Dali & Surrealism

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Speech at Kennesaw State University (Georgia, USA), celebrating the Year of Spain for the Visiting Teachers' program, Ministry of Education of Spain (MECD) in 2004. I had the pleasure to deepen in a topic I love.

Transcript of Dali & Surrealism

  • 1.1 Dal and Surrealism Llus Figueras, Visiting Teachers Program, Ministry of Education/Embassy of Spain Kennesaw State University (Georgia, USA)

2. 2 What do you recall when thinking of Dal? What do you know about Dal? His moustache Gala His paintings His work His costumes His museum His films & books His double images 3. 3 Contents History of Surrealism Dals family Testimonies about him The Paranoiac critical method Gala, his muse His work and his life His museum His last years 4. 4 What is Surrealism? A movement in literature and the visual arts. Founded in 1924 in Paris by Andr Breton. Believed that logic had failed humankind. Turned to the unconscious and dreams in an attempt to transcend the boundaries of reason. Influenced by the writings of Freud. Dedicated their movement to express the imagination as revealed in dreams, free of the conscious control of reason. 5. 5 The Surrealist group The Surrealist group in 1930: from left to rightTzara, Eluard, Breton, Arp, Dal, Tanguy, Ernst and Man Ray 6. 6 Important Surrealist artists (painters) Dal Max Ernst Ives Tanguy 7. 7 Rendez-vous des amis by Max Ernst 8. 8 Dals family members His father His mother (?) His sister His dead brother The entire family in 1910 9. 9 Dals quotes At the age of six I wanted to be a cook. At seven I wanted to be Napoleon. And my ambition has been growing steadily ever since." Dal at the Age of Six, 1950 , 27 x 34 cm - Comte Francois de Vallombreuse Collection, Paris - Napoleon Bust 10. 10 Important facts in his life: He was baptized with the same Christian name as his brother, who had died of meningitis at the age of seven. This situation turned him into a substitute and charged him with the duty of living for his dead brother and it was cited by Dal as the cause of his egocentricity. Dal at 8 11. 11 Dal about his brother In being born I followed in the footsteps of my adored dead brother, who they continued to love through me[]. As happened in the myth of Castor and Pollux, by killing my brother within myself I gained my permanent immortality. Portrait of my dead brother, 1963 12. 12 Dals familyHIS FATHER Salvador Dal Cus (Sr). A prestigious notary. Very influential in his son. Difficult relationship between them. 1925 Dal and his father, 1948 Portrait of his father 1921 13. 13 Dal about his mother Felipa Domnech, a lady who loved arts and died, suddenly, in 1921. Just as he was painting this canvas, found a religious chromolithograph on which he wrote: Sometimes, I spit for pleasure on my mothers portrait. one can love one's mother and still dream that one spits upon her, and even more, in many religions, expectoration is a sign of veneration; now go and try to make people understand that!" Lugubrious Game, 1929 14. 14 His sister: Anna Maria Dal's sister were very close, especially after their mother's death, when she took on the role of mother. Anna Maria was the only female model he used til Gala replaced her in 1929. Portrait of Anna Maria, 1925 Dal and his sister, 1925 15. 15 His sister: Anna Maria In 1949, she wrote an autobiography that portrayed a different view of Dal, this led to the collapse of their relationship. In revenge for Anna Maria's disloyalty, Dal painted another version of this Figure at a Window Girl at the window (1925) 103 x 75 cm 16. 16 His sister: Anna Maria in 1954 and called it Young Virgin Autosodomized by her Own Chastity. 17. 17 His studies in Madrid La Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando First time in Madrid in September 1922. He lives in the Hall of Residence. He meets Buuel and Lorca. Expelled in 1924 and imprisoned for riots. Second suspension in 1926. 18. 18 Testimonies about Dal Pure rose that washes away artifices and sketches / and opens the tenuous wings of smiles. / Salvador Dal / of the olive voice! / I say what your character and your painting tell me. (Federico Garcia Lorca, Ode to Salvador Dal) 19. 19 Testimonies about Dal Dal has given Surrealism an instrument of the 1st order, namely the Paranoiac Critical Method, which he has shown himself able to apply to painting, poetry, cinema, the construction of Surrealist objects, fashion, sculpture, the history of art and, if necessary, to any sort of exegesis. (Andr Breton) 20. 20 Dals quotes "It is not necessary for the public to know whether I am joking or whether I am serious, just as it is not necessary for me to know it myself." "Liking money like I like it, is nothing less than mysticism - Money is a glory." 21. 21 Avida $$$$$ (Dollars) Nickname used by Breton. Dal loved money, but was generous and always invited. Unfortunately, he paid to have friends. 22. 22 The Paranoic-critical method Active character applied to all renges of arts. DTs experiences. Double images. The conventional vision of reality is altered. Swans reflecting elephants, 1938 23. 