Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

download Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

of 74

  • date post

    10-Feb-2018
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    220
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    1/74

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    2/74

    2

    KONKAN GYANPEETH

    COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KARJAT

    CERTIFICATE

    This is to certify that the Mr. KAUSTUBH VINAY KOKANE has successfully

    carried out the project entitled IMPLEMENTATION OF PRODUCTIVITY

    MEASUREMENT SYSTEM IN FABRICATION DEPARTMENT during semester VII

    in partial fulfillment of Bachelor of Engineering in Production Engineering degree

    awarded by the Mumbai University in the academic year 2011-2012.

    Prof. V. K. Gajare Mr. Vasuki P. H. Mr. S. S. Agarkar

    (College Guide) (HOD, Fabrication-19) (Company Guide &

    GM- Manufacturing)

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    3/74

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    4/74

    4

    SYNOPSIS

    NAME OF COLLEGE : Konkan Gyanpeeth College of Engineering,

    Karjat

    CLASS : B.E. (PRODUCTION)

    SEMESTER : VII (REVISED)

    ACADEMIC YEAR : 2011-2012

    PROJECT TITLE : DESIGN & IMPLEMENTATION OF

    PRODUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT SYSTEM IN

    FABRICATION DEPARTMENT

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    5/74

    5

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    On successful completion of my 7th semester in-plant training at Godrej & Boyce

    Mfg. Co. Ltd., I take this opportunity to convey my profound gratitude to all concerned

    people who have helped me.

    It is only befitting, that I first thank our college management and respected Principal

    Mr. M. B. Lele, our H.O.D. Mr. A. G. Nagpure, Training & Placement in-charge Mr. S. R.

    Shastri & my project guide Mr. V. K. Gajare for arranging this in-plant training.

    I thank Mr. Uday Deshmane (Training & placement officer, Godrej) for giving me an

    opportunity to work in the PES division at Godrej Vikhroli establishment.

    I am indebted to my company guide Mr. S. S. Agarkar, Mr. Vasuki P. H. and Mr. S.

    B. Nuchu for their valuable guidance and support throughout my training period. I would

    also like to express my heartfelt gratitude to Mr.Biswadeep S Biswas, Mr. Amit R. Panchal,

    Mr. Navaj A. Sattar, Mr. Alam Khan and Mr. Prashant Warudkar for their full

    encouragement & guidance throughout my training period.

    It would be inequitable if I disregard the co-operation of Quality Assurance, Design,

    M.P.C., Machine Shop, Maintenance, Paint Shop and Assembly departments for showing me

    how teamwork is done in our PES plant.

    Finally, though not the last, I would like to thank all the workmen for their constant

    co-operation, support and generous information regarding all the operations that are carried

    out at shop floor-level. They were a source of real-life knowledge for me, which I couldn't

    have grasped from any textbook.

    KAUSTUBH V. KOKANE

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    6/74

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    7/74

    7

    INDEX

    CHAPTER

    NO.DESCRIPTION

    PAGE

    NO.

    1 Company Profile 8-12

    2 Introduction to PES Division 13-20

    3 Introduction to Fabrication Department 21-24

    PROJECT

    DESIGN & IMPLEMENTATION OF PRODUCTIVITY

    MEASUREMENT SYSTEM IN FABRICATION

    DEPARTMENT

    25

    4

    Literature Survey

    26-31

    5.1 Definitions of Productivity

    5.2 Partial Productivity

    5.3 Welding Productivity

    5.4 Factors Affecting Welding Productivity

    5.5 Difficulties in Measuring Productivity

    5

    Workstation Productivity Measurement

    32-416.1 Productivity Analysis of Workstations

    6.4 Workstation-wise Analysis & Justification

    6

    Productivity Measurement by VA-NVA Analysis

    42-54

    7.1 VA-NVA Analysis

    7.2 Standardisation of VA-NVA Activities

    7.3 Time Study7.4 Job-specific VA NVA Analysis by Time Study

    7.6 Summary Analysis

    7.7 Important Improvements

    7

    Loss Analysis

    55-608.1 Sixteen Major Losses

    8.2 Job-specific Loss Analysis

    8

    Calandria Stage I Welding Productivity Measurement

    61-70

    9.1 Methodology

    9.2 Test to Determine Weld Deposition

    9.3 Welder Efficiency & Productivity

    9.4 Parameter Monitoring

    9.5 Theoretical vs. Actual Parameter Comparison9.6 Consistency Trend Analysis

    ASSIGN-

    MENT

    DESIGN & IMPLEMENTATION OF WATER COOLING

    ARRANGEMENT FOR CALANDRIA STAGE I NOZZLES71-74

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    8/74

    8

    COMPANY PROFILE

    Godrej Industrial Township- Pirojshanagar, Vikhroli

    From high tech engineering solutions to daily-use products like locks, Godrej has touched lives

    of millions of Indians since it was found in 1897 by an ambitious visionary, Mr. Ardeshir Burjojee

    Godrej. After 115 years, Godrej has turned into a conglomerate worth US$ 2.6 billion spreading its arms

    globally.

