CRS SEED VOUCHERS & FAIRS Seed Vouchers & Fairs and Agro-Biodiversity 159 Seed Vouchers...

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Transcript of CRS SEED VOUCHERS & FAIRS Seed Vouchers & Fairs and Agro-Biodiversity 159 Seed Vouchers...


    Using Markets in Disaster Response

    Edited by:

    Paula Bramel

    Tom Remington

    Melody McNeil

  • Managing Editors: Paula Bramel, Tom Remington, Melody McNeil

    Contributing Authors: Cecilia Adalla, Jim Ashman, Paula Bramel, Owen Chamdimba, Edward Charles, Walter Doetsch, Christophe Droeven, Samba Fall, Amadou Gaye, Resom Habte, Ibrahim Jallow, Njagga Jawo, Christine Kuwaza, Dennis Latimer, David Lukungu, Mbuyi Lusambo, Sharad Mahajan, Philip Marol, Paul Omanga, Joseph Oneka, Lawrence Otika, Lantotiana Rafanomezantosoa, Patrick Rajaomilison, Donal Reilly, Tom Remington, Michael Roberto Kenyi, Joseph Sedgo, Yibabe Sebhatleab, Lisa Washington-Sow.

    Photo Credits: CRS staff & Dave Snyder, Samba Fall, Eric McGaw, Jack Norman, Stephen Walsh Photo cover: Dave Snyder

    © CRS East Africa, Nairobi, Kenya, 2004

    The geographic designation employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of Catholic Relief Services (CRS) concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

    Articles appearing in this publication may be quoted or reproduced without charge, provided the source is acknowledged. No use of this publication may be made for resale or other commercial purposes.

    All images remain the sole property of their source and may not be used for any purpose without wri�en permission of the source.

    Contact us Catholic Relief Services / East Africa Regional Office Rank Xerox House 2nd floor, Westlands P.O. Box 49675 - 00100, Nairobi, Kenya Tel: +254 20 3750788 Fax: +254 20 3741356 Email:

  • Contents Preface v

    Acknowledgements vi

    List of Acronyms vii

    Introduction 1

    Understanding Seed Systems 2

    Seed Vouchers & Fairs Minimum Data Set: Analysis of CRS Experiences 10

    Country Papers 25

    CRS/Afghanistan: Livelihood Inputs A Lesson from Afghanistan 26 CRS/Burundi: Experience with Seed Vouchers & Fairs in Kirundo Province 32 CRS/DRC: Experience with Seed Vouchers & Fairs 39 CRS/Eritrea: Experience with Seed Vouchers & Fairs 44 CRS/Ethiopia: Experience with Seed Vouchers & Fairs 51 CRS/Gambia: Experience with Seed Vouchers & Fairs 58 CRS/Kenya: Experience with Seed Vouchers & Fairs 62 CRS/Madagascar: Experience with Seed Vouchers & Fairs 66 CRS/Malawi: Experience with Seed Vouchers & Fairs 69 CRS/Senegal: Experience with Seed Vouchers & Fairs 78 CRS/Sierra Leone: Experience with Seed Vouchers & Fairs 89 CRS/Sudan: Experience with Seed Vouchers & Fairs 96 CRS/Uganda: Experience with Seed Vouchers & Fairs in Gulu and Kitgum 100 CRS/West India: Experience with Seed Vouchers & Fairs 106 CRS/Zimbabwe: Experience with Seed Vouchers & Fairs 117

  • v

    Thematic Papers 129 CRS/Ethiopia: Working with Partners 130 CRS/Burundi: An analysis of local seed supply channels with a focus on how Seed Vouchers & Fairs support local seed sellers 138 CRS/Eritrea: Working with Agricultural Research 142 Evaluation of Seed Vouchers & Fairs 146

    Working groups 149 Se�ing Voucher Values 150 Designing the Vouchers 151 Determining the Price of Seed 152 Analyzing and Ensuring Seed Quality 153 Identifying Seed Sellers 154 Recommending a Seed Vouchers & Fair Minimum Data Set 155 User-Focused Evaluations 156 Effective Information, Communication & Education 157 Engaging the Donors 158 Seed Vouchers & Fairs and Agro-Biodiversity 159 Seed Vouchers & Fairs Approach in Acute Conflict 161

    Do’s & Don’ts 163 What to do? 164 What not to do 166

    References 167 Annex 1. Seed Fair Evaluation Form – Seed Seller 169 Annex 2. Seed Fair Evaluation Form – Beneficiary 171 Annex 3. Minimum Data Set Survey 173

