Cost effective construction techniques

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    06-May-2015
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  • 1. The important need and everyones dreamto have there own home with individualneeds. Since India is a developing country, theeconomy haves importance. The housing isso impacted with the cost basedconstruction. So, there are various cost effectivetechniques of construction. Lots of them arealso energy efficient and easily adoptable.

2. Essential requirement to human existence is aHOME next only to food and clothing. Abreakthrough for application of sustainableand cost effective technologies for betterhousing in rural and urban areas is an urgentneed considering spiraling construction costs. There is a need for the adoption ofstrong, durable, environmentfriendly, ecologically appropriate, energyefficient and yet cost effective materials andappropriate technologies in construction. 3. ar. Laurie baker is one who worked on costeffective construction techniques as itsbest. Baker showed, in fact, that sustainabletechnologies when adopted with care andcreativity, could lead to a uniquearchitectural expression, one that movedthe expert and the layman alike. Proper materials is the basic need todevelop any construction technique. Brick, wood, stone are three major materialswhich can be used in India for any type ofconstruction. 4. Building Cost-The building construction cost can bedivided into two parts namely:Building material cost : 65 to 70 %Labor cost : 65 to 70 % Size-The smaller the project in terms ofscope or the number of square feet, themore it will cost per square foot. Type-Different types of project havedifferent levels of complexity and detail. 5. Special ConstructionComplexity can greatly increase the cost ofthe project. For exp-Renovation, especiallyif it requires altering or moving structuralcomponents, can be costly because itnecessitates demolition as well as building. Special construction may also be necessaryto shield surrounding spaces from noise, fireand other hazards. Project accessibility Labor Rates Material Costs General Economic Pressures Time of Year 6. These were thefactors affecting thebudget of makingany structure but weare here to knowmore about theconstructiontechniques- thetechniques whichhelps us in reducingthe cost of structure. So, lets move towardsthe techniques 7. Central Building Research Institute (CBRI), Structural Engineering Research Centre(SERC),Centre for Application of Science andTechnology to Rural Areas (CASTRA),Regional Research Laboratories (RRL),National Environmental EngineeringResearchInstitute (NEERI) 8. a)Stabilized compressed earthblocks are made of mudstabilized with 5% cement/limeetc. and compacted in blockmaking machine with noburning. A good walling materialas burnt bricks and iseconomical, stronger, energysaving and simple tomanufacture.b) Fly ash gypsum stabilized mudblocks are much stronger withless water absorption andcheaper than cement stabilizedblocks. With 5 to 10% flyash-G, 30% saving in cement couldbe achieved in addition toutilization of the waste productlike flyash. 9. c) Flyash- lime gypsum productsmanufactured by blending flyash limeand calcined gypsum for making auseful product named Fal-G , and canbe used a cementations material formortar/plaster and for masonry blocksof any desired strength. It can also beused for road pavements and plainconcrete in the form of Fal-Gconcrete. d) Clay red mud burnt bricksproduced from alumina red mud orbauxite, an industrial waste ofaluminium producing plants incombination with clay. Posses all thephysical properties of normal claybricks and solves the problem ofdisposal of the waste product andenvironmental pollution. Inaddition, they have goodarchitectural value as facing bricksdue to their pleasing hues of color. 10. e)Precast stone blocks of larger sizethan normal bricks are manufacturedby using waste stone pieces of varioussizes with lean cement concrete andenable a rationalized use of naturallocally available materials. Shapingstones in this manner, enables speedyconstruction saves oncement, reduces thickness of stonewalls and effects overall saving byeliminating plasters oninternal/external wall surfaces. f) Precast concrete blocks made tosimilar dimension of stone blockswithout large size stone pieces, butusing coarse and fine gradedcement. They have excellentproperties comparable to othermasonry blocks, are cheaper andfacilitate speedy construction andespecially suitable where quality clayfor bricks making is not available. 11. Random rubblemasonry inmud/cement mortarplaced in excavationover thick sand bed.Rubble pointing aboveground level in stabilizedcement mortar. Use of lean cementconcrete mix 1:8:16 forbase with brick masonryin 1:6 cement mortarfootings. Use of lean cementconcrete mix as abovefor base and overburned bricks masonryin cement lime mortar(1:2:12) footings. Arch foundations inplace of spreadfoundations 12. Normally the foundation cost comes toabout 10 to 15% of the total building . It is recommended to adopt a foundationdepth of 2 ft.