    Recent change in brand identity further helped grow the brand. Enriching the Quality of

    Life..Everyday, Everywhere is the mission of Godrej group, which signifies the involvement and

    importance of Godrej products in Indian peoples lives.

    Today Godrej employee over 15,000 people and has grown into one of the most trusted brands in

    Indian industry with far reaching service and distribution network. The companys corporate head officeand a huge industrial township is located at Pirojshanagar, Vikhroli, The brainchild of Ardeshir Godrej

    has turned into a pioneer for Indian private industries. As it strides ahead confidently, it gives direction to

    others.

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    9/74

    9

    VIKHROLI ESTABLISHMENT-

    After acquiring vast land of 3200 acres in Vikhroli in 1948, Godrej group has developed it

    seamlessly turning it into a benchmark company campus.

    Godrej & Boyce is truly a multi-faceted private enterprise housing the following manufacturing

    plants in its Vikhroli campus.

    PLANT DIVISION & PRODUCTS/SERVICES

    1 Steel & Other products manufacturing plant-

    -Architectural fabrications, ERW Tubes, feeder of cut steel to other plants.

    2,3,5 Godrej Appliances

    -Production of Refrigerators, Washing Machines, Microwaves, DVD players

    and Air Conditioners

    4 Office Equipment Division, Furniture Manufacturing Division

    - Production of Office Furniture, Seating and Desk Systems, Computer Furniture

    and Home Furniture, Home Storewels, Filing Cabinets and Filing Systems,

    Sliding/Tambour Door Units, Personal/Industrial Lockers, Customized storage

    Systems, Roll-formed Slides and Components for Furniture

    7,8 Tool Room Division

    - Production of Precision Tooling (Press Tools / Plastic Injection Moulds / Vacuum

    Forming Moulds / Pressure Die-Casting Dies), Special Purpose Machines, High

    Precision Components / Equipment for Engineering and allied industries, Sheet

    Metal Working

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    10/74

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    11/74

    11

    Godrej & Boyce Group Structure

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    12/74

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    13/74

    13

    MAJOR PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN AT PES, PL-19

    F/M Bridge & Carriage-

    Bridge & Carriage Assembly

    Project overview-

    This assembly acts as the drive mechanism for TAPP and KAPP nuclear power plants operated

    by NPCIL. These mechanisms are used in Level 1 safety area of reactor to raise and lower the shut off

    rods in reaction chamber.

    Important characteristics-

    Material SA 515

    Size- 9600 x 1100 x 12500 (height) mm

    Weight- 70 tons

    300 components per assembly

    Flatness requirement of 50 microns over 1600 x 8000 mm surface

    Challenging task of alignment 10 meter long columns

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    14/74

    14

    Wind Turbine Parts for Enercon India Ltd-

    Enercon project components

    Project overview-

    Enercon India is aiming to create a nation-wide network of wind-energy operated power plants.

    These windmills are located in deep seas or on land where average wind speed is high.

    The three components of a windmills manufactured at Godrej PES are extremely vital to itsfunction.

    Important Characteristics-

    3 Components of CS of 4m diameter, each weighing about 3 tons

    Fabrication of a combination of prismatic and cylindrical sections to accuracies of +/- 1mm over

    4m length

    Fabrication of equipment i.e. prone to heavy distortion during welding

    Special fixtures- pneumatic and mechanical fixtures to avoid distortion

    Extensive use of automatic welding processes- FCAW and SAW

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    15/74

    15

    Calandria-

    Position 1 Position 2

    Project overview-

    Calandria is the heart of a nuclear reactor. It is the chamber which holds the radioactive fuel rods

    when nuclear fission is occurring. Fuel handling mechanism is also commissioned along with Calandria

    to handle new or spent fuel rods.

    This particular unit of Calandria is being manufactured for the NPCIL-operated Kota Atomic

    Power Plant (KAPP), Rajasthan.

    Important characteristics-

    Requires a separate enclosure for fabrication to avoid contamination and any contact with CS

    material

    Total 122 nozzles to be welded in 5 stages.

    Automation of plasma cutting process to achieve maximum accuracy Involves GTAW welding in 6G position

    Transportation to site (KAPP, Rajasthan) by road is a challenging task.

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    16/74

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    17/74

    17

    Departments in PES

    PERSONNEL:Personnel department is the HR-arm of PES division. It handles all manpower related issues and

    handles all contractors on behalf of the manufacturing units. Plant Manager and Time Keeper are the two

    persons representing Personnel department in every plant.

    Apart from all HR related activities, the personnel department also handles the attendance related

    issues of all employees, workmen, trainees and apprentices.

