Current Agricultural Practices

of 32 /32
Current Agricultural Practices

Embed Size (px)


Current Agricultural Practices. Green revolution. Norman Borlaug (1914-2009). Subsidies. Why do we need food? Energy The Irony: we use energy to make food = energy subsidy. energy input/calorie food Good: lots of food, Bad: deficits of energy Why so many? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Current Agricultural Practices

Current Agricultural Practices

Current Agricultural PracticesOne-Pager Score CardPointsTitle and symbolic border represents theme of content./2Two quotes that represent the content./2Three graphics tied to the quotes and/or the information as a whole./6Five key vocabulary words/5Two questions and answers/2Main Idea/3Total/20Green RevolutionSubsidiesMechanizationIrrigationFertilizersMonocroppingPesticidesGenetic RevolutionFeeding the WorldSubsidiesGreen RevolutionA Closer look at PesticidesGenetic RevolutionSustainable practicesFor APES4SubsidiesWhy do we need food?EnergyThe Irony: we use energy to make food = energy subsidy. energy input/calorie foodGood: lots of food, Bad: deficits of energyWhy so many?Fossil fuels, fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation, and travel to you.

Green revolutionNorman Borlaug (1914-2009)11 post-it notes1.Mechanization

2. Irrigation

5. Inorganic Fertilizers

6. Organic Fertilizers

3. Monocropping

4. CAFOs

MonocroppingSingle species or variety grown.ProsConsLots of foodCheaper food Able to use big machines Easier to apply fertilizer and pesticidesSoil erosion (nothing to hold the soil down: DUST BOWL)= loss of top soil = desertificationVulnerable to pestsUsing mechanization , fertilizers etc..What about our Proteins?High-Density Animal Farming: CAFOs (Concentrated animal feeding operations)

AdvantagesMore productEasier to produceCheaperMore moneyDisadvantagesConcentrations of pollution problems such as foul smells from fed lotsContaminations to drinking water by nitrates in animal wastes (also effects vegetables)Increase in the spread of diseases.Increase pressure on the worlds grain supply to feed the animalsIncrease inputs of energy from fossil fuelsMechanizationUse of machines: irrigation, tractors, fertilizers etc.

ProsConsLots of foodCheaper food (large upfront cost)Necessitates 1 crop agricultureOnly benefits larger farmersFossil fuels (energy subsidies)Synthetic (aka inorganic) FertilizersProsConsLots of foodEasy applicationTargeted nutrientsEasily absorbedUses a lot of fossil fuels in productionMore likely to be carried away by runoffDoes not add organic material to the soil that is lost during production and harvesting.Organic FertilizersProsConsNot as easily taken away by runoffAdds to the value of the soilNo fossil fuels used in productionNot synthetic/natural processes occur

Takes longer to be adsorbed by plantsNot as easy to applyNot as easy to target specific nutrient needsIdea of poop

Irrigation ProsConsLots of foodCheaper food (large upfront cost)Able to farm land that was previously unusable. Depletes ground waterPromotes salt water intrusionSoil degradation by water logging and salinizationFossil fuels (energy subsidies)Types of Irrigation4. Furrow (65% efficent- oldest, easiest, cheapest)3. Flood: More disruptive but 80% efficent2. Spray irrigation: more expensive- 75-95%1. Drip: over 95% efficent (reduces weed growth1. Hydroponic: uses 95% less water (water can be reused) more expensive.

2. Salinization and WaterloggingRepeated irrigation can reduce crop yields by causing salt buildup in the soil and waterlogging of crop plants.Figure 13-1316Global Outlook: Soil ErosionSoil is eroding faster than it is forming on more than one-third of the worlds cropland.Figure 13-10

17EXTRA CREDIT DUETuesdayALL IN ONE EMAIL!!! If you want to insure I get them all.Certified organic labelNon-GMO labelCountry of originSustainable fishingBPA Free Sustainable farming/practices label.Free-range

You must have one of each before you can duplicate. (Worth 1 point each on your test)PesticidesWe will be answering 4 Questions todayWhat are the types of pesticides?What are the advantages of pesticides?What are the disadvantages of pesticides?What is the ideal pesticide?

PesticidesWhat are the types of pesticides?InsecticidesHerbicidesFungicidesRodenticidesBroad spectrum (DDT)Endocrine InhibitorsNarrow spectrum (selective): RoundupPersistentnonpersistent

What are the advantages to pesticides?Easy to applyQuick workingIn most cases works with a single applicationTargeted (in most cases)Prevents crop damage = greater yield= less land used for agriculture

Disadvantages?Kills unintended organisms (bees)Persistent = bioaccumulation (Rachel Carson, Silent Spring)

Resistance (just like bacteria and antibiotics)= pesticide treadmillEnters waterways through runoffToxicity (LD50 and ED50) ** See hand out***

Rachel Carson, Silent Spring in 1972 in the US and 2001 worldwide.Loss of biodiversity (bald eagles, bees, thinned egg shells of birds, reptiles and some amphibians)Human Effects: LD50of 113mg/kg (in rats) : ~300 ; caffeine (depends on the sex and age) btw: Nicotine 50 mg/kgbreast & other cancers (Still arguments about this one)male infertilitymiscarriages & low birth weightdevelopmental delayEndocrine disruptorsnervous system & liver damage

What we are still seeing after over 40 years of banning it: Its persistent!!Food supplies:USDA foundDDT breakdown productsin 60% of heavy cream samples, 42% of kale greens, 28% of carrots and lower percentages of many other foods.Body burden:DDT breakdown products were found in the blood of 99% of the peopletested by CDC.Health impacts:Girls exposed to DDT before puberty are 5 times more likely to develop breast cancer in middle age, according to thePresidents Cancer Panel.

Ideal PesticidesIPM (Integrated pest management)In short: Use of pesticides is the last resort, farmers must carefully monitor crops and infestations must be caught early. Other methods include: crop rotation, intercropping, agroforestry, use of natural predators (salt cedar at I20 , lady bugs kill aphids, scales, and mites, wasps to kill certain kinds of caterpillars)

GMOs does this work?Some examples:Golden Rice: added vitamin A producing gene= reduce blindnessPharmaceuticals: grown in plants, animals or bacteriaRoundup ready soybeansSalmon: grow to maturity in half the time

Define GMO.Briefly discuss you opinion on, Should the government require labeling of GMOs? Give two reasons to support your answer.Lets take this to the next level. Should the US follow Europe and ban GMO use and import? Give two reasons to support your answer. FOOD LABELS to blame?Ignorance (us)Government PoliciesFarm Bill (keeps food prices artificially low)

More Sustainable MethodsSmall scale farmingShifting agriculture (Includes slash and burn)Sustainable agriculture: intercropping, crop rotation, agroforestry, contour plowing/plantingNo-Till agricultureIntegrated Pest Management (IPM)Organic Agriculture: use natural systems, keep as much organic matter in soil as possible, no synthetic fertilizers and pesticidesTo reduce fertilizer run-off (used prescribe amounts and plant legumes and other nitrogen fixing plants)The other side of the story