Communication English

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1.0 Introduction Mobile communications have played an influential part in media transformations over the past two decades, and are set for an even greater role. The mobile - or mobile - phone is now used by over 1.3 billion people worldwide, and more than fourteen million subscribers in Australia. In 2003 there were an estimated 1,340,667 mobile or mobile phone subscriber worldwide in 2003; up from approximately 91 million in 1995, and 1.158 billion in 2002, or 53.49% of total telephone subscribers (ITU, 2004). More people now use mobile phones than they do fixed phones. In many countries, more households have mobile telephone connections than they do traditional fixed phones. In a mere two decades since the mobile phone was marketed commercially, the mobile phone has become much more than a device for voice telephone calls — it has become a central cultural technology in its own right. Mobiles are associated with significant cultural transformations, such as the role of mobiles in forming & maintaining social networks (useful treatments of mobiles include Fortunati et al., 2003; Katz, 2003; Katz & Aakhus, 2002; and Ling 2004). 1

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Transcript of Communication English

  1. 1. 11.0 IntroductionMobile communications have played an influential part in media transformations over the past twodecades, and are set for an even greater role. The mobile - or mobile - phone is now used by over 1.3billion people worldwide, and more than fourteen million subscribers in Australia. In 2003 therewere an estimated 1,340,667 mobile or mobile phone subscriber worldwide in 2003; up fromapproximately 91 million in 1995, and 1.158 billion in 2002, or 53.49% of total telephone subscribers(ITU, 2004). More people now use mobile phones than they do fixed phones. In many countries,more households have mobile telephone connections than they do traditional fixed phones. In a meretwo decades since the mobile phone was marketed commercially, the mobile phone has becomemuch more than a device for voice telephone calls it has become a central cultural technology inits own right. Mobiles are associated with significant cultural transformations, such as the role ofmobiles in forming & maintaining social networks (useful treatments of mobiles include Fortunati etal., 2003; Katz, 2003; Katz & Aakhus, 2002; and Ling 2004).There are now quite a number of studies of how mobile phones have been taken up in many differentcountries, what distinctive cultural and communicative practices have developed in different settings,and what mobiles signify in different places. Whereas the telephone had been relatively neglected byscholars despite over a century of widespread use - as Ithiel de Sola Pool (1977) famously observed,mobile phones have in the past five years been favoured with a growing number of studies. With thistrickle of scholarship now becoming a torrent, there is a widespread recognition that the mobilephone, and the many other cognate mobile and wireless technologies have important culturalramifications.
  2. 2. While there is not sufficient space here to place mobile phones in the broader landscape of digitalmedia convergence, there are now important developments unfolding in at least four areas: theintensification of mobiles as a technology and media device - for instance, the rise of mobilelearning, mobile commerce, mobiles for information and entertainment, mobiles as a gamesplatform; the proliferation of mobile communications technologies with the growth of portabledigital assistants, new cultures of use around devices such as Blackberries; the interpenetration ofmobiles with new television formats and platforms; the relationship between mobiles and theInternet, not least the sense in which mobile Internet is heralded as the future of online2communications.
  3. 3. 32.0 RelationshipsNowadays, its not unusual to have ones phone handy on the table, easily within reach forlooking up movie times, checking e-mails, showing off photos, or taking a call or two. Its a rareperson who doesnt give in to a quick glance at the phone every now and then. Todaysmultifunctional phones have become an indispensable lifeline to the rest of the world. We mightexpect that the widespread availability of mobile phones boosts interpersonal connections, byallowing people to stay in touch constantly. But a recent set of studies by Andrew K. Przybylskiand Netta Weinstein of the University of Essex showed that our phones can hurt our closerelationships. Amazingly, they found that simply having a phone nearby, without even checkingit, can be detrimental to our attempts at interpersonal connection. The presence of the mobilephone had no effect on relationship quality, trust, and empathy, but only if the pair discussed thecasual topic. In contrast, there were significant differences if the topic was meaningful. Thepairs who conversed with a mobile phone in the vicinity reported that their relationship qualitywas worse. The pairs also reported feeling less trust and thought that their partners showed lessempathy if there was a mobile phone present.Thus, interacting in a neutral environment, without a mobile phone nearby, seems to help fostercloseness, connectedness, interpersonal trust, and perceptions of empathy the building-blocksof relationships. Past studies have suggested that because of the many social, instrumental, andentertainment options phones afford us, they often divert our attention from our currentenvironment, whether we are speeding down a highway or sitting through a meeting. The newresearch suggests that mobile phones may serve as a reminder of the wider network to which we
  4. 4. could connect, inhibiting our ability to connect with the people right next to us. Mobile phoneusage may even reduce our social consciousness.4
  5. 5. 3.0 Mobile Phone in working places creates social problems53.1 Inattention blindnessMobile phone use in social situations may result in overload both physical and mental. Localinteraction with the surroundings and remote interaction with the other person demands certainattention- E.g. When you talk in a bus stand or crossing the road. Mobile phone use in publicplaces makes the user blind to local cues due to cognitive overload. E.g. When you use mobilephone while walking through the road, you will not see a vehicle coming close to you. Mobilephone use in public places reduces the reaction time to events around the user. E.g. You will notget time to move away from a danger. Reduced attention to local situation may disturb otherssince the user is not attending the social situation. E.g. Your conversation and body languagemay be annoying to others. Use of Mobile phones in gatherings, meetings, entertainment placesetc disturb others through inattention blindness3.2 Caller HegemonyThe alarming ring tone may demand higher attention to the phone rather than the local settings.If you use mobile phones in busy areas, trains or buses, the sudden ring tone may alter yourattention or the message from the caller may cause a disturbed feeling. This will leads toinattention blindness. This will not be the condition, if you use a land phone. Caller Hegemony isthe asymmetric relationship between the caller and answerer.