    MARKETING:

    Marketing department is one of the most important departments involved in the cycle of a

    product. Even though it is not directly involved in manufacturing activities in any way, it is the reasonwhy manufacturing units receive the order in the first place.

    Marketing department seeks orders from suitable sectors by participating in bids from different

    companies. Further, important strategic decisions like choosing the most appropriate project to bid for are

    all taken by marketing department after consulting with respective manufacturing departments.

    DESIGN:

    At Godrej, stress is on using internal drawings for uniformity and ease of understanding. This is

    where the Design department plays its role. A team of experienced designers with individual CAD

    stations works closely with customers to understand their requirements and make uniform-standard

    drawings available for manufacturing.

    The team uses the most advanced software in the industry including Inventor, AutoCAD and

    Ansys. 3D models of intricate components are also made available for precise manufacturing.

    PLANNING:

    Planning department is the think-tank behind all routing, sourcing and logistics activities. All

    important activities from deciding the raw material supplier to transporting medium are done by planning

    department. Project planner decides the sequences of operations and supplies job cards along with

    project drawings to the respective manufacturing teams.

    Planning department employees are involved in the manufacturing cycle of all projects right

    through marketing activities to final dispatch of the manufactured job.

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    18/74

    18

    MANUFACTURING:

    FABRICATION:

    After receiving raw material from Material Preparation Cell (M.P.C.), Fabrication department

    and its 130-strong force of experienced workmen consisting of welders, grinders and fitters that

    team up to carry out actual value-added manufacturing activities.

    Welding methods used in Fabrication department include FCAW, SMAW, GTAW and SAW.

    Welding automation is also encouraged by fabrication supervisors wherever possible, as it reduces

    the cycle time considerably and improves the quality of weld produced. Special enclosure is also

    available in Plant-19 for SS fabrication when contact with CS material is to be avoided.

    MACHINE SHOP:

    After being released by Fabrication department, Machine Shop takes over the job and precision

    machining is carried out with state-of-art machines. AC enclosure is also available for precisionmachining of small components. CNC machining with up to 1 micron accuracy can be achieved at

    PES Machine Shop.

    ASSEMBLY:

    Assembly department takes over the job in final stages of its manufacturing cycle at Godrej PES

    division. Plant-19 houses a shot blasting booth and two paint booths which are operated by

    Assembly department. Highly precise assemblies are made with help of special fixtures and an

    experienced & skilled workforce.

    Currently, a 2.5m deep crater is being dug in Plant-19 for the final assembly of Bridge &

    Carriage job before dispatch.

    QUALITY ASSURANCE & INSPECTION:

    Although the QA department doesnt carry out any manufacturing activities, it ensures that the

    job stays within required tolerance limits and accuracy expectations are met at all times. Engineers are

    trained in different NDT techniques such as LPT, UT, MPI and RT.

    MAINTENANCE:

    This department takes care of all the machines in the plant. It looks after the daily maintenance

    like checking the lubrication etc. It also undertakes preventive maintenance foe increasing the efficiency

    of the plant.

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    19/74

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    20/74

    20

    INTRODUCTION OF FABRICATION DEPARTMENT

    PES division is housed in both Plant-9 and Plant-19 with two separate fabrication shops. Carbon

    Steel jobs weighing more than 20 tons are fabricated in Plant-19 and smaller jobs where higher degree of

    precision is required are fabricated in Plant-9. There is a separate enclosure for stainless shell fabrication

    in Plant-19, where currently Calandria is housed.

    Three main pillars of fabrication department are as follows-

    1) Training-Comprehensive training is given to all staff and workmen in order to provide them with

    operational knowledge related to their work. Different types of trainings provided to workers are as

    follows-

    i.Apprentice Training-Learning apprentices undergo trade-based training in order to provide them with in-depth

    knowledge of their respective trades and different operations related to their trades.

    ii.Trade Training-

    Periodic trade training is provided to all workmen to further improve their knowledge and

    share any new developments related to their trades. Also, in case any new machines are

    commissioned in Plant-19, Fabrication, all respective operators are provided extensive training

    on the functions of machine.

    iii. Safety Training-Regular safety training and meetings are held in order to discuss the ways of improving

    safety scenario on shop floor and safe practices of operation.

    iv. Multi-skilling-It is a creative new initiative undertaken by PES where workers are trained in trades other

    than their own. The main purpose of such training is to reduce the overall cycle time and labor

    cost.

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    21/74

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    22/74

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    23/74

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    24/74

    24

    Project

    DESIGN & IMPLEMENTATION OF

    PRODUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT SYSTEM

    IN

    FABRICATION DEPARTMENT

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    25/74

    25

    LITERATURE SURVEY-

    DEFINITIONS OF PRODUCTIVITY-

    It is difficult to define productivity in standard terms as the phenomenon varies with change in

    field of use. For example, the productivity norm used in manufacturing industry can not be used in

    construction industry. Thus, it is very important to focus on the factors that are quantifiable and can yield

    an interpretable and clear picture of the productivity scenario.

