodied experience

    Performing arts

    Dance

    Drills

    Installations Prehearsals

    VisualizationPrototyping

    Participatory processes

    Pre-enactments

    No spectators, only participants

    Inhabiting uncertainty

    Future preparedness

    Visionary adaptation

    Role-playing

    Speculative design

    Everyday life

    Alternative realityVirtualreality

    Experience design& theatre

    Future studies& theatre

    Embodied future

    Embodiment & Art

    Alternative reality& experience

    Applied futures

    Participation

    Art

    Learning

    Bodily

    Simulation

    Psychology

    Physicality

    Aesthetics

    Improvisation

    Scenarios

    Feminism

    Pragmatism

    Sustainability

    Design fiction

    Lived experince

    Subjective experience

    Experiential futures

    Candy (2010) Kuzmanovic & Gafney (2017)

  • Main themes:

    Aesthetics Art Learning Design Experiential futures Forward theatre Future Improvisation Participation Psychology Scenario Simulation Sustainability

  • FUTURESAlternative Futures

    Methodology

    POLITICSPolitics ofAesthetics

    DESIGNExperience

    Design

    Candy (2010)

    Experiential Futures

  • Timeline experiential futures

    1960 1970 19801950 1990 2000 2020

    THE COMMISSIONON THE YEAR 2000

    HAWAII 2000:PRESENT, PAST,

    AND FUTURE

    HAWAII2000

    HAWAII 2050

    The Institute for the FutureWorld Future SocietyThe FuturistFuturiblesFuturology

    Delphi techniqueTech. forecasting

    Social forecasting

    TOWARD THE YEAR 2000

    CANDY, 2010:EXPERIENTIAL

    FUTURES

  • Timeline experiential futures

    1960 1970 19801950 1990 2000 2020

    THE COMMISSIONON THE YEAR 2000

    HAWAII 2000:PRESENT, PAST,

    AND FUTURE

    HAWAII2000

    HAWAII 2050

    The Institute for the FutureWorld Future SocietyThe FuturistFuturiblesFuturology

    Delphi techniqueTech. forecasting

    Social forecasting

    TOWARD THE YEAR 2000

    CANDY, 2010:EXPERIENTIAL

    FUTURES

    “(Hawaii 2000) A creative failure”

    (Dator et al., 1999)

  • Futures & Design

  • “Directed action toward preferredfutures may even be understood

    as fundamental to some conceptions of design...”

    (Mazé, 2016; 37–38)

    Futures & Design

  • Bruce Sterling & science fiction

    1995 · Dead media project1998 · Viridian Design2005 · “Shaping things”

  • David A. Kirby & Hollywood

    · Scientists in movie sets· ‘Diegetic prototype’· Sterling & Bleecker

  • · Scientists in movie sets· ‘Diegetic prototype’· Sterling & Bleecker

    Persuasion

    David A. Kirby & Hollywood

  • Dunne & Raby & the speculative

    · Satire for good purpose· Language of design· Museums, galleries, and expert audiences· Deep reflection, behavioural change

  • Dunne & Raby & the speculative

    · Satire for good purpose· Language of design· Museums, galleries, and expert audiences· Deep reflection, behavioural change

    Warning

  • Cynthia Selin & futures and design

    · Anticipation and Deliberation· Emerge 2012 (Futures 70)· Oxford Futures Forum 2014 (Futures 74)

  • 1960

    1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 2015

    1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020

    CriticalDesign

    EcologicalDesign

    DfSSustainableDesign

    RadicalArch.

    Co-designParticipatoryDesign

    EmpathicDesign

    UserExperience

    ExperienceDesign

    HCDUCDErgonomics

    SpeculativeDesign

    DesignFiction

    Commissionon the Year

    2000

    Hawaii2000

    Futuresjournal

    CriticalFutures

    ForesightJournal

    CorporateFutures

    OthersʼFutures

    Foresight

    WFS

    Shell

    Hawaii2050

    Emerge OFF

    ExperientialFutures

    Immersionand changeImmersion

    Fiction andempathy

    Fiction andToM

    Futu

    res

    Des

    ign

    Lite

    ratu

    rePs

    ycho

    logy

    Neu

    rosc

    ienc

    eFutures and design timeline

  • What is everyday?

  • My Everyday

    Now

    SUDDEN

    SLOWSLOW

    SUDDEN

    Constant

    Chan

    ging

    homework

    hobbies

    objectsevents

    attituderelations

    actions

    habitualnormal routine

    DEVELOPMENT

    PARTY

    DISASTER

    STAG

    NATI

    ON

    AVOID

    ASPIRE

    Naukkarinen (2013)

    What is everyday?

