Crop diversity and climate change

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Adapting to Climate Change:

The importance ofconservation of crop diversity

http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/oct/31/ipcc-report-six-graphs-that-show-how-were-changing-the-worlds-climate

The Guardians 6 graphson Climate Change

Source: Battisti, D.S., and R.L. Naylor. 2009. Historical warnings of future food insecurity with unprecedented seasonal heat. Science, 323, 240-244.Luigis 6 graphs(+1 map) on CC and food

Summary of estimated impacts of observed climate changes on yields over 19602013 for 4 major crops in temperate and tropical regions.

Source: Page 7 - IPCC. 2014. Summary for policymakers - Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Available at: http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/wg2/ar5_wgII_spm_en.pdf.

Summary of projected changes in crop yields due to climate change. Source: Page 18 - IPCC. 2014. Summary for policymakers - Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Available at: http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/wg2/ar5_wgII_spm_en.pdf.

Lobell et al., 2008. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/319/5863/607

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Meeting the Global Food Demand of the Future by Engineering Crop Photosynthesis and Yield PotentialLong, Marshall-Colon, Xin-Guang Zhu (2016)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2015.03.019

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Rippke U, Ramirez-Villegas J, Jarvis A, Vermeulen SJ, Parker L, Mer F, Diekkrger B, Challinor AJ and Howden M. 2016. Timescales of transformational climate change adaptation in sub-Saharan African agriculture. Nature Climate Change.http://agro.biodiver.se/2016/03/transforming-agriculture-in-africa/Farmers in 60% of the current African bean area, and about 30% of that of the other crops, will need to think about some other crop at some time during the 21st century.

What to do?No silver bullet!But dont panic.Lots of things that we can do...

technological innovations to generate weather data

Climate Smart Agriculture

Weatherbased agro-advisories reach > 3 million farmers in India

Crop insurance covers 30 million farmers in India

Climate ready varieties in maize and rice

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technological innovations to generate weather data

Climate Smart Agriculture

Creating diversity of land usesChanging and diversifying diets Crop diversification and climate-smart species and cultivarsOn-farm biodiversity,agroforestry, intercropping That cope with extremesTechnologies and practices

Weatherbased agro-advisories reach > 3 million farmers in India

Crop insurance covers 30 million farmers in India

Climate ready varieties in maize and rice

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http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/344712/icode/Actually better to make sure agriculture as a whole is part of climate change adaptation!

New varieties in farmers fieldsBreedingCrop diversitySeed systemsGenebanksIncreased yields, resilience etc.Adaptation to climate changeFood and nutritional security

Indicative activitiesPrioritize species, varieties, breeds and populations (including useful wild relatives) for conservation on the basis of climate change expectations...Collect information on distribution and frequency of priority species, crop varieties, animal breeds and forestry and fish populations...Develop and implement crop, animal, tree or fish species improvement programmes to provide materials adapted to climate...Provide long-term support for evaluation and use of wild relatives.Improve GRFA information systems and access to them.

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Crop Wild RelativesSvalbard, Norway 78 North, 15East

a) rice (Oryza sativa); b) Oryza longistaminatadrought tolerance; c) Oryza coarctatatolerance to salinityd) barley (Hordeum vulgare); e) Hordeum spontaneumdrought tolerance) f) Hordeum bulbosumdisease resistance, drought, salt, and frost toleranceg) chickpea (Cicer arietinum); h) Cicer reticulatumdrought and heat tolerance; i) Cicer echinospermumdrought and heat tolerancej) sunflower (Helianthus annuus); k) Helianthus paradoxustolerance to salinity; l) Helianthus argophyllustolerance to drought

PoolPotentialConfirmedPrimary314268Secondary690531Tertiary7023911B181231432654275Not in pool165204"Crop Taxa" (Crop itself)4422

ClassPotentialConfirmedTotalAbiotic Stress497108605Agronomic Trait52332384Biotic Stress13316561987Fertility Trait11214225Morphological Trait71219Phenological Trait123850Quality Trait10772179

PoolPotentialConfirmedAbiotic StressAgronomic TraitBiotic StressFertility TraitMorphological TraitPhenological TraitQuality TraitPrimary314268108833023171338Secondary6905312641226986251357Tertiary7023911646969295516531B181011400042314152700113265111124012427581193001

Nora Castaneda, pers. comm.

CIAT

Pre-24

CWR in genebanks: How much is enough?

How much is enough?

Density of records

Density of seed collections

Areas where gaps exist in ex situ collections for multiple taxa

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Determine gaps in collectionsModel distributionsGather taxonomic dataGather occurrence dataMake collecting recommendationsGeoreferencing

TaxonomicGeographicEcological

How much is enough?