    Productivity signifies the measurement of how well an individual entity uses its resources to

    produce outputs from inputs. But, selection of factors to be measured is tricky. In general, productivity

    can be defined as 'rate of output'. Input and output may vary but at the end, productivity is always a 'rate'

    (ratio) of output and input quantities.

    The above definition can also be stated as a measure of efficiency of production.

    Productivity= Output Quantity

    Input Quantity

    When the work being done is not exactly quantifiable, it is difficult to measure its productivity in

    statistical terms as there is no empirical formula which can help us measure working productivity.

    In practice, quantitative and qualitative changes take place when relative quantities and relativeprices of different input and output factors alter. In order to accentuate qualitative changes in output and

    input, the formula of total productivity shall be written as follows

    Productivity= Output quality and quantity

    Input quality and quantity

    In manufacturing industry though, the work done on shop floor is in quantifiable terms. Accurate

    monitoring of different parameters related to any processes in the shop will help us get a clear picture of

    productivity scenario. But, the same is not true for purely manual processes (e. g. SMAW welding).

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    26/74

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    27/74

    27

    WELDING PRODUCTIVITY-

    Benchmarks for welding productivity are not yet implemented properly in any frontline Indian

    manufacturing company. Benchmarks for welding productivity may differ from company to company

    based on availability of skilled workforce and hence, it is very difficult to compare the productivitystandards of two organisations. On the other hand, the same productivity measurement systems are

    considerably clearer in the western countries like the U.S.

    According to a survey by the Department of Commerce, U.S., leading industries use the

    following eight general welding productivity measures-

    1) Welding speed- (e.g. mm length welded per period of time)

    2) Welding process output (e.g. Joint completed per period of time)

    3) Welding deposition rate (e.g. kgs of weld metal deposited per period of time)

    4) Welding machine arc time (% of time welding machine is in operation)

    5) Welded product output- Standardized product- (e.g. welded components completed per period of

    time)

    6) Welded product output- Customized product- (e.g. tons of steel joined per period of time)

    7) Welding defect rate (e.g. defects per 100 welds completed)

    8) Performance versus time standard (e.g. percentage of production completed within specified time

    standard)

    Use of multiple productivity measurement standards is recommended as gives more precise estimate

    of welder productivity.

    At PES, Plant-19, we use the following productivity measures-

    1)

    Welding speed2) Welding deposition rate

    3) Welding defect rate (defects in terms of % weld length)

    4) Performance versus time standard

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    28/74

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    29/74

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    30/74

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    31/74

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    32/74

    32

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    33/74

    33

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    34/74

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    35/74

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    36/74

    36

    IDLE TIME ANALYSIS-64% idle time recorded was further sorted by its root causes-

    1) No job

    2) No manpower (No workers)

    3) Waiting for instructions4) Machine breakdown

    5) Start-up losses

    6) Miscellaneous Losses

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    37/74

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    38/74

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    39/74

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    40/74

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    41/74

    41

    STANDARDISATION OF VA-NVA ACTIVITIES-

    Before carrying out a detailed analysis regarding VA-NVA activities in fabrication shop, it was

    important that standardisation of different VA and NVA activities be done. i.e. activities involved in theshop must be categorized in the following three criteria-

    1) Value-Adding Activity

    2) Non-Value Adding Necessary Activity

    3) Non-Value Adding Removable Activity

    For a week, I gathered information about various activities carried out at Fabrication shop in

    PES, Plant-19. Then by analyzing their importance and contribution towards project completion, these

    activities were further differentiated between Value Adding and Non-Value Adding activities.

    The below chart was taken as standard for any further analysis regarding VA-NVA activities.

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    42/74

    42

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    43/74

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    44/74

    44

    TIME STUDY METHODOLOGY-

    1) The observer first takes some preliminary observations of the work (a pilot study) to be studied in

    order to identify suitable elements which can be clearly recognized on subsequent occasions and areconvenient for measurement.

    2) Further studies are then undertaken during which the operator times (records) the duration of the

    activities performed during the manufacturing process.

    3) For the purpose of recording, the activities are broken up into small divisions known as elements

    which are then timed using a stop watch or other timing device. One of the main reasons for studying

    the activity in the form of elements, rather than the activity a whole is to exactly pinpoint the weak

    link in manufacturing sequence. By altering some activities, cycle time can be reduced considerably.

    4) Number of cycles that should be observed depends on the nature of the work and also on the level of

    accuracy of observations desired. The accuracy of readings will improve with successive

    observations. There is no empirical formula to determine the number of observations to be taken for

    getting accurate results.

    VIDEO ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY-

    1) All important activities defined in the micro process plan were recorded by video shooting them.

