Complex Socio-Ecological Dynamics driven by Extreme .2013-10-16 Complex Socio-Ecological...
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Dynamics driven by Extreme
Events in the Amazon
Apresentao II Reunio do INCLINE
So Paulo- 7 e 8 outubro 2013
Center for Earth System Science, INPE
So Jos dos Campos, Brazil
An adaptation, also called an adaptive trait, in biology is a trait
with a current functional role in the life history of an organism that is
maintained and evolved by means of natural selection.
Adaptation refers to both the current state of being adapted and to
the dynamic evolutionary process that leads to the adaptation.
Adaptations contribute to the fitness and survival of individuals.
Organisms face a succession of environmental challenges as they
grow and develop and are equipped with an adaptive plasticity as
the phenotype of traits develop in response to the imposed
The developmental norm of reaction for any given trait is essential
to the correction of adaptation as it affords a kind of biological
insurance or resilience to varying environments.
Thinkers of Adaptation
Lamarcks is a proto-evolutionary
theory of the inheritance of acquired
traits , whose main purpose is to explain
adaptations by natural means.
He proposed a tendency for organisms
to become more complex, moving up a
ladder of progress, plus "the influence of
circumstances", usually expressed as
use and disuse. His evolutionary ideas,
and those of Geoffroy, fail because they
cannot be reconciled with heredity.
Darwin broke with the tradition by emphasising
the flaws and limitations which occurred in the
animal and plant worlds.
Many other students of natural history
Before Darwin and Wallace, the concept of adaptation was accepted , and some also accepted evolution, without voicing their opinions as to the mechanism.
The real merit of Darwin and Wallace, and later Bates-> putting forward a mechanism whose significance had only been glimpsed previously.
A century later, experimental field studies and breeding experiments by such as Ford and Dobzhansky produced evidence that natural selection was not only the 'engine' behind adaptation, but was a much stronger force than had previously been thought
The process of adaptation is never finally complete
the environment changes little, and the species comes to fit its
surroundings better and better.
the environment occur relatively rapidly, and then the species
becomes less and less well adapted.
Seen like this, adaptation is a genetic tracking process, which
goes on all the time, but especially when the population cannot or
does not move to another, less hostile area.
Mayr, Ernst (1982) Freeman, S.; Herron, J.C. (2007).
Some Key Concepts about Adaptation
Adaptation and Environmental Change :
How ? Discuss here how adaptation has been used on the Global Environmental
Change / Climatic Change forum.
The concepts of resilience, vulnerability, and adaptation are used to
analyze these and similar events. While these concepts are
becoming more important within the global change research
community, they do have diverse and somewhat separate
intellectual histories (Jeansen & Ostrom 2006).
adaptation in society we need to understand the underlying causes of
vulnerability and mechanisms that enhance or undermine resilience given
a profound analytical investigation;
* index is key to public policy and decision makers -> socioeconomic
the hurricane Katrina (2005)
the Southeast Asian tsunami
Pakistan earthquake, together
with the bird flu (2005)
continuing droughts in Africa,
dramatically illustrate the
potential vulnerability of
human society to disturbances
and variability (Jansen &
International broadcasted Events
all emphasize the importance of including both
social and ecological systems as well as their
mutual interactions when studying their dynamics
Confusions the use of
socio-ecological systems (Gallopin et al., 1989)
socialecological systems (Berkes and Folke, 1998)
coupled humanenvironment systems (Turner et al., 2003)
Ostrom s review socio-ecological system approach (2011)
resilience determines the persistence of relationships within a system and is a measure of the ability of these systems to absorb changes of state variables, driving variables, and parameters, and still persist.
Holling (1973, p. 17)
Vulnerability is defined in different ways, but it generally
includes the attributes of persons or groups that
enable them to cope with the impact of disturbances,
like natural hazard -> livelihoods framework (Ribot,
2005; Adger et al. 2009; Scoones 1999)
Adaptation to environmental variability has been a focus of anthropologists since the early 1900s. In the 1990s, scholars began to use the term adaptation for the study of the consequences of human-induced climatic change, without explicitly relating this back to the conceptual origins in anthropology (e.g., see Adger et al., 2005).
Adaptation is generally perceived to include an adjustment in socialecological systems in response to actual, perceived, or expected environmental changes and their impacts.
Case study analysis tends to be more prominent in this literature than mathematical modeling.
Problem with Sociobiologists - >
applying concepts borrowed from
Ecology and animals patterns and
interactions to human society- >
Fitness ; optimal foraging theory,
cost best analysis, etc.
Hindus and Westerners alike see
in the meat-eating taboos of India a
triumph of morals over appetite.
This is a dangerous
misrepresentation of cultural
processes. Hindu vegetarianism
was a victory not of spirit over
matter but of reproductive over
productive forces.Marvin Harris,
Cannibals and Kings: Origins of
CO2 Increase Ozone depletion
Northern Hemisphere Temperature increases Number of Climatic Disasters Increase
Anthropogenic evidence of Earth System Alterations over the last
Steffen, W. et al 2003. IGBP 3rd Synthesis Book Global Change and the Earth System
Rainfall Vale do Itaja (2008)
Floodings in theAmazon (2009)
Rainfall So Paulo (2010)
Rainfall Rio de Janeiro (2010)
Rainfall Alagoas (2010)
Rainfalls/Landslides Ilha Grande (2010)
Drought Solimes river (2010)
Storm Agatha Central America (2010)
Drought S. Venezuela (2009)
Intense rainfalls S.Brazil/Uruguai (2009)
Rainfalls/Landslides Andes Central Peru (2009)
Heat Wave Santos (2010)
Some extreme unusual events during 2007-2010- South America
Cold Wave Bolivia (2010)
Floods Colombia (2008)
The Amazon Basin
Largest Track of Tropical Forest in
up to 25% of all recognized
terrestrial plant species
Global Provider of Ecosystem
regulating hydrological cycles
(Putz F and M 1993, Putz FE et al. 2008,
Asner et al. 2006, Azevedo-Ramos et al. 2006,
Merry et al. 2006, Menton et al. 2009)
The two regions of case
studies in the Amazon
Pinho et al in review
Developmentalists Programme : Agricultural expansion, Markets, Institutional
Arrangements which influence the spatial and temporal patterns of deforestation.
Pristine forest and drivers of socio-ecological change
INPE- Prodes 2010
Climatic and Hydrological Regime
around the Year
associated with raining
and hydrological Patterns
Rainfall 2460 mmy-1
Drainage Area 6112 000
Annual Mean Discharge
209 000 (m3s-1)
Tomasella, Pinho et al 2012
The ecosystem: alternation between
aquatic and terrestrial phases.
known as vrzea.
Seasonal alternations of
aquatic and terrestrial
The flow of the rivers and the flood pulse
Dictates the ecological patterns
Production (economic activities)
Pinho et al 2012, ; Junk 1997, Lima, 1999.
Hidden Social Dimension
30 million people living in the region
29 % of the population is indigenous but also rich diversity of other ethnic groups, including Afro-Brazil