23 The Paranoic-critical method It is the spontaneous method of irrational knowledge based on the interpretative-critical association of the phenomenon of delirium. Mediumnistic Paranoiac image, 1935 24. 24 Dals quotes "The world will admire me. Perhaps I'll be despised and misunderstood, but I'll be a great genius, I'm certain of it." "When I was five years old I saw an insect that had been eaten by ants and of which nothing remained except the shell. Through the holes in its anatomy one could see the sky. Every time I wish to attain purity I look at the sky through flesh." 25. 25 Testimonies: Dal on Dal Every morning when I wake up, I feel a supreme pleasure at being Salvador Dal, and I ask myself in astonishment what remarkable things this Dal might do today. (Diary of a Genius) Dal at the Zoo in Paris 26. 26 Dal and his work He used to work more than 10 hours a day. His studio in Port Lligat was his prison. Port Lligat in 1930 Dals house in Port Lligat 27. 27 Testimonies: Dal on Dal Even I, as I paint, dont understand the meaning of my paintings, but it doesnt follow that they have no meaning: in fact their meaning is so profound, complex, coherent and involuntary that it escapes the simple analysis of logical intuition. (The Secret Life of Salvador Dal) 28. 28 Testimonies: Dal on Dal There are two important things that can happen to a contemporary painter: to be Spanish, and to be called Gala Salvador Dal. (The Secret Life of Salvador Dal) 29. 29 Testimonies about Dal I wanted Dal for the cutting edges of his paintings very similar, certainly, to those of de Chirico for his long shadows, the infinite alienation, the receding line, which meets in infinity, the formless faces. Of course he also invented very strange things that could not be realized. (Alfred Hitchcock) 30. 30 Dal about him The only difference between me and a madman is that I am not mad! Playboy Magazine, 1963 31. 31 Dal about Glory I enjoy the glory which I have been given, and which is enhanced by the great media of collective idioticisation. But the word glory is not the only the desire to be an admired public personality. The glory of Christ is not that Jesus won the Nobel Prize but his revelation of the glorious body. I want to become a glorious body, a real and incorruptible plot of substance. 32. 32 PAINTERS TECHNIQUE COLOR THEME GENIUS COMPOSITION ORIGINALITY MYSTERY AUTHENTICITY LEONARDO DA VINCI 17 15 19 20 18 19 20 20 MEISSONIER 5 1 3 0 1 2 17 18 INGRES 15 11 15 0 6 6 10 20 VELZQUEZ 20 20 19 20 20 20 15 20 BOUGUEREAU 11 1 1 0 0 0 0 15 DAL 12 10 17 19 18 17 19 19 PICASSO 9 9 18 20 16 7 2 7 RAFFAELO 19 18 20 20 20 20 20 20 MANET 3 6 4 0 4 5 0 14 VERMEER 20 20 20 20 20 19 20 20 MONDRIAN 0 0 0 0 1 0 3,5 Some painters graded according to Dalis thoughts 33. 33 Vermeer influence? The Ghost of Vermeer which can be used as a table, 1934 Dal with his back to the viewer painting Gala rendered eternal by 6 virtual corneas temporarily reflected by 6 real mirrors, 1972 34. 34 Dal and the Arts: Music In his texts, it was very clear that in his daily life he showed great contempt about music. In Port Lligat, he was used to listening Tristan e Isolda , but he really enjoyed the scratch on the surface of the record. 35. 35 Testimonies: Dal on Dal The two most powerful driving forces behind the refined artistic brain of Salvador Dal are first the libido, or the sexual instinct, and second the anguish of death. (Diary of a Genius) Visage of War, 1940 Not a single minute of my like passes without the sublime Catholic, Apostolic, and Roman specter of death accompanying me even in the least important of my most subtle and capricious fantasies." 36. 36 The Enigma of Hitler, 1940 37. 37 Gala and the Surrealist artists Why were Surrealist artists so attracted to her? Gala and Dal 1930Gala and Eluard Gala and Max Ernst 38. 38 DALI GALA INTERACTION a mutual duality? Dal Gala Her lovers Her influence Her background Her admirers Her past life His sickness His eccentricity His fears His world His glamour 39. 39 Dal about Gala for her, inebriated with the desire to draw her gaze, I anointed myself with fish paste and goat excrement, I adorned my neck with a pearl necklace and my ear with a jasmine. When I found myself before her, I was unable to speak to her, shaken as I was by an attack of demented laughter, cataclysm, fanaticism, abyss, terror. (Life of a Genius) 40. 40 Galas facts Helena Ivanovna Diakonova At 19, she meets Eluard & marries him. Meets Dal at Cadaques on August 1929. Physically, she had tough features. Delicate health. 41. 41 Galas facts Dal declares his love for her & hes disinherited. Gala was considered sly, mean and unsatisfied. She had a scandalous sexual life. 42. 42 Galas facts In 1931, shes diagnosed a tumour in her genitals and becomes sterile. Only understood French (?) 1st marriage with Dal in 1934 in Paris. Religious wedding in 1958, in Girona. The Bleeding Roses, 1931 43. 43 Painting Gala I like women with an extremely thin waist and a big re