(0.6m) for normal soil likegravely soil, red soils etc. It is suggested to adopt arch foundation inordinary soils. In case of black cotton and other softsoils, it is recommend to use under ream pilefoundation which saves about 20 to 25% incost over the conventional method ofconstruction. 13. Arch foundation- This type of foundationwas used in olden timeswhere in spreadfoundation is replaced byinverted arch . It reduces theconstruction cost up to40% Advantage of this is-In softsoils that the depth offoundation can be greatlyreduced; disadvantage isthat the end piers have tobe specially strengthenedby buttresses so as toavoid the thrust to archaction tending to rapturethe piers junction. 14. It is recommended toadopt 1 ft. heightabove ground level forthe plinth and may beconstructed with acement mortar of 1:6. The plinth slab of 4 to 6which is normallyadopted can beavoided and in itsplace brick on edgecan be used forreducing the cost. By adopting thisprocedure the cost ofplinth foundation canbe reduced by about35 to 50%. 15. Brick work in 1:6 cement mortar using bricksfrom black cotton and inferior soil stabilizedwith fly-ash. Rat-trap bond brick work in 1:2:12 cementlime mortar/1:1.5:3 cement sand mortar. Hollow concrete block masonry in cementmortar. Compressed mud blocks masonry in mudmortar. Stabilized mud blocks masonry (4% cementor lime) in stabilized mud mortar. Sand lime brick walls in 1:6 cement mortar. FAL-G sand block with 1:6 cement mortar. 16. While layingbricks, the manner inwhich they overlap iscalled the bond. The rat-trap bond islaid by placing thebricks on their sideshaving a cavity of 4?(100 mm), withalternate course ofstretchers andheaders.The headersand stretchers arestaggered insubsequent layers togive more strength tothe walls. 17. This technology has about25% overall-saving on costof a building of traditional9" construction. Thestructure has proven itsstrength to go up to threefloors with the support ofbrick columns. With thistechnique there isreduction in cost of the wallby 25% as withconventional English bond(9thk wall) 350 bricks arerequired per cu. m whereasin Rat-trap bond only 280bricks are required andalso the reduced numberof joints reduces the mortarconsumption. 18. THE COMMON BURNTBRICK IS ONE OF MANSGREAT INVENTIONS. ALLOVER THE WORLD, WITHONLY A FEWEXCEPTIONS, NEARLYALL BRICKS AREROUGHLY THE SAMESHAPE AND SIZE - THAT ISABOUT 9 X 4.5 X 3INCHES. IN MANY OF THESESITUATIONS LISTEDABOVE A JALI IS JUSTAS EFFECTIVE. FAR FROMBEING A LOT MORECOSTLY THAN THE BASICWALL, IF MADE OF BRICKIT CAN BE LESS COSTLYTHAN THE HOUSE WALL! 19. BRICK JALICAN BEUSEDINSTEAD OFPARAPETWALL ORBOUNDARYWALLS...LETS WATCHOUT FORSOMEEXAMPLES.... 20. Instead of using regular wallingsystem of lintel andwindow system ,jaliwork can help cost estimation. 21. Soil cement block technologythis method of construction of wall is by soil cementblocks in place of burnt bricks masonry. It is an energyefficient method of construction where soil mixed with5% and above cement and pressed in hand operatedmachine and cured well and then used in the masonry.The overall economy that could be achieved with thesoil cement technology is about 15 to 20% compared toconventional method of construction. Concrete block wallingIn view of high energy consumption by burnt brick it issuggested to use concrete block (block hollow andsolid) which consumes about only 1/3 of the energy ofthe burnt bricks in its production. Concrete blockmasonry saves mortar consumption, speedyconstruction of wall resulting in higher output oflabor, plastering can be avoided thereby an overall saving of 10 to25% can be achieved. 22. Domes and vaults inbrick or stabilized mudblock with appropriatemortar. Upgraded thatch roofon appropriate framework. Pre-cast RCC Lpanel Precast RCC coredunits in M15 concrete. Precast RCC channelunits in M15 concrete Precast Waffle units inM15 concrete Burnt clay tube roofingin vault form. 23. Filler slabs Partly precast RCC planks and joist in M15 concrete. Partly precast RCC joist and brick panels Partly precast RCC in hollow concrete blocks Thin RCC ribbed slabs Ferrocement channels Brick funicular shell on edge beam Bamboo reinforced concrete Brick funicular shells with RCC edge beams Brick jack arched over RCC joist Precast RCC cored units in M15 concrete. Precast RCC channel units in M15 concrete 24. Provide an economicsolution to RCC slab byproviding 30 to 40% costreduction on floor/roofunit over RCC slabswithout compromisingthe strength. These beingprecast, construction isspeedy, economical dueto avoidance ofshuttering and facilitatequality control. 25. They are easy toconstruct, saveon cement andsteel, are moreappropriate inhot climates.These can beconstructedusingcompressedearth blocksalso asalternative tobricks for furthereconomy. 26. The filler slab is based on theprinciple that for roofs which aresimply supported, the upper partof the slab is subjected tocompressive forces and the lowerpart of the slab experience tensilefo