DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF POKA YOKE PNEUMATIC FIXTURE FOR MILLING AND SHAPER MACHINE

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  • DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF POKA YOKE

    PNEUMATIC FIXTURE FOR MILLING AND SHAPER

    MACHINE

    A Project Report

    Submitted By-

    Arun Singh Rathore, Mohit Verma, Shubham Bagi, Shubham

    Dhaneshree, Shubham Mathur, Shubham Singh Rathore.

    Towards Partial Fulfillment for the Award of

    Bachelor of Engineering (Mechanical Engineering)

    Guided By-

    Prof. Pankaj Gera

    Department of Mechanical Engineering Mahakal Institute of Technology &

    Science, Ujjain

    Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal

    2016-2017

  • MAHAKAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE, UJJAIN

    (Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal M.P.)

    (2016-2017)

    CERTIFICATE

    This is to certify that Mr Arun Singh Rathore, Mr. Mohit Verma, Mr. Shubham Bagi, Mr.

    Shubham Dhaneshree and Mr. Shubham Mathur, Shubham Singh Rathore. Student of B.E.

    (Mechanical Engineering Department) of this college has carried out Project DESIGN AND

    FABRICATION OF POKA YOKE PNEUMATIC FIXTURE FOR MILLING AND SHAPER

    MACHINE.

    It is submitted towards partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of

    Engineering in Mechanical Engineering from Mahakal Institute of Technology & Science;

    Ujjain affiliated to Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal (M.P.).

    Prof. Pankaj Gera Prof. Santosh Vyas Prof. V.M. Shah

    Project Guide Head of Department Director

    M.I.T.S., Ujjain M.I.T.S., Ujjain M.I.T.S., Ujjain

  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    The successful completion of the project is the result of dedicated efforts of many people and

    this report would be incomplete without giving due credit to them. This acknowledgement is

    taken of small gratitude in recognition of the help provided by them.

    We wish to express our heartfelt appreciation to all the people who had contributed to this

    project, both explicitly and implicitly. First to all we want to thank our projects guide Prof.

    Pankaj Gera for giving us this opportunity to work under his guidance. His empathy towards

    us made our work easy. Many thank to him for encouraging and supporting us to complete this

    project work. We are thankful to Prof. Santosh Vyas Head of the Department, Mechanical

    Engineering and Prof. V.M Shah Director Mahakal Institute Of Technology & Science, Ujjain

    for understanding our problem and shorting them out. We are thankful to staff of Mechanical

    Engineering Department for letting us know about problem of industry and encouraging us to

    work on it. In the last but not least, we are also thankful to all the persons and colleagues who

    have helped us directly or indirectly during this project.

    Arun Singh Rathore

    Mohit Verma

    Shubham Bagi

    Shubham Dhaneshree

    Shubham Mathur

    Shubham Singh Rathore

  • DECLARATION

    We final year students of B.E. (Mechanical Engineering) hereby declare that

    major project work titled as DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF POKA YOKE

    PNEUMATIC FIXTURE FOR MILLING AND SHAPER MACHINE is

    original to the best of our knowledge and has not been submitted in any institute

    or university under Bachelor of Engineering program.

    NAMES & SIGNATURES OF STUDENTS WITH DATE

    1. Arun Singh Rathore

    2. Mohit Verma

    3. Shubham Bagi

    4. Shubham Dhaneshree

    5. Shubham Mathur

    6. Shubham Singh Rathore

  • ABSTRACT

    As the modern industries are shifting towards the automation, most of the industrial production

    is held by the aid of robots and in such boom of modernization the main problem that was face

    by the industries is to held work piece and proper position during machining work. Because of

    heavy machineries cutting forces and due to little care needed on the automation work quality

    of the automation fabricated product is little bit lesser than expectation. Hence it is must to

    design a rigid and efficient work holding device called jigs and fixtures. Work holding and

    releasing is the most essential act to carry out machining to hold the job in proper position. To release

    the job quickly and hold the job rigidly, to prevent the vibrations of the job while the machining is

    carried out we are using mechanical work holding devices. In this project we are dealing with pneumatic

    fixture used in milling or shaper machines. In pneumatic type piston cylinder arrangement one end of

    piston rod is connected to the movable jaw and the piston slides in the cylinder. Here the air actuates

    the movement of the piston this in turn actuates the movable jaw. Here the principle movement is only

    a reciprocating movement. Pneumatic systems are safer than electromotive systems because they

    can work in inflammable environment without causing fire or explosion. Apart from that,

    overloading in pneumatic system will only lead to sliding or cessation of operation. Unlike

    electromotive components, pneumatic components do not burn or get overheated when

    overloaded. The operation of pneumatic systems does not produce pollutants. The air released

    is also processed in special ways. Therefore, pneumatic systems can work in environments that

    demand high level of cleanliness. And use of pneumatic systems in turn reduces the

    manufacturing times of jobs by a significant amount, hence increasing the production

    efficiency.

