COMPRESSOR BASICS. TYPES OF COMPRESSORS POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT COMPRESSOR POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT...

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Transcript of COMPRESSOR BASICS. TYPES OF COMPRESSORS POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT COMPRESSOR POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT...

  • Slide 1
  • COMPRESSOR BASICS
  • Slide 2
  • TYPES OF COMPRESSORS POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT COMPRESSOR POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT COMPRESSOR CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR
  • Slide 3
  • POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT COMPRESSOR PD COMPRSSOR WORK BY TRAPPING A CERTAIN AMOUNT OF GAS AND FORCING IT INTO A SMALLER VOLUME PD COMPRSSOR WORK BY TRAPPING A CERTAIN AMOUNT OF GAS AND FORCING IT INTO A SMALLER VOLUME A COMMON TYPE OF PD COMPR. IS RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR. A COMMON TYPE OF PD COMPR. IS RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR. TWO OF THE MAIN PARTS OF RECIPROCATING COMP. ARE CYLINDER AND A PISTON TWO OF THE MAIN PARTS OF RECIPROCATING COMP. ARE CYLINDER AND A PISTON
  • Slide 4
  • GAS ENTERS THE CYLINDER AND IS TRAPPED INSIDE THE CYLINDER. THE GAS IS THEN FORCED INTO A SMALLER SPACE BY THE ACTION OF THE PISTON. GAS ENTERS THE CYLINDER AND IS TRAPPED INSIDE THE CYLINDER. THE GAS IS THEN FORCED INTO A SMALLER SPACE BY THE ACTION OF THE PISTON. FORCING THE GAS IN SMALLER SPACE INCREASES THE PRESSURE, THE COMPRESSED GAS IS THEN DISCHARGED. FORCING THE GAS IN SMALLER SPACE INCREASES THE PRESSURE, THE COMPRESSED GAS IS THEN DISCHARGED.
  • Slide 5
  • CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR IT USES A DEVICE CALLED IMPELLER TO SPIN THE GAS AROUND IT USES A DEVICE CALLED IMPELLER TO SPIN THE GAS AROUND THE ACTION OF THE IMPELLER ACCELERATE OR INCREASES THE SPEED OF THE GAS FLOW. IT GIVES THE GAS ENERGY. THE ACTION OF THE IMPELLER ACCELERATE OR INCREASES THE SPEED OF THE GAS FLOW. IT GIVES THE GAS ENERGY. AS THE GAS FLOWS OUT IT SPEED OUT AND SLOW DOWN AND ITS ENERGY IS CONVERTED INTO PRESSURE AS THE GAS FLOWS OUT IT SPEED OUT AND SLOW DOWN AND ITS ENERGY IS CONVERTED INTO PRESSURE
  • Slide 6
  • SHARING CHARACTERSTICS COMPRSSORS ARE RATED FOR DISCHARGE PRESSUR AND FLOW RATE COMPRSSORS ARE RATED FOR DISCHARGE PRESSUR AND FLOW RATE ALL COMPRESSORS REQUIRE SOME FORM OF DRIVE MECHANISM ALL COMPRESSORS REQUIRE SOME FORM OF DRIVE MECHANISM ELECTRIC MOTORS ARE COMMONLY USED DRIVES. ELECTRIC MOTORS ARE COMMONLY USED DRIVES.
  • Slide 7
  • COMPRESSOR HAZARD MOVING PARTS MOVING PARTS HOT SURFACE HOT SURFACE NOICY NOICY LEAKS FROM THE GAS SYSTEM LEAKS FROM THE GAS SYSTEM FLAMMABLE EXPLOSIVE GASES (SPARK PRODUCING EQUIPMENT SHOULD NEVER BE USED) FLAMMABLE EXPLOSIVE GASES (SPARK PRODUCING EQUIPMENT SHOULD NEVER BE USED)
  • Slide 8
  • ACCESSORIES LUBRICATION LUBRICATION COOLING COOLING FILTERING FILTERING
  • Slide 9
  • LUBRICATION SYSTEM MAIN FUNCTION IS TO REDUCE FRICTION BETWEEN THE MOVING PARTS MAIN FUNCTION IS TO REDUCE FRICTION BETWEEN THE MOVING PARTS LUBRICATION HELPS COOLING THE COMPRESSOR MOVING PARTS AND HELP PREVENT THE LEAKING GAS OUT OF COMPRESSOR. LUBRICATION HELPS COOLING THE COMPRESSOR MOVING PARTS AND HELP PREVENT THE LEAKING GAS OUT OF COMPRESSOR.
  • Slide 10
  • DESCRIPTION OIL FROM THE COMPRESSOR FLOWS INTO THE OIL PUMP.THE OIL IS THEN PUMPED THROUGH FILTER WHICH REMOVES ANY SOLID PARTICLE FROM THE OIL. OIL FROM THE COMPRESSOR FLOWS INTO THE OIL PUMP.THE OIL IS THEN PUMPED THROUGH FILTER WHICH REMOVES ANY SOLID PARTICLE FROM THE OIL. OIL FLOWS THROUGH THE HEAT EXCHANGER WHERE IT IS COOLED OIL FLOWS THROUGH THE HEAT EXCHANGER WHERE IT IS COOLED FROM HEAT EXCHANGER MOST OF THE OIL FLOWS DIRECTLY TO COMPRESSOR LUBRICATION. FROM HEAT EXCHANGER MOST OF THE OIL FLOWS DIRECTLY TO COMPRESSOR LUBRICATION.