    2) All the videos were then viewed in a production meeting held by PES Manufacturing divisional

    heads and respective supervisors.

    3) Any changes required in operational procedure were discussed and standardized. The same

    modifications in operating procedure are then conveyed to respective workers and implemented

    with immediate effect.

    STOPWATCH MONITORING METHODOLOGY-

    1) As activities related to fabrication are usually ongoing for hours, it was impractical to evaluate

    each and every second's work. Hence, time study was done in minutes and its details are shown

    on page 46.

    2) Actual recorded time was then compared with theoretical time in micro process plan and

    bottleneck activities are identified and efforts are taken to decrease their cycle time.

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    45/74

    45

    JOB-SPECIFIC VA-NVA ANALYSIS BY TIME STUDY-

    In Fabrication shop of PES, Plant 19, projects are divided among workstations and job is moved

    from one workstation to another as it progresses.Supporting Structure is one of the four key components of ReGen PowerTech project, the other

    three being Rotor, Brake Disc and Reinforcing Cap. The windmill project was completed within my

    tenure at Godrej & Boyce Mfg. Co. Ltd. Supporting Structure occupies SS1, SS2, Plummer Block, SS3,

    SS4. While Supporting Structure was in Fabrication shop, detailed VA-NVA analysis was done.

    SS job ready for machining

    Completed SS ready for dispatch

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    46/74

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    47/74

    47

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    48/74

    48

    EXPECTED VS. ACTUAL CYCLE TIME-

    Process planning department is responsible for providing job cards stating detailed sequence of

    operations to be carried out in order to complete a project. The project manager is then supposed to chalkout a micro process plan with expected cycle time and manpower requirement which may need certain

    revisions as the project progresses.

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    49/74

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    50/74

    50

    IMPORTANT IMPROVEMENTS SUGGESTED AFTER SS PRODUCTIVITY

    ANALYSIS-

    1) While preheating long seams, workmen should provide a metal lid long enough to cover the

    whole WEP region so that maximum efficiency of preheating can be achieved.

    #2 long seam welding

    2) Magnetic rotary table should be provided for quicker pan/fin setup & welding.

    3) Tolerance on #2 & #4 parts should be reduced in order to eliminate or reduce grinding that needs

    to be done while setup.

    #4 setup

    4) Two teams could be deployed for fin and pan setup and tack-welding so that total cycle time for

    the activity can be reduced considerably.

    5) Dimension of gussets needs to be controlled more precisely. Heavy grinding effort is required for

    each gusset setup. Several tryouts may be required in some cases.

    6) Welding automation is the key to productivity. BhaGo automated FCAW welding technique

    should be deployed as much as possible with long seams of supporting structure. Currently,

    hardly any welding automation is used for supporting structure.

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    51/74

    51

    7) Workers have difficulty while positioning all eight spacers correctly. This is caused by

    deterioration of top and bottom surfaces of the spacers.

    Supporting Structure main fixture design drawing

    8) Pan locking fixture design needs to be revised to reduce the amount of efforts required for

    carrying out setup of each pan. This can be done by reducing the number of bolts that must be

    screwed simultaneously in order to get the pan in correct position for tacking. Currently, there

    are nine bolts which must be screwed one by one which is very time consuming and laborious

    process.

    Pan Locking Fixture

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    52/74

    52

    LOSS ANALYSYS-

    SIXTEEN MAJOR LOSSES-

    (1) Seven major losses that impede equipment efficiency-i. Failure losses-

    Loss due to breakdown of machines is categorized under failure losses. Detailed

    breakdown analysis of all machines will suffice the purpose of analyzing failure losses.

    Machine breakdown time is found out using the TPM records. Losses data filled by

    the operator at the end of shift is collected daily and at the end of month, collective

    breakdown data is calculated and analyzed.

    ii. Setup/adjustment losses-When any welding machine is set up at the start of shift, setup activities like earthing

    clamping and cleaning are to be done. Any intermediate stops during welding for

    current/voltage adjustments are also categorized under setup/adjustment losses.In case of semi-automatic FCAW welding, BhaGo machine is used extensively in

    Fabrication shop. Setup & adjustment time for BhaGo machine is the highest among all

    welding machines.

    iii. Tool change losses-Time required for changing the tool of any particular machine is considered as tool

    change loss. Changing wire spool of FCAW welding machine or replacing grinding wheel

    of grinding machine are categorized under tool change losses.

    iv. Start-up losses-Time required for getting back to work after scheduled suspension, lunch break or

    shift change is said to be start-up loss. Generally, start-up losses do not affect theproductivity to such an extent that they can be considered as hindrance. Daily pep talks and

    filling up of CLIT checklist usually constitute of start-up losses.

    v. Minor stoppage/idling losses-Loss occurring due to minor breakdown of a machine or temporary functional

    stoppage is also important.

    vi. Speed losses-The difference between the design speed of a machine and actual operating speed

    directly affects the cycle time of a process, accounting for speed loss. Similarly, we can

    also apply this concept to fabrication processes where micro process plan is made by

    experienced shop supervisor and the actual processes take longer than the estimated time inprocess plan.

