Definitions Metamorphic Rock - "Meta"= Change(Grk) - "Morph"= form(Grk) Metamorphic Rock - "Meta"=...

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Transcript of Definitions Metamorphic Rock - "Meta"= Change(Grk) - "Morph"= form(Grk) Metamorphic Rock - "Meta"=...

  • Slide 1
  • Definitions Metamorphic Rock - "Meta"= Change(Grk) - "Morph"= form(Grk) Metamorphic Rock - "Meta"= Change(Grk) - "Morph"= form(Grk) - a rock that has been changed from its original form (parent) by heat,pressure, andfluid activity into a new rock (daughter). - a rock that has been changed from its original form (parent) by heat,pressure, andfluid activity into a new rock (daughter). Metamorphic Rocks
  • Slide 2
  • Heat Magma - temperature of magma - composition of magma Magma - temperature of magma - composition of magma Geothermal gradient - temperature increases with depth of burial - core of Earth is warmer than outer crust Geothermal gradient - temperature increases with depth of burial - core of Earth is warmer than outer crust Sources Include.....
  • Slide 3
  • Uniform Pressure Uniform Pressure vs Directed Pressure Lithostatic - "Lithos"= rock, static= unchanged (pressure) - uniform (aka non-directed) - equal intensity from all directions by rocks Lithostatic - "Lithos"= rock, static= unchanged (pressure) - uniform (aka non-directed) - equal intensity from all directions by rocks
  • Slide 4
  • Directed Pressure one direction of squeezing is much stronger than the others Minerals align themselves to reduce stress.
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  • Types of Metamorphism Contact - caused by igneous activity Dynamic - aka cataclastic - associated with faults & earthquake zones Regional - caused by tremendous pressures associated with tectonic plate activity Contact - caused by igneous activity Dynamic - aka cataclastic - associated with faults & earthquake zones Regional - caused by tremendous pressures associated with tectonic plate activity
  • Slide 6
  • Contact Metamorphism Igneous Intrusions - size and type of magma important > mafic magma hotter than felsic - heat decreases away from magma > forms a zone of altered country rocks calledAureoles Igneous Intrusions - size and type of magma important > mafic magma hotter than felsic - heat decreases away from magma > forms a zone of altered country rocks calledAureoles Sometimes creates a metamorphic rock called a hornfels -in essence a cooked rock
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  • Slide 8
  • Dynamic Metamorphism aka Cataclastic Metamorphism associated with Fault Zones - Places where the Earth's crust ruptured - Rock pulverized > heat and pressure come from movement along the Fault resultant rock is known as a Mylonite aka Cataclastic Metamorphism associated with Fault Zones - Places where the Earth's crust ruptured - Rock pulverized > heat and pressure come from movement along the Fault resultant rock is known as a Mylonite
  • Slide 9
  • Regional Metamorphism Most common form of metamorphism caused by large scale forces - lithospheric plate collision covers very large areas - metamorphic belts or zones - Zones are characterized byIndex Minerals > form under specific temperatures and pressures > metamorphic facies commonly associated with - shields: stable areas of crystalline rocks Most common form of metamorphism caused by large scale forces - lithospheric plate collision covers very large areas - metamorphic belts or zones - Zones are characterized byIndex Minerals > form under specific temperatures and pressures > metamorphic facies commonly associated with - Shields and Mountains: areas of crystalline rocks
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  • Shields of the World
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  • Metamorphic Textures Foliated - Folios = page or leaf-like - rock has distinct banding or layering > often not smooth like in sedimentary rocks - formed under directed pressure Non-foliated - no distinct layering character - often a massive crystalline texture - formed under uniform pressures Foliated - Folios = page or leaf-like - rock has distinct banding or layering > often not smooth like in sedimentary rocks - formed under directed pressure Non-foliated - no distinct layering character - often a massive crystalline texture - formed under uniform pressures
  • Slide 12
  • Foliated Texture
  • Slide 13 referred to ascrenulations - some small grains visible Slatey - looks like blackboard > dull surface - smooth, thin layering - breaks into flat slabs > referred to as slatey cleavage - no mineral grains visible Phyllitic - looks like waxed surface > has a "sheen" to it - may have little "waves" on surface > referred to ascrenulations - some small grains visible Schistose - - visible grains > garnets, staurolites - may have shiny > due to mica minerals Gneissic - larger grains - may look like igneous rock - may have crude banding > intensely distorted - different minerals than schistose Schistose - distinct bands of minerals - visible mineral grains > garnets, staurolites - may have shiny appearance > due to mica minerals Gneissic - larger grains - may look like igneous rock - may have crude banding > intensely distorted - different minerals than schistose">
  • Foliated Textures Slatey - looks like blackboard > dull surface - smooth, thin layering - breaks into flat slabs > referred to as slatey cleavage - no mineral grains visible Phyllitic - looks like waxed surface > has a "sheen" to it - may have little "waves" on surface > referred to ascrenulations - some small grains visible Slatey - looks like blackboard > dull surface - smooth, thin layering - breaks into flat slabs > referred to as slatey cleavage - no mineral grains visible Phyllitic - looks like waxed surface > has a "sheen" to it - may have little "waves" on surface > referred to ascrenulations - some small grains visible Schistose - - visible grains > garnets, staurolites - may have shiny > due to mica minerals Gneissic - larger grains - may look like igneous rock - may have crude banding > intensely distorted - different minerals than schistose Schistose - distinct bands of minerals - visible mineral grains > garnets, staurolites - may have shiny appearance > due to mica minerals Gneissic - larger grains - may look like igneous rock - may have crude banding > intensely distorted - different minerals than schistose
  • Slide 14
  • Foliated MM Rocks slate schist gneiss phyllite MM Rocks that could form as a shale (sedimentary) parent rock is exposed to increasing directed pressure and temperature MM Rocks that could form as a shale (sedimentary) parent rock is exposed to increasing directed pressure and temperature
  • Slide 15
  • Marble: - - metamorphosed limestone Quartzite: - - metamorphosed quartz sandstone Quartzite: - - metamorphosed quartz sandstone Non-foliated Rocks
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  • Environment of Formation- EOF look for specific minerals Map out where those minerals are found reconstruct T & P for given minerals Find a modern setting that has similar T & P using Uniformitarianism
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  • Metamorphic Zones
  • Slide 18
  • Metamorphic Zones-Map
  • Slide 19
  • Metamorphic Facies distinctive metamorphic lithologies that occur in well defined areas and named after the key rocks found distinctive metamorphic lithologies that occur in well defined areas and named after the key rocks found
  • Slide 20
  • Metamorphism is common along most plate boundaries like this. Metamorphic Zones