    Keywords: Jigs, Fixtures, Pneumatic Vice, Job.

  • CONTENTS page no.

    Acknowledgement i

    Abstract ii

    CHAPTER 1: Introduction 1-10

    1.1 Pneumatics and Compressed Air 2

    1.2 Poka-Yoke 5

    1.3 Jigs and Fixtures 8

    CHAPTER 2: Literature Review 11-13

    2.1 Principle of Locations 11

    2.2 Design Considerations in Fixtures 12

    2.3 Clamping Approach 12

    CHAPTER 3: Apparatus and Tool Used 14-23

    3.1 Compressor 14

    3.2 Cylinder 17

    3.3 Direction Control Valve 18

    3.4 Pressure and Flow Control Valve 21

    CHAPTER 4: Methodology 24-28

    4.1 Design Criteria for Fixtures 24

    4.2 Making of Fixtures 25

    4.3 Material Selection 27

    CHAPTER 5: Result and Analysis 29-35

    Conclusion 36

    References 37

  • LIST OF FIGURES

    Figure Description Page no.

    Figure 1.1 An example of Poka-Yoke 6

    Figure 1.2 Jigs 8

    Figure 1.3 Fixtures 9

    Figure 2.1 Scheme of 3-2-1 Fixture Setup 11

    Figure 2.2 Layout of Working 12

    Figure 2.3 Fixture Design for the Sample Part 13

    Figure 3.1 Regular Reciprocating Compressor 14

    Figure 3.2 Double Acting Cylinder 18

    Figure 3.3 Direction Control Valve 20

    Figure 3.4 Pneumatic Flow Control Valve 21

    Figure 3.5 Pressure control valve 22

    Figure 3.6 PU tubes 23

    Figure 4.1 Forces impact on work holding design 24

    Figure 4.2 Locating Pins 25

    Figure 4.3 Pneumatic Power Clamp 26

    LIST OF TABLES

    Table no. Name of table Page no.

    4.1 List of Component Used 28

    5.1 Maximum clamping force calculations 31

    5.2 Table Comparative Analysis 34

  • CHAPTER 1

    INTRODUCTION

    One of the most time-consuming and labor extensive processes in the manufacturing of a

    mechanical part is the process of work holding or fixturing. It is often remarked that only

    approximately 10-15% of the overall time required to produce a part is spent

    Actually on cutting or drilling a work piece; the other time is spent primarily planning for

    executing part setup or work holding which is still performed by highly skilled Machinists

    based on their experience. Recently, industries have begun to experience Difficulty finding

    highly skilled machinists because the number of apprentices is decreasing and it is likely that

    the situation will worsen in the future. As a result of this trend together with the increasing

    power of computation speed, there has been a vast activity devoted to analyze the stability of

    fixturing and to automate fixture designs via CAD techniques. A fixture may constrain the

    motion of work pieces in two different ways. One, form closure, is purely kinematics, in which

    the geometry of the contacting rigid parts prevents motion regardless of the magnitude of the

    applied force. The other, force closure, involves the use of friction to assist in the freedom of

    motion of a kinematically under constrained object. Most analyses focused on the stability of

    the final fixture configurations and were less concerned on the sequence of placing the fixels.

    Based on the theories of grasping planar objects demonstrated that improper sequence of

    placing the fixels will result in the rotation of the planar work pieces. Instead of focusing on

    the fixturing of planar work pieces which ignores the sequence of placing the overhead clamp

    that is consider the fixturing of prismatic work pieces which are polyhedral objects with all

    outer boundary faces either parallel or perpendicular to the fixture base plate. It is shown that

    proper sequences of placing clamps can actually relax the stringent requirement in the

    positioning accuracy of the fixels. So, in order to design a complete set or perfect jigs and

    fixtures, the determination about all the factors which are influence the jigs and