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Transcript of COMPUTER PROGRAMMING II SUMMER 2011 Visual Basic to C#

  • Slide 1
  • Slide 2
  • Purpose This PowerPoint is for students that received instruction in Computer Programming I using the Visual Basic language. Computer Programming II uses the C# language. This lesson will introduces the differences between VB and C#.
  • Slide 3
  • Essential Standard This PowerPoint reviews variables, decision making statements, arrays, and methods (sub procedures). Major differences between C# and VB are also covered. C# is very different from VB in one KEY way. All statements MUST end with a semicolon (;). If you forget this, your code will not work. Exceptions: IF statements and loops The upside to this is two-fold: 1. Multiple coding statements may be on the same line 2. A long code segment can be spilt up without having to use an underscore like in VB.
  • Slide 4
  • Spacing C# Examples int intAge; string strName; Two different statements- same line Long line of code: string query = @"SELECT whatever FROM tableName WHERE column = 1"; Both are perfectly valid statements in C#.
  • Slide 5
  • Semicolon Exceptions Two exceptions to the semicolon rule: if(x==b) no semicolon here It is a clause - only part of the statement { y=7; semicolon as normal } while(x< i) no semicolon here either again it is a clause { intGradeTotal=intGrade; semicolon as normal }
  • Slide 6
  • Declaring a Variable In VB we use the Dim keyword to declare a variable: Dim intAge as Integer C# handles this differently: int intAge; In C# use the following format: DataType variableName; All types are spelled out except integer (int) and character (char).
  • Slide 7
  • C# Examples string strName; char charGrade; int intAge; double dblTaxRate;
  • Slide 8
  • Coding Blocks In VB we use the End keyword to end coding blocks like IF statements or loops. If a = b Then b=c End If In C#, we use braces so this code block would be written: if(a==b) { b=c; }
  • Slide 9
  • Equality Check (==) You might of noticed something on the last slide- a == in the if statement. In VB the assignment operator and equality are the same (=). This is NOT true in C#. The equals sign is solely used for assignment. To check for equality you must use ==. Using = in an if statement to check for equality is a logic error. The code will run properly, but not produce the intended result. (It will always be false.)
  • Slide 10
  • Increment Counters In VB to add one to a counter we use varName += 1, for two we use +=2 and so on. (i+=1) This shorthand works in C# as well, but C# provides an additional way to add or subtract one from a counter. i++; i--; ++ adds 1 to the value of i while -- subtracts one. Remember the semicolon is required. To count by 2, or another number, we use the same shorthand is in VB (i+=2).
  • Slide 11
  • IF Statements In C# we do not use THEN keyword as in VB. The comparison is enclosed in ( ) after the if keyword. if (a < b) { Statements } All statements after the if (to be run if the if is true) that would be executed are enclosed in braces ( { } ).
  • Slide 12
  • IF..Then..Else Example if(a > b) { b=c; d= 7; } else { b=5;d=4; }
  • Slide 13
  • Else If C# handles multiple else if statements a little differently as well. There is a space between else and if unlike in VB. As in VB there can be multiple else ifs and a else (default) if all statements are false. if (a == b) {c = 12;} else if (a>b) {c=14;} else if (a < b) { c = 16; } else { c = 10; }
  • Slide 14
  • If Statements in Assignment Statements Like VB, C# supports an if statement in an assignment statement. However the format is completely different: string strName = (a < b) ? "less than 10" : "greater than 10"; ? is called the ternary operator.
  • Slide 15
  • And/Or & Short Circuiting In VB we use the And/Or keywords in compound if statements. C# And = & Or = | To short circuit the statement use && (and) or || (or).
  • Slide 16
  • Examples else if (number 5) Using and else if(number > 50 | number < 25) Usingor else if (number 5) Using short circuit and else if(number > 50 || number < 25) Using short circuit or
  • Slide 17
  • Select Case The Select Case statement in VB do not exist in C#. Instead C# has the switch keyword. This operates similarly to Select Case, but has some key differences. Lets refresh our memory with an example: Select case intGrades Case 90 to 100 strGrade= A Case 80 to 89 strGrade=B Case 70 to 79 strGrade=C Case 60 to 69 strGrade=D Case Is < 60 strGrade=F Else input a valid number!) End Select
  • Slide 18
  • Switch switch(intGrades) { case 10: case 9: strGrade="A"; break; case 8: strGrade="B"; break; case 7: strGrade = "C"; break; case 6: strGrade="D"; break; case 5: case 4: case 3: case 2: case 1: strGrade = "F"; break; } Notice instead of using the To keyword we can just assign multiple cases to a given statement. The break; as the end of each case is required or the program will continue to read through the statements. There could be multiple true cases in C# unlike VB which stops after finding ONE true case. Break prevents this which is almost always the desired outcome.
  • Slide 19
  • Switch 2 If all cases are false and we want an action to occur we use the default keyword: switch (caseSwitch) { case 1: Console.WriteLine("Case 1"); break; case 2: Console.WriteLine("Case 2"); break; default: Console.WriteLine("Default case"); break; }
  • Slide 20
  • Select Case vs. Switch The C# Switch statement does not allow ranges or comparisons like the Select Case statement in Visual Basic. It also does not allow Boolean comparison. This is one place where the VB implementation is superior to the C# one.
  • Slide 21
  • Loops VB and C# each support the following loops: Do While For For each In C# loops are written in the same syntax as an if statement: while (i< intNum) remember no semicolon on this line { Code to run in the loop; semicolon at the end of each code statement unless using a if statement }
  • Slide 22
  • Loop Examples while (i