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Submitted By:NAME AAMIR SHABBIR SALMAN MANZOOR Registration No 1617-304003 1617-304009


In line with recent trends toward high-quality production and diversification in the textile processing , much efforts is being exerted to improve the performance of mixed fabrics of natural and synthetic fibres and to introduce the new product with new values.

This technical information presents a detailed description of the standard working procedure adopted under normal practice for continous dyeing of polyester/cellulosic blended fabrics,a and series of important suggestions over the selection of dye sftuff.

As continous dyeing polyester /cellulosic blended fabrics involves a large variety of fibre substrates, processing methods and recommendable dye stuffs, in this information two possible dye stuffs are describedone is disperse vat combination and second is disperse reactive combination .

AcknowledgmentAll thanks are due to Almighty ALLAH most beneficial and merciful who enable us to complete this project.

The completion of this project is perceived as the fruitful result of and incredible effort, devotion and hardwork. It can be stated without any hesitation that this subject is the outcome of the joint effort of all concerned by successfully negotiating the various tedious problems and hurdles.

We are particularly thankful of S.M Qutab ,our project advisor for the guidance and valuable cooperation render by him at any stage regarding this project. He full indulged himself to facilitate our job whenever approached him to seek guidance regarding this study.

Finally we acknowledge a debt of gratitude to our parents and other encouragement, who led us to complete this project work.


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COTTONCotton is a natural fibre. It has cellulose as its major constituent.

COTTON IN PAKISTAN: Cotton is cultivating in Pakistan on 40 to 50 lack acres and gives about 30 to 40 million bales of cotton per year. Since, cotton is cultivated under different conditions, and its quality various from area to area, field to field, variety to variety, plant to plant, ball to ball. Butt in industries we want cotton of uniform quality and also fixing of price depended on quality of cotton.

PROPERTIES OF COTTON o Cotton consist of pure cellulose (C6H10O5)n o Cotton fibres have a flat, twisted and ribbon like appearance. o It absorbs water and does not dry quickly. (SMR = 8.5%) o It is not damage by alkali o It is damaged by acids. o Cotton may be dyed with variety of dyes. o It is highly flammable fibre.

Cotton crop is ready in July. It is cut and come into ginning mills. In Pakistan, over 1200 ginning factories are working that are producing 10 million bales of cotton. Standard weight of cotton bale is 170 kg / bale. These bales used in spinning mills to produce the yarn. Every year almost 137050 ton cotton is consumed bales of raw cotton are come into spinning unit & after long process this raw cotton is converted into the yarn. Large scale spinning mills = 503 Yarn is converted into fabric in weaving mills. In Pakistan, 16800 organized weaving mills are working

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Production of cloth

o Cotton cloth o Blended cloth o Total cloth USES:

39402000 square meters 4903000 square meters 44305000 square meters

Curtain, garments, household things etc These Greige fabric go to garment industry where after processing it is converted into garments.

Garment IndustryNo of unit Sewing machines over 2500 305000

END USES OF COTTON Cotton is also widely used in blends with polyester for an extensive range of use.

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Greige DepartmentINTRODUCTION: Greige fabric that buys from different weaving units comes in this department. In this department inspection of fabric is done. Accepted fabric is send to next department. There are two inspection systems that are mostly used, one in 10 point American system and other is 4 points Japanese system is used.


Inspection / Grading Lot making Mending

I-Inspection / Grading: The main purpose of the inspection is to check the Greige fabric for identify the faults. Weaving Faults: Double Ends, Loose Ends, Broken Ends, Wrong Dent/Draw, Loose Selvedge, Double Pick, Miss Pick, Design Cut, Knots, Hanging Threads, Float, Mechanical Faults: Starting Marks, Rapping Marks, Mending Marks, Hole /Cuts, Oil Stain Yarn Faults: Cockled Yarn, Weft Slub, Slubby Weft, CEP, Count Variation, Hair, Jute, P Proplyene, Black Ends. Others: Oily Weft, Sizing Stain, Hard Size. Minor Faults: The faults can be removed easily in further processing such as in scouring, bleaching and mercerizing etc.

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Major Faults: Those faults that can not be removed in further processing are major faults such as starting mark, rapping mark, whole etc.