  6. 6. 63.3 Health IssuesMobile phones have become one of the icons of modern living symbolizing a world of theinstantaneous, of the connected and of the disposable. But behind the iconic triviality lie seriousissues which affect individuals and society alike.Mobile phones have become the ultimate designer fashion accessory with costly price tags.There is both marketing and peer pressure, particularly on the young, continually to update theirphones in order to keep up with trends. This is socially divisive. There is also an associatedenvironmental issue. The average shelf life for a mobile phone is currently 18 months. By 2005 itis estimated that 130 million mobile phones will be thrown away annually representing 65,000tons of waste a year. This is an environmental hazard.On the one hand these new instruments of communication demand increased levels of literacyand technical literacy skills. On the other hand they are having significant impact on the use oflanguage. We are seeing a simplification of language which endangers our linguistic culture andheritage, and results in a loss of nuance, meaning and subtle shades of difference.A number of health issues need to be addressed. There is a contradictory literature concerningmicrowave transmissions from handsets and ground stations. This is particularly concerningregarding children. Small keypads can cause problems for those with limited dexterity. There issome evidence to suggest repetitive strain injury is a problem for those who frequently send textmessages. Finally the use of mobile phones and text messaging in particular can become acompulsion or even an addiction.
  7. 7. Trends in use raise some interesting issues. Carrying active mobile phones provides a mechanismfor surveillance and tracking by third parties. As we increase the use of our mobiles we becomemore vulnerable to receive a new form of spam - the junk text message. This is becoming an7increasing problem.Using mobile phones (even with hands-free facilities) whilst driving presents new dangers. Adriver's concentration is diverted to the conversation with the person on the phone. This isdifferent from conversation with in-car passengers as in this situation both driver and passengerare aware of road conditions and temper their conversation accordingly. Given the "street value"of mobile phones, users are increasingly at risk from mugging when using phones in publicspaces. The use of mobiles in public spaces raises another issue. Such conversations intrude intoothers "quiet spaces" and infringe on the privacy of others. This has led to a new concept of"mobile free zones" on trains. There is increasing pressure for us to remain in mobile contactwhen away from the office. The electronically-enabled culture of instantaneous response to thedemands of employers and clients has become the norm. We can no longer leave work at theoffice.3.3.1 Cancer / TumorsStudies have been conducted suggesting that rats that have been exposed to microwaves similarto the sort generated by mobile phones but more powerful, showed breaks in their DNA whichcould indicate an adverse effect. Also, mice exposed to radiation for 18 months developed braintumors. Though of course, these studies are not concrete proof.
  8. 8. 83.3.2 Blood PressureIt was observed that people using mobile phones were prone to high blood pressure. Again, thereisn't any concrete evidence of the same.3.3.3 PregnancyA study at the University of Montpellier in France was carried out on 6000 chick embryos andsuggested that the heavily exposed chick eggs were five times less likely to survive than thecontrol group. This study raised questions about possible effects on pregnant women but it hasnot yet appeared in peer-reviewed scientific literature or been reproduced, so its findings aredifficult to assess.3.3.4 Headaches, Heating Effects, FatigueA study brought out that longer the people used mobile phones, the more likely they were toreport symptoms such as hot ears, burning skin, headaches and fatigue. The study did not includea control group (that is people who do not use mobile phones, to make a comparison); thereforethe symptoms reported could have been caused by any number of other factors in the mobilephones users' environment, such as working with computers, stress, driving or reading.3.3.5 MemoryThere have been various studies into the connection between mobile phones and memory loss. Astudy looked into the effect of radiofrequency (RF) on the section of rats' brains that is linkedwith the memory. The results showed that RF could modify signals in the mobiles in a part of thebrain that is responsible for learning and short term memory.