  • Slide 11
  • REST OF THE OIL GOES TO OILER. REST OF THE OIL GOES TO OILER. OILER SUPPLIES A SMALL AMOUNT OF OIL TO THE COMPRESSOR CYLINDER OILER SUPPLIES A SMALL AMOUNT OF OIL TO THE COMPRESSOR CYLINDER THE OIL LUBRICTES THE PISTON RINGS AND HELPS SEAL THE SPACE BETWEEN THE CYLINDER WALL AND THE RING. THE OIL LUBRICTES THE PISTON RINGS AND HELPS SEAL THE SPACE BETWEEN THE CYLINDER WALL AND THE RING.
  • Slide 12
  • COOLING WHEN A GAS IS COMPRESSED HEAT IS PRODUCED THIS HEAT CAN CAUSE TWO PROBLEM WHEN A GAS IS COMPRESSED HEAT IS PRODUCED THIS HEAT CAN CAUSE TWO PROBLEM 1. EXCESS HEAT CAN BREAK DOWN OIL CAUSING IT TO BE LOOSE ITS CAUSING IT TO BE LOOSE ITS LUBRICATING CHARECTORSTIC LUBRICATING CHARECTORSTIC 2. GASED EXPAND WHEN THEY ARE HEATED SINCE COMPRESSOR IS HEATED SINCE COMPRESSOR IS DESINGED TO COMPRESS GASES THE DESINGED TO COMPRESS GASES THE EFFECT CREATE ADDITIONAL FORCE EFFECT CREATE ADDITIONAL FORCE WHICH COMPRESSOR MUST OVERCOME. WHICH COMPRESSOR MUST OVERCOME.
  • Slide 13
  • HEAT REMOVAL AIR COOLING AND WATER COOLING ARE TWO TECHNIQUES AIR COOLING AND WATER COOLING ARE TWO TECHNIQUES 1. AN AIR COOLED COMPRESSOR 1. AN AIR COOLED COMPRESSOR EASILY IDENTIFIED BY MEAL FINS EASILY IDENTIFIED BY MEAL FINS ON ITS CASING ON ITS CASING THE FINS PROVIDE INCREASED THE FINS PROVIDE INCREASED SURFACE AREA. SURFACE AREA.
  • Slide 14
  • 2. ANOTHER WAY TO REMOVE THE 2. ANOTHER WAY TO REMOVE THE EXCESS HEAT IS TO COOL THE GAS EXCESS HEAT IS TO COOL THE GAS AFTER THE COMPRESSION IS AFTER THE COMPRESSION IS COMPLETE, THE DEVICE THAT COMPLETE, THE DEVICE THAT DOES THIS IS AN AFTERCOOLER OR DOES THIS IS AN AFTERCOOLER OR INTERCOOLER INTERCOOLER DEPENDING UPON ITS LOCATION THESE EXCHANGERS ARE CLASSIFIED AS INTERCOOLER OF AFTER COOLER. DEPENDING UPON ITS LOCATION THESE EXCHANGERS ARE CLASSIFIED AS INTERCOOLER OF AFTER COOLER.
  • Slide 15
  • INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL THE PROPER OPERATION OF COMP. DEPENDS UPON INSTRUMENTAITON AND CONTROL DEVICES THE PROPER OPERATION OF COMP. DEPENDS UPON INSTRUMENTAITON AND CONTROL DEVICES THESE DEVICES ALLOWS THE COMPRESSOR TO BE STARTED AND STOPPED. THESE DEVICES ALLOWS THE COMPRESSOR TO BE STARTED AND STOPPED. THEY PROVIDE INFORMATION ABOUT THE COMPRESSOR OPERATING CONDITIONS THEY PROVIDE INFORMATION ABOUT THE COMPRESSOR OPERATING CONDITIONS
  • Slide 16
  • THEY MAINTAIN THE VALUES OF PROCESS VARIABLES THEY MAINTAIN THE VALUES OF PROCESS VARIABLES THEY KEEP THE COMPRESSOR OPERATION STABLE THEY KEEP THE COMPRESSOR OPERATION STABLE THEY CAN SHUT DOWN THE COMPRESSOR IF UNSAFE CONDTITON OCCURED THEY CAN SHUT DOWN THE COMPRESSOR IF UNSAFE CONDTITON OCCURED CONTROL PANEL MAY HAVE CONTROL TO REGULATE THE SPEED CONTROL PANEL MAY HAVE CONTROL TO REGULATE THE SPEED
  • Slide 17
  • CONTROL PANEL ME ALSO CONTAIN ALARMS THAT LET THE PERSONNEL KNOW WHEN ABNORMAL AND POTENTIAL DAMAGING CONDITION EXISTS CONTROL PANEL ME ALSO CONTAIN ALARMS THAT LET THE PERSONNEL KNOW WHEN ABNORMAL AND POTENTIAL DAMAGING CONDITION EXISTS PRESSURE CONTROLLER CONTROLS THE DISCHARGE PRESSUR AND IF IT DEVIATES CONTROLLER MANUPULATE THE INLET FLOW PRESSURE CONTROLLER CONTROLS THE DISCHARGE PRESSUR AND IF IT DEVIATES CONTROLLER MANUPULATE THE INLET FLOW