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    53/74

    53

    vii.Defect/rework losses-It is the most important loss occurring in fabrication department, which must be

    avoided as far as possible. Defect and rework are NVA-Removable acts and material and

    labor cost is added to process expenses.

    LPT Defect Data

    (2) Losses that can impede equipment operating rate-i. Shutdown losses-

    Production time lost due to machine being shut down for some reason is categorized

    under shutdown losses. Improper implementation of time reduction study, critical path and

    logical cycle-setting are main reasons for shutdown losses.

    (3) Five major losses that can impede human work efficiency-i. Management losses-Loss occurring due to improper management or resources, manpower, proceedings

    waiting for raw materials, workmen waiting for instructions and rework are categorized

    under management losses.

    Management losses must be avoided at all costs. To ensure this, loss data for major

    projects is maintained independently and presented to the Manufacturing Head during

    project review meetings.

    ii. Motion losses-Unnecessary movement of resources and materials, improper implementation of line

    flow are said to be motion losses.

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    54/74

    54

    iii. Line organisation losses-Losses occurring due to improper manpower planning and management on line are

    said to be line organisation losses.

    iv. Losses resulting from failure to automate-These are losses due to non-implementation of automated systems like auto-CO2

    welding although they could be implemented to reduce cycle time and improve overall

    process efficiency.

    v. Measuring and adjustment losses-Man-hours lost due to inspection and measurement activities by QA personnel are

    counted under measurement & adjustment losses. This loss accounts for quality defects

    and rework.

    (4) Three major losses that can impede effective use of production resourcesi. Yield losses-

    Losses occurring due to wastage of raw material are said to be yield losses.

    ii. Energy losses-Inefficient management of energy resources like electricity, compressed air, PNG and

    water lead to energy losses. These losses should be minimized in order to improve overall

    process efficiency.

    iii. Die, jig, and tool losses-Expenses required for upkeep and maintenance of dies, jigs and other tools are also

    considered as losses. Preventive maintenance and careful use should minimize this loss.

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    55/74

    55

    JOB SPECIFIC LOSS ANALYSIS-

    After completion of ReGen order, fabrication shop had workload of only two major projects-

    Bridge & Carriage and Calandria. Detailed Losses analysis was done for the period to know more aboutwhat are the causes of any losses or delays hampering the jobs progress.

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    56/74

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    57/74

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    58/74

    58

    TEST TO DETERMINE WELD DEPOSITION OF E308L ELECTRODES-

    There was no established benchmark for weld deposition of E308 electrodes (SS to SS). Only

    available benchmark was for CS material (E-7018)

    Hence, a detailed test was conducted to set a standard for all future analysis of weld deposition

    for SS to SS weld joints.

    TEST PROCEDURE-

    1) Three E308L electrodes of diameters 3.15mm, 4mm and 5mm respectively were also weighed in the same way.

    End-to-end length was also measured using a tape.

    2) An experienced welder was asked to burn the rods one by one on three different plates. Current setting was

    noted from the SMAW machines display and arcing time was measured accurately using a stopwatch.

    3) After completing each run, slag was removed using chipping hammer and plates were cleaned by wire brushing

    & again weighed using an accurate digital scale.

    4) Length and weight of all three stubs were also noted.

    5) Weight of weld material deposited and weight of electrode consumed were calculated from the readings.

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    59/74

    59

    WELDER EFFICIENCY & PRODUCTIVITY IN CALANDRIA STAGE I NOZZLE

    WELDING-

    WELDER EFFICIENCY-

    With the detailed analysis of Calandria stage I welding, we can estimate the welder efficiency in

    terms of the percentage of actual weld deposition over theoretical weld deposition.

    It is not desirable to have any positive deviation from the theoretical weld deposition for any

    nozzle as all welding-related factors are already considered by the weld estimator. It is essential to make

    sure that minimum required weld deposition is always assured.

    Prerequisites for calculating weld deposition-

    No. of electrodes consumed & their diameters

    Standard deposition of electrodes of different diameters

    Diameter of

    electrode

    (mm)

    Weight

    deposition

    (gm)

    3.15 20

    4 30

    5 50

    WELDER PRODUCTIVITY-

    Similarly, we can also estimate the productivity by analyzing the actual time required for nozzle

    welding. Its percentage over theoretical time required gives us an estimate of productivity of welders.

    Any negative deviation is appreciated as it means that welding of a particular nozzle was welded

    before its expected completion.

