of 26 /26
Cryptography Lecture 2 Arpita Patra

clifford-cobb
• Category

## Documents

• view

220

0

Embed Size (px)

description

Today’s Goal -Do Secure Communication in a ‘modern’ way ditching the ‘classic’ approach o Formulate a formal definition (threat + break model) o Identify assumptions needed and build a construction o Prove security of the construction relative to the definition and assumption

### Transcript of Cryptography Lecture 2 Arpita Patra. Recall >> Crypto: Past and Present (aka Classical vs. Modern...

Cryptography

Lecture 2

Arpita Patra

Recall>> Crypto: Past and Present (aka Classical vs. Modern Cryto)

o Scopeo Scientific Basis (Formal Def. + Precise Assumption + Rigorous Proof)o End-users

>> Secure Communication in Secret Key Setting

Secret Key Encryption (SKE)

>> Learn From the Blunders of Classical SKE

o Algorithms of SKE (in general in crypto) must be PUBLICo Secret Key Space Must be large enough to fail brute forceo No ad-hoc algorithm without definition and proof

Today’s Goal- Do Secure Communication in a ‘modern’ way ditching the ‘classic’ approach

o Formulate a formal definition (threat + break model)o Identify assumptions needed and build a construction o Prove security of the construction relative to the definition and assumption

Secure Communication in Private Key Setting

o Secret key k shared in advance (by “some” mechanism)

k k??

m

o m is the plain-text

Encryption

Decryption

m c

o c is the cipher-text (scrambled message)

m

Need: An encryption scheme (Gen, Enc, Dec)- Private (Secret) Key Encryption- Keys are private to the sender and the receiver - Symmetric Key Encryption- The same key is used for encryption and decryption

Syntax of Secret Key Encryption (SKE)

1. Key-generation Algorithm: Gen()

2. Encryption Algorithm: Enck(m)

3. Decryption Algorithm: Deck(c)

> MUST be a Randomized algorithm

> Outputs a key k chosen according to some probability distribution.

> Deterministic/Randomized algorithm> c Enck(m) when randomized and c:=Enck(m) when deterministic

> Usually deterministic > Outputs m:= Deck(c)

Syntax of SKE

> Set of all possible keys output by algorithm Gen1. Key space (K):

2. Plaintext / message space (M):> Set of all possible “legal” message (i.e. those supported by Enc)

3. Ciphertext space (C):> Set of all cipher-texts output by algorithm Enc

SKE is specified using (Gen, Enc, Dec) and M

Formal Definition of SecurityTwo components of a security definition:

Break:

Threat: >> Who is your threat? >> Who do you want to protect from? >> Cultivate your enemy a.k.a adversary in crypto language.>> Look out in practical scenarios / be an adversary>> Unless you know your adv, no hope of defeating him

>> What are you afraid of losing? >> What do you want to protect?>> If you don’t know what to protect then how to do you when or if you are protecting it?

Threat Model- How powerful

- What are his capabilities (in terms of attacking a secure communication protocol)?

computationally? > Best is to have no assumption on the computing power of the adv. a.k.a unbounded powerful adversary > Give him any so-called hard problem (factoring etc), he solves in no time

> Strongest adversary that we can think of in terms of computing power

k k??

Encm c

> Attacker/adv. can eavesdrop/tap the ciphertext during transit- Passive or Eavesdropper

Can you think of a smarter attack? > Ciphertext Only Attack (COA)

Threat Model- Can sample random coins? (deterministic or randomized)> Randomness is absolute necessity in Crypto; it is practical and Good guys

use randomness often. Why not adversary?> Good to be liberal in terms of giving more power to adversary

- Randomized- Unbounded Powerful- COA

Break Model

Attempt I>> Secret key ? Then Enc(m) = m is secure

Attempt II>> Entire Message?Then Enc(m) leaking most significant 10 bits is secure; m: bank password| amazon password|

Attempt III>> No additional info about the message irrespective of prior information?

Right NotionHow to formalise?

Need basics of Discrete Probability Theory

Discrete Probability Background> U: Finite set; e.g. {0,1}

> Probability Distribution on U specifies the probabilities of the occurrence of the elements of U

- e.g Probability Distribution on U = {0,1}: Pr(0) = ½ , Pr(1) = ½

Pr(0) = 0 , Pr(1) = 1

Probability distribution: Probability distribution Pr over U is a function

Pr: U ⟶ [0,1] such that Σ Pr(x) = 1x in U

> Uniform Probability Distribution on U: Pr(x) = 1/|U| for every x

Discrete Probability BackgroundEvent: Occurrence of one or more elements of U is called an event

- e.g Consider Uniform Distribution on U = {0,1}4

- Let A = occurrence of elements of U with msb two bits as 01

- Pr(A) = 1/4

Union Bound: For events A1 and A2 Pr[ A1 ∪ A2 ] ≤ Pr[A1] + Pr[A2] (extend for more than 2)

Conditional probability: probability that one event occurs, assuming some other event occurred.

- Pr(A | B) = Pr(A B) / Pr(B) - For independent A, B: Pr(A | B) = Pr(A) and Pr(A B) = Pr(A) . Pr(B)

Discrete Probability Background

Bayes’s Theorem: If Pr(B) 0 then

Pr(A | B) = Pr(B A) . Pr(A) / Pr(B)

Random Variable: variable that takes on (discrete) values from a finite set with certain probabilities (defined with respect to a finite set)

Probability distribution for a random variable: specifies the probabilities with which the variable takes on each possible value of a finite set

- Each probability must be between 0 and 1- The probabilities must sum to 1

Done!!

