Colloquial English Ppt

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Este documento PPT es muy útil en el aprendizaje del inglés como segundo idioma por la claridad en que los niveles son señalados.

Transcript of Colloquial English Ppt

Formal

and

Informal

Styles

I. The Meaning of style All types of writing, like stories, legal documents and personal letters, have much in common. (the common core of the English language) There are also differences between different types of writing. (a personal letter, sentences-short and simple, even incomplete; a legal document, most sentences --long, involved, and many special terms difficult for ordinary people to understand.

Special features like these in language are a matter of style.The word style has several senses:it may refer to a writers habitual or peculiar way of using language, or the prevalent features of the language of a certain period, or the characteristic aspects of the language of a certain type of writing. It may also mean grace of elegance in writing, as in He has no style.

II. Formal and informal stylesIn this part we shall only discuss one fundamental aspect of styledifferences between formal and informal, or literary and colloquial, English. The purpose is to help us acquire an ability to recognize and distinguish between these two styles, so that we can avoid using formal English where informal English is appropriate, or the other way round. (get, receive)

try to find out what stylistic features it has. Page 283Future shockthe disease of changecan be prevented. But it will take drastic social, even political action. No matter how individuals try to pace their lives, no matter what psychic crutches we offer them, no matter how we alter education, the society as a whole will still be caught on a runaway treadmill until we capture control of the accelerate thrust itself. The high velocity of change can be traced to many factors. Population growth, urbanization, the shifting proportions of young and oldall

What stylistic features has it got?--long sentences --parallel constructions --parenthetical remark --several dependent clauses --the passive voice --many big words or learned words, words and phrases having abstract meanings, --metaphors

Read the following passage :It was six oclock when I left the schoolhouse. I had six miles to walk home. It would be after seven when I got home. It took Pa and me both to do the work.Seven cows to milk. Nineteen head of cattle to feed, four mules, twenty-five hogs, fire-wood and stowed to cut, and water to draw from the well. He would be doing it when I got home. He would be mad and wondering what was keeping me! I hurried home. I would run under the dark, leafless trees. I would walk fast uphill. I would run down the hill. The ground was freezing. I had to hurry. I had to run. I reached the long ridge that led to our cow pasture. I ran along this ridge. The wind dried the sweat on my face. I ran across the pasture to the house. --Jesse Stuart

Informal stylistic featuresa teenage schoolboy hurrying home late in the evening to help his father, a farmer, to do the housework. All thesentences are short and most of them are simple sentences. There are only a few dependent clauses, which are short and simple, too. Sentence fragments are used (Seven cows to milk). All the finite verbs are in the active voice. All the words are familiar everyday words. No

In short, the passage is written in a very informal or colloquial style. This style is appropriate because the passage describes how a farmers son walked home and what he thought of on his way. If long and involved sentences and big and difficult words were used, the description would be unnatural and unrealistic.

features that distinguish these two types of English.

Informal

writing:used. etc.

Contractions are generally dont, mustnt,hes, Ive,

You is used for indefinite reference. You never know what new measures the President will take. Who can be used instead of whom as an object in questions. Who is the secretary talking with?

Informal

writing:used. etc.

Contractions are generally dont, mustnt,hes, Ive,

You is used for indefinite reference. You never know what new measures the President will take. Who can be used instead of whom as an object in questions. Who is the secretary talking with?

Informal writing:That can often be left out before an object clause, especially after verbs of saying or thinking. She said she would come. They is often used as a pronoun referring to everyone, everybody, someone, somebody, anyone, anybody, no one, nobody. Has everyone finished doing their exercises?

Informal writing:When the subject is I or he (she, it), was can be used in the subjunctive mood. I wish he was here with us. Everyday words, mainly words of Anglo-Saxon origin begin deep lucky

Informal writing:Phrasal verbs are colloquial and often used in conversational style. look into come across put up with Shortened words are commonly used in everyday conversation. photo, ad, bike, gym, prep, pop, and vet.

Informal writing:Slang words and expressions are casual and informal. neat, cool, (good, excellent) in hot water (in trouble) make a hit (succeed in doing sth.)

Formal

writing:

One is often used for indefinite reference in formal English. One never knows what new measures the President will take. His or her is used as a pronoun referring to everyone, everybody, someone, somebody, anyone, anybody, no one, nobody. Has everyone finished doing his or her exercises?

Formal writing:When the subject is I or he (she, it), were is used in the subjunctive mood. I wish he were here with us. Participial phrases are generally used in formal style. Having been warned of the impending storm, the captain decided to put off the voyage.

Formal writing:Nominative generally The weather people went absolute constructions are used in formal style. being fine, a large number of to climb the Western Hills.

Adjectival and adverbial phrases placed before the subject often make the sentence formal. Eager to finish the work, he continued to do it until midnight.

Formal writing:Parenthetical remarks often make a sentence formal. This village has built, in less than ten years, several small factories that bring in more income than the farm produce every year. He shaved very slowly and carefully, as was his custom, in front of the mirror above the sink. All the people present--Chairman Smith, Professors Brown, James and Williams, and the secretary--supported the motion.

Formal writing:A series of nouns, verbs, or adjectives may make a sentence sound formal. His anger prevented him from doing, saying, and listening to anything. The following types of sentences are often used in formal style. Long sentences; Compound-complex sentences; Sentences with parallel constructions; Balanced sentences; and Periodic sentences

Formal writing:Learned words, mainly words of Greek, French and Latin origins commence profound fortunate

Language is always changing.The above are some of the common differences between formal and informal English. However, they are not absolute or static. If we compare contemporary prose with that of the 19th century, we will find that prose today is generally simpler, easier, and livelier. Colloquialism seems to be the general trend. While we pay attention to the differences between various styles, it is necessary for us to keep watch on new tendencies in prose style.