  9. 9. 3.3.6 Posture (holding phone between raised shoulder and ear)Some researchers claim that holding a mobile phone between the raised shoulder and the earcould have a damaging effect on muscles, bones, tendons and discs. These problems would applyequally to a cordless phone or a landline phone as to a mobile phone and are the effect of bad9posture.
  10. 10. 103.4 Driving Safety IssueDriver distraction is an important risk factor for road traffic injuries. There are different types ofdriver distraction, usually divided into those where the source of distraction is internal to thevehicle such as tuning a radio, or using a mobile phone, and those external to the vehicle such as looking at billboards or watching people on the side of the road. This document focuseson the use of mobile phones while driving, in response to concern among policy-makers that thispotential risk to road safety is increasing rapidly as a result of the exponential growth in the useof mobile phones more generally in society. It aims to raise awareness about the risks ofdistracted driving associated with mobile phone use, and to present countermeasures that arebeing used around the world to tackle this growing problem.Studies from a number of countries suggest that the proportion of drivers using mobile phoneswhile driving has increased over the past 510 years, ranging from 1% to up to 11%. The use ofhands-free mobile phones is likely to be higher, but this figure is more difficult to ascertain. Inmany countries the extent of this problem remains unknown, as data on mobile phone use is notroutinely collected when a crash occurs. Using mobile phones can cause drivers to take their eyesoff the road, their hands off the steering wheel, and their minds off the road and the surroundingsituation. It is this type of distraction known as cognitive distraction which appears to havethe biggest impact on driving behaviour. There is a growing body of evidence that shows that thedistraction caused by mobile phones can impair performance in a number of ways, e.g. longerreaction times (notably braking reaction time, but also reaction to traffic signals), impairedability to keep in the correct lane, shorter following distances, and an overall reduction in
  11. 11. awareness of the driving situation. Using a mobile phone for text messaging while driving seemsto have a particularly detrimental impact on driving behavior. Text messaging is often a low-costform of communication, and the increasing use of text messaging services among drivers islikely to make this an important road safety concern. Young drivers are more likely to be using amobile phone while driving than older drivers, and are particularly vulnerable to the effects ofdistraction given their relative inexperience behind the wheel.11
  12. 12. 124.0 Employer policiesMotor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of occupational fatalities in most countries for whichstatistics are available, leading to substantial human and economic losses for companies andorganizations. In response, a growing number of companies and organisations have adopted fleetsafety policies addressing a number of road safety risk factors, including distracted driving.Employers are in a powerful position to limit their employees exposure to distractive activitieswhile using company vehicles through a number of mechanisms: firstly, by purchasing safevehicles they can reduce the outcomes that result if a crash does occur as a result of distracteddriving. Secondly, through training and implementation of regulations they can controlexposure to risky behaviour (e.g. by banning mobile phone use, or mandating seat-belt or helmetuse). In many companies, fleet safety programmes are introduced under safety and healthmeasures and/or improving corporate social responsibility.Some private companies ban only the use of hand-held mobile phones, while providing hands-freekits to enable staff to make conversations while driving, while others have imposed acomprehensive ban on the use of mobile phones while driving. The possibility that employersmay be liable for motor vehicle collisions involving employees who were using mobile phoneswhile driving is a strong incentive towards encouraging a policy on mobile phone use.To the extent that driver distraction is a problem for commercial drivers, employer policies mayalso be a viable approach, similar to efforts to combat driver drowsiness and fatigue among thesegroups.
  13. 13. 135.0 SuggestionsHaving your mobile phone at work can be useful but it can also be very disruptive. Your friendsand family can reach you anytime, anywhere, which can be annoying.When you're on your own time, the choice to turn off your mobile phone is entirely yours. Whenit comes to using your mobile phone at work, however, you have to be mindful of your co-workersand your boss, not to mention your own ability to get your job done. Here are some rulesyou should follow if you have your mobile phone at work.5.1 Turn Your Mobile Phone Ringer OffIf you have your mobile phone at work, it shouldn't ring. If you don't want to turn off yourmobile phone completely, at least set it to vibrate. The sounds of different ring tones going off allthe time can be very annoying to others. In addition, you don't want your boss to know how oftenyou get calls.5.2 Use Your Mobile Phone Only for Important CallsIf you have your mobile phone at work, you should only use it for important calls. What shouldyou classify as an important call? The school nurse calling to say your child is ill, your childcalling to say he's arrived home from school safely, and family emergencies that you must dealwith immediately are important. Your friend calling to chat, your child calling to say the dog hadan accident, or your mom calling to tell you your cousin Tilly is engaged should not beconsidered important.