  • Slide 18
  • SURGE CONTROL FOR A GIVEN DISCHARGE PRESSURE A COMPRESSOR HAS A CERTAIN MINIMUM FLOW RATE. BELOW THIS FLOW RATE THE COMPRESSOR BECOME UNSTABLE. A DECREASE IN FLOW BELOW THE MINIMUM FLOW CAN CAUSE A SERIES OF MOMENTARY REVERSAL OF FLOW THROUGH THE COMPRESSOR. THIS SITUATIION IS CALLED SURGE FOR A GIVEN DISCHARGE PRESSURE A COMPRESSOR HAS A CERTAIN MINIMUM FLOW RATE. BELOW THIS FLOW RATE THE COMPRESSOR BECOME UNSTABLE. A DECREASE IN FLOW BELOW THE MINIMUM FLOW CAN CAUSE A SERIES OF MOMENTARY REVERSAL OF FLOW THROUGH THE COMPRESSOR. THIS SITUATIION IS CALLED SURGE
  • Slide 19
  • SURGING RESULTS IN VIOLENT FLUCTUATIONS IN DISCHARGE PRESSURE. SURGING RESULTS IN VIOLENT FLUCTUATIONS IN DISCHARGE PRESSURE. WHEN AN ELECTRIC MOTOR IS USED AS DRIVER SURGING CAN CAUSE EXTREME VARIANTION IN MOTOR CURRENT. WHEN AN ELECTRIC MOTOR IS USED AS DRIVER SURGING CAN CAUSE EXTREME VARIANTION IN MOTOR CURRENT. SYMPTOMS OF SURGING ARE LOW GAS FLOW, EXCESSIVE VIBRATION AND BANGING SOUND INSIDE COMPRESSOR SYMPTOMS OF SURGING ARE LOW GAS FLOW, EXCESSIVE VIBRATION AND BANGING SOUND INSIDE COMPRESSOR
  • Slide 20
  • TO PREVENT THE SURGING THE FLOW RATE OF THE GAS THRU THE COMPRESSOR MUST BE KEPT ABOVE THE MINIMUM STABLE FLOW RATE OR SURGE POINT TO PREVENT THE SURGING THE FLOW RATE OF THE GAS THRU THE COMPRESSOR MUST BE KEPT ABOVE THE MINIMUM STABLE FLOW RATE OR SURGE POINT WHEN THE DEMAND IS LOW FLOW RATE IS MAINTAINED BY RECIRCULATING THE PORTION FROM DISCHARGE TO BACK TO COMPRESSOR. WHEN THE DEMAND IS LOW FLOW RATE IS MAINTAINED BY RECIRCULATING THE PORTION FROM DISCHARGE TO BACK TO COMPRESSOR.
  • Slide 21
  • START UP PREPARING THE COMPRESSOR FOR STARTUP PREPARING THE COMPRESSOR FOR STARTUP WARMING UP THE COMPRESSOR WARMING UP THE COMPRESSOR STARTING THE GAS FLOW THRU COMPRESSOR STARTING THE GAS FLOW THRU COMPRESSOR
  • Slide 22
  • COMPRESSORS GAS SUPPLY IS AVAILABLE, CONTROLS ARE SET IN POSITIONS. COMPRESSORS GAS SUPPLY IS AVAILABLE, CONTROLS ARE SET IN POSITIONS. VALVE LINE UP MEANS ALL THE VALVE ARE PROPERLY SET. VALVE LINE UP MEANS ALL THE VALVE ARE PROPERLY SET. START THE COMPRESSOR AUXILARIES AND MAKE SURE THEY ARE OPERATING PROPERLY. START THE COMPRESSOR AUXILARIES AND MAKE SURE THEY ARE OPERATING PROPERLY. OPERATOR MUST CHECK THE COMPRESSOR AND MAKE SURE THAT NO ABNORMAL CONDITION EXISTS. OPERATOR MUST CHECK THE COMPRESSOR AND MAKE SURE THAT NO ABNORMAL CONDITION EXISTS.
  • Slide 23
  • IF THE COMPRESSOR HANDLES THE FLAMMABLE GAS IT MUST BE PURGE WITH AN INERT GAS LIKE NITORGEN. IF THE COMPRESSOR HANDLES THE FLAMMABLE GAS IT MUST BE PURGE WITH AN INERT GAS LIKE NITORGEN. ONCE PURGED IT CAN BE STARTED AND KEPT IN WARMING UP. ONCE PURGED IT CAN BE STARTED AND KEPT IN WARMING UP. ONCE THE COMPRESSOR AND ITS PARTS RUNS FOR A WHILE AT A LOW SPEED THE COMPRSSOR CAN BE BROUGHT UP T