  • My Everyday

    Now

    SUDDEN

    SLOWSLOW

    SUDDEN

    Constant

    Chan

    ging

    DEVELOPMENT

    PARTY

    DISASTER

    STAG

    NATI

    ON

    AVOID

    ASPIRE

    objectspeople

    action/eventrelations

    Garduño, 2018 based on Kelliher & Byrne, 2015, and Naukkarinen, 2013.

    What is everyday?

  • How to construct an extraordinary ordinary

    experience?

  • How to convey an embodied experience of the everyday

    in futures?

  • 1960

    1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 2015

    1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020

    CriticalDesign

    EcologicalDesign

    DfSSustainableDesign

    RadicalArch.

    Co-designParticipatoryDesign

    EmpathicDesign

    UserExperience

    ExperienceDesign

    HCDUCDErgonomics

    SpeculativeDesign

    DesignFiction

    Commissionon the Year

    2000

    Hawaii2000

    Futuresjournal

    CriticalFutures

    ForesightJournal

    CorporateFutures

    OthersʼFutures

    Foresight

    WFS

    Shell

    Hawaii2050

    Emerge OFF

    ExperientialFutures

    Immersionand changeImmersion

    Fiction andempathy

    Fiction andToM

    Futu

    res

    Des

    ign

    Lite

    ratu

    rePs

    ycho

    logy

    Neu

    rosc

    ienc

    ePsychology and literature

  • Transportation

    Gerrig (1993)

    Readers are often described as “travelers” being transported by some means of transportation as a result of performing certain actions. They go some distance from their world of origin, which makes some aspects of that world inaccessible. The travelers return to the world of origin somewhat changed by the journey.

  • Terms for non-lived experience

    ToM. Theory of Mind: The ability to think of others’ thoughts and feelings.

    Empathy. “I feel what you feel”

    Vicarious. Experienced in the imagination through the feelings or actions of another person.

  • In the simulations of fiction, personal truths can be explored that allow readers to experience emotions —their own emotions—

    Fiction and emotions

    Oatley (1999)

  • The Abstraction and Simulation of Social Experience.

    Scripts are sequenced representations of prototypical elements of a common interaction, such as visiting a restaurant.

    Most fiction strives for realism in the most important aspects of human experience: the psychological and the social.

    The function of Fiction

    Mar & Oatley (2008)

  • Readers of fiction score higher on measures of empathy and theory of mind (ToM) than non-readers, even after controlling for age, gender, intelligence and personality factors.

    However, the experiences of narrative worlds will be optional: a text cannot force a reader to experience a narrative world.

    Fiction readers

    Mar et al.,2006, 2009, 2010

  • Fiction-based belief change has now been demonstratedby independent investigators (Prentice, Gerrig, & Bailis, 1997; Strange & Leung, 1999; Wheeler, Green, & Brock, 1999).

    Belief-change

    Green & Brock (2000)

  • Ernie, do you realise what we are doing in this picture? The audience is like a giant organ that you and I are playing. At one moment we play this note and get this reaction, and then we play that chord and they react that way. And someday we won’t even have to make a movie -- there’ll be electrodes implanted in their brains, and we’ll just press different buttons and they’ll go ‘oooh!’ and ‘aaah’ and we’ll frighten them, and we’ll make them laugh. Won’t that be wonderful?

    Hitchcock to Lehman:

    Candy (2010; 108)

  • Neuroscience

    Fiction reading recruits the default network because it elicits at least two different types of simulation: the simulation of vivid physical scenes and the simulation of people and minds.

    Participants who read fiction most often also showed the strongest social cognition performance.

    Repeated engagement in social simulation through fiction might bring beneficial changes to the default network, and concomitant benefits for social ability.

    Tamir et al. (2016)

  • (Early) findings

  • 1960

    1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 2015

    1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020

    CriticalDesign

    EcologicalDesign

    DfSSustainableDesign

    RadicalArch.

    Co-designParticipatoryDesign

    EmpathicDesign

    UserExperience

    ExperienceDesign

    HCDUCDErgonomics

    SpeculativeDesign

    DesignFiction

    Commissionon the Year

    2000

    Hawaii2000

    Futuresjournal

    CriticalFutures

    ForesightJournal

    CorporateFutures

    OthersʼFutures

    Foresight

    WFS

    Shell

    Hawaii2050

    Emerge OFF

    ExperientialFutures

    Immersionand changeImmersion

    Fiction andempathy

    Fiction andToM

    Futu

    res

    Des

    ign

    Lite

    ratu

    rePs

    ycho

    logy

    Neu

    rosc

    ienc

    e

    (Early) findings

  • (Early) findings

    Futures aware of design, design not very aware, and confused about futures.

    It is the content and complexity of the story that is important, not the characteristics of its transmission.