    COMPARING PARAMETERS (weld deposition & welding time)-

    Actual in terms of % theoretical = Actual value

    Theoretical value

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    60/74

    60

    PARAMETER MONITORING-

    1) Quality control and traceability are two most important aims of implementing such productivity

    measurement norm with Calandria stage I nozzle welding.2) When welding of a particular nozzle is completed, final weld LPT of inner and outer side of shell

    is taken to check if there are any repairs in the weld. Most probably causes of repairs revealed in

    LPT include slag, lack of fusion, undercut and pinholes. Corrective action has to be taken to

    rectify the defect and it is considered as rework loss which accounts for wastage of both

    manpower and time.

    3) In order to trace the source of defect, grinding is done and the spot is then filled up and re-

    offered for LPT. Ultrasonic Testing (UT) of SS material is not possible; hence it is not an option.

    4) The ultimate test for completed weld joint is Radiography Testing (RT); in which the weld joint

    is exposed to a radioactive source such as Iridium or Cobalt isotope. The projection is then

    captured on a film which is examined to find out minute defects which cannot be detected in

    other tests.

    5) If any defect indications are found, subsequent repair-welding is done followed by re-RT.

    6) Repair welding and subsequent grinding is extremely expensive in terms of time and material

    costs; which is why welding parameters are monitored carefully.

    7) After knowing the depth of defect, we can come to know which welder was responsible for that

    particular pass/layer from the depth chart of the respective nozzle.

    8) Comparing actual weld deposition with the deposition expected as per the weld estimator is

    another major reason behind maintaining the records. If the actual deposition is higher than the

    expected deposition, it can be concluded that welders are not using their electrodes properly and

    training is required to educate them.

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    61/74

    61

    ACTUAL CALANDRIA STAGE I NOZZLE WELDING OBSERVATIONS-

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    62/74

    62

    THEORETICAL VS. ACTUAL PARAMETERS COMPARISON-

    Criteria Theoretical Actual

    Total Weld Deposition (kg) 119.14 120.95

    Total Welding Time (hours) 259 296.75

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    63/74

    63

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    64/74

    64

    ANALYSIS OF CONSISTENCY TREND IN WELDER PRODUCTIVITY-

    During welder productivity monitoring, consistency in just as important as productivity itself is.

    It represents the ability of a welder to repeat his performance. The welder who is capable of

    producing quality output with high productivity consistently is considered as the most valuable

    resource.

    A highly productive welder may not always be consistent. For example, consider 3 kg as the

    benchmark deposition level for a shift for SMAW welding. Now, if a worker deposits nearly 7 kg

    in an eight hours shift for two days and does below-par work for rest of the week, his overall

    productivity for the week would still be par. But, he wouldn't be as consistent as required, which

    is equally important.

    A productivity consistency analysis was done on the same lines for Calandria Stage Inozzle welding.

    Benchmark weld deposition for SMAW welding in Fabrication shop is 2.7 kg/shift. (as per IMS

    manual, Fabrication-19)

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    65/74

    65

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    66/74

    66

    From the analysis, it was found that Anand was the most consistent and productive welder of all

    and Nandesh was the poorest performer. The outcome was such even though Nandesh's total weld

    deposition was the highest of all, and nearly twice that of Anand.

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    67/74

    67

    ASSIGNMENT 1

    DESIGN & IMPLEMENTATION OF WATER COOLING

    ARRANGEMENT FOR CALANDRIA STAGE I NOZZLESOut of total 122 nozzles, a total of 22 radial were to be welded during stage I. Nozzles of four

    different sizes were to be welded. Hence, cooling arrangements were supposed to be different for all four

    sizes.

    Basically, external and internal water cooling systems were to be designed separately for each

    nozzle.

    NEED OF WATER COOLING-

    As RM for Calandria Main Shell is stainless steel, it is necessary to maintain the heat input

    during welding below 2.0 kJ/mm. It is important to maintain the interpass temperature of 240

    C.

    Laser Gun being used to measure weld joint temperature after completing a pass

    Air cooling will not suffice the purpose of maintaining the required temperature, as the amount

    of heat generated during welding is much more than what can be air cooled. Water cooling provides

    better rate of cooling which is essential in case of Calandria main shell.

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    68/74

    68

    PRIMARY DESIGN IDEA-

    For external cooling, a hollow tube of about 16 mm diameter is taken and then bent to circular

    shape by hammering. Small holes of 2-3mm diameters are drilled by pneumatic drilling machine at about100mm pitch. It was reduced to 50mm to effect better cooling.

    Visualisation of external water cooling system

    An internal cooling system was also designed which consisted of a wooden plug with Morse

    taper of about 2. After conducting trials of external cooling using circular tube with holes on its

    periphery, it was observed that the temperature of welding zone was well below the interpass

    temperature. Hence, it was decided that internal cooling was not required, although it would have

    certainly helped in further reducing the temperature of the nozzle side of the weld region. The thickness

    of shell was more than that of nozzles, which resulted in lesser heat input in the nozzle region, which

    supported the shelving of internal cooling system implementation.