4 Point Penalty System1 PENALTY POINT Defects warp along except the holes Up to 3 3-6 6-9 9-36 2 3 4

and torn Weft defects except cracks holes and torn Cutting Faults Up to 3 3-6 6-9 9-12

Holes and tears and over Cracks / open set marks and over

Holes or Torn = = = inches Points per 100 square yds = Total Penalty Point * 100 *36 Length (Yard) * Width (yards) to supplier Approved Rejected

II-LOT MAKING: Lot making is the process which is done before Pretreatment. Lot making is done for easy handling, transportation and dyeing facilities. Considerations for the lot making are: 1. Fibre types 2. Constructions 3. Greige width

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4. Greige lot 5. Convenience of processing and transportations. 6. Source 7. Customer needs This process is done after see the greige fabric from weaving (lots) then applies the above factors. Normally 2100 meter fabric easily handling. When fabric come from weaving then one number is write on the fabric by weavers in order to different looms, different firm yarns etc. but in the dyeing factories. They had done lot making under 7 factors.

III-MENDING: The correction of the mendable class is called mending. It is also called repairing of faults. Mending is done by physically and chemically. I-PHYSICALLY MENDING: In the physical mending these faults are removed broken ends, broken picks, knots, contaminations. Ii-CHEMICALLY MENDING: In the chemical mending these faults are removed stains, oils, waxes, rust, soils, sighting colours. TYPES OF OIL AND STAINS Water Soluble Pigments Fats and Oils Proteins Bleachable dyes Inorganic salts, urea, sugar Carbon Black, Silicates, and Metal oxides. Animals, Vegetables and minerals Blood, milk Fruits, vegetables etc.

STITCHING SECTIONIn stitching section we stitch the no of small lots to make a lot of required.

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This is divided into three parts 1. Plate form 2. Unfolding machine 3. Stitching machine 1-PLATE FORM: This contain unstitch fabric in the form of rollers, bails, and pallets. 3-UNF OLDING MACHINE: By using this machine fabric is unfold and plaid in trolleys. 4- Stitching machine: Now stitching machine is used to stitch the fabric width wise and store in trolleys. INTRODUCTION: Stitch should be straight. Selvage of one lot is stitch on the selvedge of other lot. NOTE: The fabric come from grey store, are sent in the bleaching department. The lot depends upon many rolls of fabric. In a bleaching department theses rolls are opened, unwind so that the fabric rolls could be stretched with each other for further process. The selvedge of a fabric of roll is stretched the selvedge of opened roll of fabric. Now the fabric is kept in trolleys. The numbers of trolleys are different with each other. A single trolley have unique number 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,-----------315, 316 so on, so that the fabric lot should be identified by trolley fabric is kept 1500 to 2100 meters according to the quality of the fabric. We can not keep fabric more then 2100 meter.

After keeping fabric in a trolley a separate job card is allotted to a single trolley. There are following information mentioned on a job card e.g. date, contract, customer,

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constructions, shade, process department, grey Lot #, fabric type, proc Lt #, quality, fabric source, sub-batch #, sub-batch # Qty, grey width, M/c code, date, shift, start, End, Meters, trolley No, signature operator and comments. First of all write starting process Date, 01-08-2005, marketing persons allots separate Contract No # NDF/OG.3688. There are many lots may be in a single contract, Customer Name, Mian Textile Ltd etc. Construction, 20.16 / 118.63 etc. Shade, what is a shade required black, blue, navy blue. Process Departments Bleaching, Mercerizing. Grey Lt #, the persons of grey store allot separate No# 16067 etc.

SINGING AND DESIZING PROCESSSINGING: When the cloth comes from the loom it has small fibres which are called fuzz. It must be removed by singing process. Mostly common used method is gas singing by the help of gas burners.

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IMPORTANCE OF SINGING: Singing helps us to minimize or reduce the pilling effect. Pilling give harsh or bed look to fabric. It must remove from fabric to get good quality DESIZING: Starch remove from the fabric is called desizing. Desizing is reverse of sizing and is also called steeping. Its main objective is to degrade size into soluble product so that after washing sizes remove from fabric and ready for subsequent process.

BRUSH SINGINGThe fabrics pass through Electromagnetic and Nomatic rollers, in Nomatic rollers air pressure an