  • v

    Preface Over the past twenty years, Seeds & Tools (now called Direct Seed Distribution) has become the standard approach to agricultural recovery from disaster. However, rather than leading to sustainable recovery and greater resilience, Seeds & Tools became expensive annual or at least biennial events. Increasingly, both donors and seed aid practitioners began questioning the effectiveness of this approach. But ‘what to do?’ If not Seeds & Tools, then what? Building on key seed aid evaluations in Zimbabwe, Rwanda and Kenya, a more nuanced understanding of seed security and seed systems emerged. CRS accepted a suggestion made by Louise Sperling of CIAT that if the seed security problem was one of access to seed and not availability of seed or seed quality, then perhaps vouchers would be more effective than direct seed distribution. This lead to the Seed Vouchers & Fair approach which was first used by CRS in Uganda in 2002.

    Since the development of the Seed Vouchers & Fair approach in 2000, CRS Country Programs throughout Africa and beyond quickly commi�ed to changing from the conventional approach of direct distribution of seed to a radically different approach that put farmers at the center of the recovery process. In changing from ‘doing what we had always done’ (‘and ge�ing what we had always go�en’) to a different, more complex and nuanced approach, CRS staff accepted challenge and significant risk.

    These proceedings are the output of a symposium on CRS’s experience with the Seed Vouchers & Fair approach to agricultural recovery from disaster, which was convened and coordinated by the CRS East Africa Regional Office. The papers contained in the Proceedings are a testimony to their courage and their commitment to the people that we serve.

  • vi vii


    In remembrance of Christine Kuwaza, CRS-Zimbabwe Country Program Agriculturist. Christine was a dedicated and enthusiastic pioneer of the use of Seed Vouchers and Fairs in Zimbabwe. She will long be remembered at CRS and in Zimbabwe for her determination to take risks and innovate under the adverse conditions. Her persistence to find solution to each of the implementation challenges and her contagious humor made working with her a joy. Christine will be greatly missed.

    Acknowledgements The editors are grateful to the CRS Country Representatives for their unwavering support to transform how CRS responds to disaster and to our incredibly important partners who embraced the challenge of change. We also wish to acknowledge the support of Jean Marie Adrian, the CRS East Africa Regional Director, who immediately saw something good and provided support and encouragement throughout the exciting transition. On behalf of CRS, we are also grateful for the financial and moral support of our major donor in disaster recovery, the United States Agency for International Development, Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance.

  • vi vii

    List of Acronyms CIAT International Center for Tropical Agriculture

    CRS Catholic Relief Services

    CRS/EARO Catholic Relief Services / East Africa Regional Office

    CRS/ET Catholic Relief Services/Ethiopia

    CRS/WARO Catholic Relief Services/West Africa Regional Office

    CTDT Community Technology Development Trust

    DFID Department for International Development

    DMER Design, Monitoring, Evaluation, Reporting

    DRC Democratic Republic of Congo

    DSD Direct Seed Distribution

    FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

    ICRISAT International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics

    IDP Internally displaced persons

    IP Implementing Partners

    IRIN Integrated Regional Information Networks

    MDS Minimum Data Set

    NGO Non Governmental Organization

    OCHA Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs

    OFDA Office for Foreign Disaster Assistance

    PRA Participatory Rural Appraisal

    SPP Strategic Planning Process

    SSSA Seed System & Security Assessment

    SV&F Seed Vouchers & Fairs

    UNEUE UN-Emergency Unit for Ethiopia

    USAID United States Agency for International Development

    WFP World Food Programme


    Understanding Seed Systems

    Seed Vouchers & Fairs Minimum Data Set

  • 2 3

    Understanding Seed Systems Tom Remington,CRS/EARO

    Development is not judged by whether farmers grow traditional

    varieties or ones that are the products of formal plant breeding, but

    rather by the range of productive choices that are at their disposal.

    Development is not assessed by whether or not farmers save seed, but

    rather by their security of access to seed, from their own farms or

    through the market (Tripp 2001).

    There has been a great deal wri�en on both farmer and formal seed systems in Africa. This information is drawn on to articulate the strengths and weaknesses of both systems and the opportunities that each present for the other in the context of seed-based agriculture recovery from disaster. In contrast, the evolution of the informal seed system has gone largely unrecognized, unappreciated and undocumented. This article will briefly discuss the formal and farmer seed systems and describe the emergence of the inform