Law of total probability: Let E1, …, En are a partition of all possibilities of events. Then for any event A: Pr[A] = i Pr[A Ei] = i Pr[A | Ei] · Pr[Ei]

Formulating Definition for SKE=(Gen,Enc,Dec)

CKM

MRandom Variable K C

iluihu

Pr(M = ilu) = .7Pr(M = ihu) = .3

Prob. Dist.

Pr(K = k) = Pr(Gen outputs k)

- Determined by external factors

- Depends on Gen

- Choose a message m, according to the given dist.

- Generate a key k using Gen- Compute c Enck(m)

All the distributions are known to

Prob. Dist. Of M and K

are independe

nt

Prob. Dist. Of C depends on dist. of M and K

Numerical ExampleM = {a b c d} 1

4-3

10- 3

20-3

10-

K = {k1 k2 k3} 1

4-14-

12-

Enc

Pr [C = 1] :

Pr [C = 2] :

Pr [M = b] Pr [K = k2] + Pr [M = c] Pr [K = k3] + Pr [M = d] Pr [K = k1] = 0.2625 Pr [M = c] Pr [K = k1] + Pr [M = d] Pr [K = k2] + Pr [M = d] Pr [K = k3] = 0.2625

Pr [M = a] Pr [K = k1] + Pr [M = a] Pr [K = k2] + Pr [M = b] Pr [K = k3] = 0.2625

Pr [M = a] Pr [K = k3] + Pr [M = b] Pr [K = k1] + Pr [M = c] Pr [K = k2] = 0.2125

What is the probability distribution on the cipher-text space C ?

Pr [C = 3] :

Pr [C = 4] :

C = {1 2 3 4} .2

6.26

.26

.21

Threat & Break Model

- Randomized- Unbounded Powerful- COA

No additional info about the message should be leaked from the ciphertext irrespective of the prior information that the adv has

What captures the prior information of the attacker about m ?- Probability distribution on the plain-text space M- The probability distribution {Pr[M = m]}

Observing the cipher-text c should not change the attacker’s knowledge about the distribution of the plaintext

- Mathematically, Pr[M = m | C = c] = Pr[M = m]

What is the point in tapping over channel. I better watch the cricket match today

Perfect Security!!!!

Perfectly-secure Encryption : Formal DefinitionDefinition (Perfectly-secure Encryption): An encryption

scheme (Gen, Enc, Dec) over a plaintext space M is perfectly-secure if for every probability distribution over M, every plain-text m M and every cipher-text c C, the following holds:Pr [M = m | C = c] = Pr [M =

m]Posteriori probability that m

is encrypted in ca priori probability that m

might be communicated

Probably the first formal definition of security

- C. E. Shannon. Communication theory of secrecy systems. Bell Systems Technical Journal, 28(4): 656-715, 1949.

What have we done so far..

No assumption!!

o Formulate a formal definition (threat + break model)o Identify assumptions needed and build a construction o Prove security of the construction relative to the definition and assumption

Perfectly-secure Encryption- Construction

M = K = C = {0, 1}l

Gen k R K m M

k

c Encc:= mk

k

Decm:= ck

c C m

Correctness: Enck(m)Deck( ) = m

Vernam Cipher [1917]: But

Shannon proved its security after

formulating perfect security

Perfectly-secure Encryption- Construction M = K = C = {0, 1}l

Gen k R K m M

k

c Encc:= mk

k

Decm:= ck

c C m

Theorem (Security):

Vernam Cipher is perfectly-secureTo prove Pr[M = m | C = c] = Pr[M = m]Proof:

For arbitrary c and m, Pr[C = c | M = m]= Pr[K = c m] = 1/2l

Pr[C = c]m in M

(irrespective of p. d. over M)

= 1/2l Σ Pr[M = m] m in M

= 1/2l

= Σ Pr[C = c | M = m] Pr[M = m]

Perfectly-secure Encryption- Construction M = K = C = {0, 1}l

Gen k R K m M

k

c Encc:= mk

k

Decm:= ck

c C m

Pr[M = m | C = c] = Pr[C = c | M = m ] Pr[M = m]

Pr[C = c]

= Pr[M = m] Historical Use of Vernam Cipher:

Redline between White

House & Kremlin during

Cold war.

(Bayes' Theorem)

What have we done so far..

o Formulate a formal definition (threat + break model)o Identify assumptions needed and build a construction o Prove security of the construction relative to the definition and assumption

Vernam Cipher is not all that nice because..o How long is the key?

o Can we reuse the keys for multiple messages? No!!

length is as long as the message

- For long messages hard to agree on long key- What happens the parties cannot predict the message size in advance

- c = m k, c’ = m’ k- c c’ = m m’ Adversary learns the difference!

- Perfect security breaks down

Project: US & UK decrypted

Russian Plaintext

exploiting the use of same

key to pad many messages Let us design another scheme that overcomes the

drawbacks..Alas! Inherent problems..

Chalk & Talk Assignmento Various Perfect Security Definitions and their Equivalence

Define it

Definition I:Pr [M = m | C = c] = Pr [M =

m]

Definition II:Pr [C = c | M = m] = Pr [C = c | M

= m’]

Definition III:KL Chapter 2

Next class…o Various Perfect Security Definitions and their Equivalence

Define it

Definition I:Pr [M = m | C = c] = Pr [M =

m]

Definition II:Pr [C = c | M = m] = Pr [C = c | M

= m’]

Definition III:KL Chapter 2

≈Definition IV:

Shannon