Definition of crops and crop wild relative taxa to analyze:81 crop genepools globally important for food security.1079 crop wild relative taxa (GP1 and GP2 + less closely related taxa with proven and potential uses in breeding)

Vincent, H. et al. Biological Conservation. 167, 265-275 (2013)

Gathering and curating occurrence data from 420 data sourcesData quality check

Modelling the distribution of CWRMaxEnt: modelling algorithm19 climatic variables5 x 5km resolutionNative range of each taxaMeasuring 3 gap analysis metricsSampling Representativeness ScoreGeographic Representativeness ScoreEcological Representativeness ScoreIdentifying collecting and conservation priorities

Picture credit: https://scienceasaverb.wordpress.com/2010/10/29/introduction-to-ecological-niche-modeling-environmental-niche-modeling-species-distribution-modeling-part-two-what-is-niche-modeling/

http://www.cwrdiversity.org/

Collecting hotspotsGlobal collecting hotspots for High Priority Taxa, for 76 crop gene pools

Priorities for conservation71%

Broom milletFinger milletQuinoaRiceMaizeFoxtail milletOatBarleyFoxtail milletRyeWheatFinger milletPearl milletRiceSorghumFoxtail milletPearl milletRiceSorghum

Collecting and using CWRAdapting Agriculture to Climate ChangeSupport from Norwegian Government$50 million, 10 years29 crop genepools (Annex 1)Started in Jan 2011Partnership with Millennium Seed Bank, Kew20-25 national programsCapacity building

CWR in situ

1 Research2 Collecting3 Conservation4 Pre-breedingNew varietieshttp://www.cwrdiversity.org/

Crop Wild RelativesConservation

Pre-breeding agreements for carrots, eggplant, lentils and potatoes.39

Pre-breeding eggplant

http://eggplantprebreeding.upv.es/index.html

Leaf area in some wild species and hybrids is less affected by drought conditions than in domesticated types.

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https://www.genesys-pgr.org

Benefit Sharing Fund

1st call (2009): 5 projects $500K2nd call (2011): 19 projects $5.5M3rd call (2014): $10MITPGRFA & Climate Change

http://www.planttreaty.org/content/where-are-we-working

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Thank youCollecting and using CWRAdapting Agriculture to Climate ChangeLuigi Guarino luigi.guarino@croptrust.org Crop Trust https://www.croptrust.org/ CWR Project http://www.cwrdiversity.org/ Agricultural Biodiversity Weblog http://agro.biodiver.se/ Twitter https://twitter.com/AgroBioDiverse

CropCountriesFocus traitsProject period

Alfalfa Australia, Chile, China, Kazakhstandrought tolerance2015 - 2018

Banana Belgium, IITA (Nigeria), partner in South-East Asia (TBD)drought tolerance2015 - 2018

Barley ICARDA (Morocco), Germany, Moroccodrought, heat and salinity tolerance, enhanced nutritional value, disease and pest resistance2016 - 2018

Carrot Bangladesh, Pakistan, USAheat, salt and drought tolerance2014 - 2017

Chickpea ICARDA (Morocco), Turkey, USAdrought tolerance2014 - 2017

Common beanColombia, CIAT (Colombia, Hondurasheat, drought, waterlogging and root rot resistance2016 - 2018

Eggplant Cote d'Ivoire, Spain, Sri Lankadrought resistance, waterlogging, cold and heat tolerance, root system development2013 - 2016

Finger milletICRISAT (Kenya), Kenyadrought tolerance, resistance to blast and striga, agronomic traits2015 - 2018

Grasspea ICARDA (Morocco), Indiaheat tolerance, low toxicity, broomrape (Orobanche), powdery mildew and aphid resistance2016 - 2018

Lentil Bangladesh, Canada, ICARDA (Morocco), Nepal, Spain, Turkeydrought tolerance, Orobanche and Stemphyllium-blight resistance2013 - 2016

Pearl Millet ICRISAT (India), India, ICRSIAT (Niger)heat and terminal drought tolerance2015 - 2018

Pigeonpea ICRISAT (India), Indiasalinity tolerance, Phytophthora blight and pod borer resistance, yield-related traits2015 - 2018

Potato Brazil, CIP (Peru), Peru, Uruguayheat and drought tolerance, late blight and bacterial wilt resistance 2013 - 2016

Rice IRRI (The Philippines), USAyield-related traits under drought 2011 - 2016

Sorghum Australia, Ethiopia, partner in West Africa (TBD)heat tolerance, cool soil conditions tolerance, water-