    Recirculation of water was the most important part of the system, which meant that de-

    mineralized (DM) water would need to be stored in a tank only once a day. DM water would be changed

    daily in order to maintain the cleanliness of the tank and the job.

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    69/74

    69

    COMPONENTS REQUIRED FOR EXTERNAL COOLING SYSTEM-

    DM WATER-

    De-mineralized water is used in water cooling system to prevent any corrosion andcontamination issues that may arise when water comes in contact with the shell.

    DM Water Storage Tank

    WATER TANK-

    A medium-size water tub was identified and used a tank for storing the DM water.

    Water Tank

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    70/74

    70

    WATER PIPE-

    A flexible pipe of sufficient diameter was used to carry the water pumped by the motor from the

    water tank to the circular tube.

    Water Pipe

    MOTOR (1/8 hp capacity)-

    An electric motor of 1/8 hp capacity was deployed for the purpose of pumping water from the

    water tank to the lower surface of nozzle through the water pipe and tube arrangement.

    1/8 hp motor

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    71/74

    71

    T OR L JOINT-

    A joint was used to route the water coming from the water tank through the pipe and circulate it

    through circular tube.

    T Joint L Joint

    CIRCULAR RING-

    A circular ring of M.S. with holes drilled on its periphery was used to shower water on the shell

    and nozzle OD surface with enough pressure.

    (a) (b) (c)

    (a) Two separate rings

    (b) Close-up of rings showing holes drilled on the top side at about 30mm pitch

    (c) Two rings joined with a T-joint and a hollow rubber tube

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    72/74

    72

    CLITS-

    Small SS clits were used to hold the circular tube in proper position with respect to the shell O.D.

    by tack welding.

    Clit used to hold the circular ring in position

    HOLDING AREA-

    The holding area was made of four SS sheets, used as walls, attached to the base by using tack

    welding (TIG) and Epoxy sealant like M-sealant. The SS sheets were inclined before being tack welded

    in order to capture more water falling down from the shell.

    Holding Area

    WATER RECOVERY SYSTEM-

    A small SS plate was bent in a way to act as an open pipe, facilitating the recovery of warm

    water falling down from the weld zone, after cooling it. The recovery system was designed to send the

    water from the holding area back to the water tank for recirculation. The open-pipe arrangement was

    used particularly when the capacity of holding area was less to facilitate speedy water recovery.

    As an option to SS plate, a water pipe was also used sometimes to send spent water back to the

    water tank.

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    73/74

    73

    IMPROVEMENTS IN THE WATER COOLING SYSTEM-

    6) COMMON BASE PLATE-After analyzing loss data for Calandria, it was observed that high setup loss was taking its toll on

    the workstation productivity. After pondering on the issue, it was decided that a common base plate

    would be used as a base for I-series nozzle welding.

    INITIAL SCENARIO-

    Holding area for each nozzle was separate. Even if two or more separate nozzles in the same line

    were to be welded, as many number of water holding arrangements were made. Setup & tack

    welding of SS plates to the base was a very time consuming activity and further water proofing the

    whole arrangement needed a lot of time as it could not be used before the curing time of the epoxy

    sealant is passed.

    IMPROVED SCENARIO-

    After using common base plate and SS plates (walls) for water holding area, the setup losses

    were considerably reduced as was observed by the Calandria loss data for the period of I-series

    nozzle welding.

    A bent SS plate was used as an open pipe for transferring spent water from the holding area to

    water tank for the purpose of re-circulation.

    Common Base Plate

  • 7/22/2019 Design & Implementation of Productivity Measurement System in Fabrication Department

    74/74

    7) USE OF L JOINTS-INITIAL SCENARIO-

    T-joints (1 input, 2 outputs) were used at the junction of water pipe and circular tube. It was

    observed that the pressure of water jet was not enough when using T-joints as two water streams

    separated by the T-junction would collide with each other at the opposite end on the periphery of

    the circular tube, resulting in loss of overall pressure of water.

    IMPROVED SCENARIO-

    By using an L joint (1 input, 1 output), only single water stream would be generated and thus the

    arrangement would avert the collision of water streams, as observed with T-joint. This improved the

    pressure with which water comes out of the holes drilled.

    The end result of the improvement was improved cooling efficiency of water and overall better

    cooling rate.

    IMPLEMENTATION & WORKING-

    DM water is taken in water tank and PVC pipes arranged in the following manner-

    1)Water Tank Motor T or L Joint

    2)Water Recovery System Water Tank

    Water is pumped to the circular ring with pressure enough to spray water on the OD side of the

    weld joint.

    After taking away heat from the weld joint, warm water falls in the water recollection area which

    then flows back to the water tank to complete the cycle.

    Warm water falling from the weld joint surface is cooled in the recollection system as the area is

    open to air and its cooling is accelerated when it flows down from the water recollection area to

    the water tank through a PVC pipe.