  14. 14. 5.3 Let Your Mobile Phone Calls Go to Voice MailWhile you are at work if you are in doubt about whether an incoming call is important, let voicemail pick it up. It will take much less time to check your messages than it will to answer the call14and then tell the caller you can't talk.5.4 Find a Private Place to Make Mobile Phone CallsWhile it's okay to use your mobile phone at work for private calls during breaks, don't stay atyour desk. Find somewhere else to talk, where your conversation can't be overheard, even ifwhat you're discussing isn't personal. You may be on a break but your co-workers have a job todo.5.5 Don't Bring Your Mobile Phone Into the RestroomThis rule should apply to using your mobile phone at work or anywhere. Why? Well, if you mustask you never know who's in there; the person on the other end of the line will hear bathroomsounds, e.g., toilets flushing; it is an invasion of your co-workers' privacy.5.6 Don't Bring Your Mobile Phone to MeetingsIn this day and age mobile phones have become an essential work tool and therefore this ruleshould read "Don't Bring Your Mobile Phone to Meetings If You Are Going to Use It forAnything Not Related to the Meeting." It's likely you have your calendar on your phone and youprobably use it to take notes. If you need to have it with you for those reasons, then you don'thave much of a choice. Do not use it to text, read or post status updates, or play games. Don'tbury your nose in your phone. Keep your eyes on whomever is speaking and stay engaged in themeeting. Doing anything else will be a clear signal to your boss that your mind isn't 100 percenton the business at hand.
  15. 15. 156.0 ConclusionMobile phones have immense public utility, improving communication in social and commercialinteractions. Their relatively low costs have resulted in their rapid and extensive spread, makingan enormous difference to communications around the world, particularly in regions wherefixed-line telephone services are unavailable, inefficient or prohibitively expensive.A study from Gothenburg University states that research points in two directions. One is thathuman in our new technical society will create a new kind of humans the new nomads whowill use the mobile phone as a nomadic object, like a moving force that makes people moremobile. This new technology will encourage people to be more mobile and spend more timeoutside their homes. Another hypothesis is that the development has made a more stationarysociety and those who believe this draw similarity from the research that was done of peopleshabits of watching TV. That research states that we became more stationary than before TVcame and that people that spend much time in front of the TV spends very little time in thepublic rooms or out of their homes. To spend much time online would meen that less time isspent in the real world. This hypotesis suggest that we maybe will be satisfied with the virtualworld and stay at home.As mobile phones get smarter, they offer more entertainment options. Today's mobile phones canbe used for playing video games, accessing the web, and listening to music. There are a few jobswhere employees are allowed to use headphones and listen to music while they work. In manymore jobs, employees need to be fully attentive to what they are doing while they are at work. Ifyour business is the type where the employees need to be attentive, you might have to ban theuse of personal mobile phones all together.
  16. 16. The mobile phone problem is getting worse as people get accustomed to constantly beingconnected. People drive and talk or even drive and text. If they don't think they can wait to getoff the freeway to make their important contact, how will they ever be able to make it until theyget off work? Most people are dependent on their cells but the problem seems to be worse for theyounger generation. Teenagers and twenty somethings have grown up with mobile phones andthey are used to using them all of the time. The more used to using the cell they are the harder itis going to be to control personal use in the workplace.In general, personal mobile phones should probably not be allowed in the work place. In the caseof an emergency, the company phone can be used. In the case of not an emergency the companyphone cnm be used as well but it is much easier to monitor the use of the company phone than itis to monitor the use of personal phones. If you don't allow personal mobile phones, you will alsobe banning video games, personal emails, and music. These are all things that usually don't16belong in the office.
  17. 17. 17ReferencesAgar, J. (2003). Constant touch: A global history of the mobile phone. Cambridge: IconBooks.Beck, J. & Mitchell, W. (2003) DoCoMo: Japans wireless tsunami: How one mobiletelecom created a new market and became a global force. New York: AMACOM.Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association (CTIA). (2000b). WOW-COMs World ofWireless Communications. [online]. Available: http://www.wow-com.com/ (June 26, 2000)Cookson, R. (2000). Incorporating psycho-social considerations into health valuation: anexperimental study. Journal of Health Economics, 19(3), 369-402.Graham, J. D., Corso, P. S., Morris, J. M., Segui-Gomez, M., & Weinstein, M. C. (1998).Evaluatingthe cost-effectiveness of clinical and public health measures. Annual Review of Public Health,19, 125-152.Hahn, R. W., & Tetlock, P. C. (1999). The economics of regulating cellular phones in vehicles.Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute-Brookings Joint Center for RegulatoryStudies.Lenhart, Amanda. "Teens, Mobile phones, and Texting." Pew Research Center Publications.Pew Research Center, 20 Apr. 2010. Web. 25 Feb. 2012..