    The most powerful tales tend to be those that involve negative aspects, such as dilemmas to be overcome or obstacles to be surmonted.

    It is easier to be transported into a world not too far from one’s own.

    Fiction readers might be ideal participants.

  • (fictional)narrative

    writtenphoto

    illustration

    audi

    oth

    eatre

    video

    object

    VRAR

    exhibition

    video

    gam

    egame

    Pool of media

  • Pool of methods3D printed objectsAmbiguous designAlternative reality gamesCritical designDanceDesign FictionDesign Fiction moviesDiegetic PrototypesDrillsDivinationExperience designFutures workshopsInstallationsLearning journeysLive action role-playingLudic design

    Media simulationsMoviesMultimedia performancesParticipatory processesPerformancePerforming actsPlace based interventionsPrototypingSpeculative design artifactsVisualization

    Futures made aparent can be discussed, maybe they become malleable.(Kuzmanovic & Gaffney, 2017)

  • Opportunities

    Our literature review, with a special focus on sustainability transformations has led us to look into means and methods through which people could deliberate about futures by having immersive experiences into their future everyday lives.

  • Being critical

    Experiential futures proponents seem to be concerned with reaching wide audiences, little attention is paid to measuring the effects of experiential futures in the participants.

    Deliberation is central to many of the authors, nonetheless, it is not clear how experiential futures have been used in deliberating futures.

  • · Fake news· Psychosis· Manipulation· “The game”

    Ethical implications

  • Bell, D. (1970). The Commission on the Year 2000. “Futures”, September 1970, 263–269.Bleecker, J. (2009). Design Fiction: A short essay on design, science, fact and fiction. “Near

    Future Laboratory” 29 (2009).Candy, S. (2010). “The futures of everyday life: Politics and the design of experiential scenarios”.

    University of Hawaii.Dator, et al. (1999). “Hawaii 2000: Past, Present and Future”. Report prepared for the Office of

    Planning, Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT), Honolulu: Social science Research Institute, University of Hawaii, December.

    Dunne, A. & Raby, F. (2013). “Speculative everything: design fiction, and social dreaming”. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

    Gerrig, R. (1993). Two metaphors for the experience of narrative worlds. in “Experiencing Narrative Worlds: On the psychological activities of reading”. New Haven, USA: Yale UP., 1–25.

    Green, M. & Brock, T. (2000). The role of transportation in the persuasiveness of public narratives. “Journal of personality and social psychology”. 79 (5), 701–721.

    References

  • Kirby, D.A. (2009) The Future is Now: Hollywood Science Consultants, Diegetic Prototypes and the Role of Cinematic Narratives in Generating Real-World Technological Development, “Social Studies of Science”, 40(1): 41-70.

    Kuzmanovic, M. & Gaffney, N. (2017). Enacting futures in postnormal times. “Futures”. 86, 107–117.

    Mar, R. & Oatley, K. (2008). The function of fiction is the abstraction and simulation of social experience. “Perspectives on Psychological Science”, 3 (3), 173–192.

    Mar, R., Oatley, K. & Peterson, J. (2006). Exploring the link between reading fiction and empathy: Rulling out individual differences and examining outcomes. “Communications”, 34, 407–428.

    Mazé, R. (2016). Design and the Future: Temporal Politics of ‘Making a Difference’. In Smith, R. et al., eds. “Design Anthropological Futures”. (1). London, GB: Bloomsbury Academic.

    Meadows, D., et al. (1972). “The Limits to growth; a report for the Club of Rome’s project on the predicament of mankind”. New York :Universe Books.

    Oatley, K. (1999). Why fiction may be twice as true as fact: Fiction as cognitive and emotional simulation. “Review of General Psychology”, 3(2), 101–117.

    Selin, C. (2015). Merging art and design in foresight: Making sense of Emerge. “Futures”, 70, 24–35.

    Selin, C. et al. (2015). Scenarios and design: Scoping the dialogue space. “Futures”, 74, 4–17.Simon, H. (1996). “The Sciences of the Artificial”. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

  • Skirpan, M., Cameron, J., and Yeh, T. (2018). More than a show: Using personalized immersive theater to educate and engage the public in technology ethics. CHI 2018, April 21–26, 2018, Montreal, QC, Canada. Paper 464.

    Son, H. (2015). The History of Western futures studies: An exploration of the intellectual traditions and three-phase periodization. “Futures”, 66, 120–137.

    Sterling, B. (2005). “Shaping Things”. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Tamir, D. (2016). Reading fiction and reading minds: the role of simulation in the default network”.

    11 (2), 215–224.

  • Thanks for listening!

    Comments and questions appreciated!

    Claudia Garduño García: [email protected]İdil Gaziulusoy: [email protected]