Codes Johnson Lozano Carlin Presentation
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Week 4Codes and CasesAlan FeathererTimothy CapparellaJames TuckowskiThad Kumar
The Role of Professional Codes of EthicsAnd The National Society of Professional Engineers
Use of Engineers Creed
Use of Engineers Creed Cont.Unethical.
In no way was the creed necessary in the advertisement. The creed should only be applied in situations of engineering.Ex. He/ She could have used examples from his/ her personal engineering experiences without making a direct reference to the code.
Supplanting Another EngineerScenario
A public agency needed a design for an unusual, complex structure. They obtain a contract with an out-of-state engineering firm familiar with this type of design.Problem
A local engineering firm requested the contract be terminated on account of their being able to arrange an experienced staff to handle the problem.
Public Agency: Ethical or Unethical?Local Firm: Ethical or Unethical?
Supplanting Another Engineer Cont.Public Agency: Ethical
Reason:Chose the agency with they deemed best qualified for the job.Local Firm: Unethical
Reason:Attempted to supplant a firm which had been retained for the work.
National Society of Professional Engineers Code of EthicsCodesAdvantages
Codes help us to examine the feelings engineers have about their ethical or professional responsibilities.Assist engineers in behaving in socially responsible ways.Engineers may point to the professional code to support their decisions.Disadvantage
In following one code, it is possible another code may be broken.
Engineers CreedAs a Professional Engineer, I dedicate my professional knowledge and skill to the advancement and betterment of human welfare.
I pledge:To give the utmost of performance;To participate in none but honest enterprise;To live and work according to the laws of man and the highest standards of professional conduct;To place service before profit, the honor and standing of the profession before personal advantage, and the public welfare above all other considerations.
In humility and with need for Divine Guidance, I make this pledge.
ADOPTED BY NATIONAL SOCIETY OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS, JUNE, 1954
Code of Ethics for EngineersFUNDAMENTAL CANONSEngineers, in the fulfillment of their professional duties, shall:Hold paramount the safety, health and welfare of the public in the performance of their professional duties.Perform services only in areas of their competence.Issue public statements only in an objective and truthful manner.Act in professional matters for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees.Avoid deceptive acts in the solicitation of professional employment.
Code of Ethics for Engineers Cont.PROFESSIONAL OBLIGATIONSEngineers shall be guided in all their professional relations by the highest standards of integrity.Engineers shall at all times strive to serve the public interest.Engineers shall avoid all conduct or practice which is likely to discredit the profession or deceive the public.Engineers shall not disclose confidential information concerning the business affairs or technical processed of any present or former client or employer without his consent.Engineers shall not be influenced in their professional duties by conflicting interests.Engineers shall uphold the principle of appropriate and adequate compensation for those engaged in engineering work.Engineers shall not attempt to obtain employment or advancement or professional engagements by untruthfully criticizing other engineers, or by other improper or questionable methods.
Code of Ethics for Engineers Cont.Engineers shall not attempt to injure, maliciously or falsely, directly or indirectly, the professional reputation, prospects, practice or employment of other engineers, nor untruthfully criticize other engineers work. Engineers who believe others are guilty of unethical or illegal practice shall present such information to the proper authority for action.Engineers shall accept responsibility for their professional activities; provided, however, that Engineers may seek indemnification for professional services arising out of their practice for other than gross negligence, where the Engineers interests cannot otherwise be protected.Engineers shall give credit for engineering work to those to whom credit is due, and will recognize the proprietary interests of others.Engineers shall cooperate in extending the effectiveness of the profession by interchanging information and experience with other engineers and students, and will endeavor to provide opportunity for the professional development and advancement of engineers under their supervision.
National Society of Professional EngineersBackground:
Founded in 1934Serves 54,000 members over 53 states and territorial societiesMore than 500 chaptersPromotes ethical practice of engineeringTo Become a Member:
Must have an EIT or Professional Engineer CertificatePayment of $220.00
Developing an Ethical Code for Engineers: The Discursive ApproachJ. Felix Lozano
Introduction to Ethical CodesEarly code of conduct - Hammurabis Code; first ethical document - Hippocratic Oath.Complexity of society calls for the need of organizations and professional associations to develop specific codes which are more suited to the area of expertise.
Directs conduct, avoids conflicts between morality and self interestThe tie between professional obligations and social legitimacyOrganizes punitive elements so principles are followed
Set of ideas used by a group to present its status as a profession; beyond basic duties, refers to essential element of legitimacy, commitment, and personal fulfillment
Approaches, Values vs. Norms Compliance Approach establishes a system of incentives and punishments to encourage people to comply with norms. Integrity Approach encourages voluntary commitment to shared values. Lozano believes both approaches should complement each other but prefers the Integrity Approach (value-oriented) because:Strengthens voluntary commitmentProvides the necessary freedom for productive performanceDifficult to control professionals so Compliance Approach really is not feasible
Norms rules; statements that permit action Values several attempts to define them: Qualities of the real which human beings discover creatively and use to equip reality. (A. Cortina) Moral values are prescriptive or guiding beliefs as to what is good and fair. Serve to legitimize, orient or judge ways of actions and facts. (German Society of Engineers)
The Process of Developing a Code Development requires a logical, hermeneutical (interpretive methodology to provide explanation) process: Step 1 Analysis of the institution and its environment Identify ethical problems Desk research and interviews Survey of literature engineering associations Step 2 First proposal Identify values associated with problems structure information with fine detail Step 3 Final formulation Explicit, precise listing of values and commitments Consulted experts in ethics with knowledge of engineering
Following this method, a code of ethics was created for the Official Association of Industrial Engineers in Valencia, Spain.
The Study and Results Detailed study of the associations documents and publications, which were compared with documents of other similar organizations such as ABET, IEEE, ASME. In-depth, 3-part interviews with 10 people from association with long careers and recognized prestige: General ideas on ethics Identifying ethical problems Opinions and proposals on solutions to problems Group Dynamics Sessions make association members aware of the project, refine ethical problems discussed and develop more accurate ethical values. Consultation of experts in ethics and submittal of a document to the board of the association for final amendments. Scientific/hermeneutics approach valued and appreciated by participants. Not as many participants as expected and while those interviewed had great careers, they generally lacked ethical training. Recommends more emphasis on ethical training, both professionally and academically.
Highlights from the Ethical Code Seven section headings: Integrity put the publics and our clients welfare before our own particular interests
Commitment work to improve the professions image and legitimacy
Respect treat colleagues and collaborators fairly
Responsibility accept our own errors and any criticism given in good faith
Safety put the safety of people before any other professional criterion
Efficiency inform clients of best technical and financial options
Professionalism foster communication and continuous training, and foster the development of knowledge, abilities and skills in our collaborators
George Carlin on the 10 Commandmentsvs.George Carlin, stand-up comedian
Its always kind of bugged the shit out of methe 10 commandments GC
Says about 5000 years ago a bunch of religious/ political hustlers got together to figure out a way to control people.
Says they knew people were basically stupid and would believe anything they were toldso they said God gave them the commandments.
Says they picked 10 only because it sounded officialpsychologically satisfying number, just like the decimal system.
Calls it a bullshit list, a political