Classification of Synovial Joints

of 37 /37
Classification of Classification of Synovial Joints Synovial Joints Six types, based on shape of articular surfaces: Plane Hinge Pivot Condyloid Saddle Ball and socket

Embed Size (px)

description

Classification of Synovial Joints. Six types, based on shape of articular surfaces: Plane Hinge Pivot Condyloid Saddle Ball and socket. f. Nonaxial. Uniaxial. Biaxial. Multiaxial. c. b. Plane joint (intercarpal joint). a. a. e. d. Figure 8.7a. f. Nonaxial. Uniaxial. Biaxial. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Classification of Synovial Joints

Page 1: Classification of Synovial Joints

Classification of Classification of Synovial JointsSynovial Joints

Six types, based on shape of articular surfaces: Plane Hinge Pivot Condyloid Saddle Ball and socket

Page 2: Classification of Synovial Joints

Figure 8.7a

a

bc

d

e

f

NonaxialUniaxialBiaxialMultiaxial

a Plane joint (intercarpal joint)

Page 3: Classification of Synovial Joints

Figure 8.7b

b Hinge joint (elbow joint)

a

bc

d

e

f

NonaxialUniaxialBiaxialMultiaxial

Page 4: Classification of Synovial Joints

Figure 8.7c

c Pivot joint (proximal radioulnar joint)

a

bc

d

e

f

NonaxialUniaxialBiaxialMultiaxial

Page 5: Classification of Synovial Joints

Figure 8.7d

d Condyloid joint(metacarpophalangeal joint)

a

bc

d

e

f

NonaxialUniaxialBiaxialMultiaxial

Page 6: Classification of Synovial Joints

Figure 8.7e

e Saddle joint (carpometacarpal jointof thumb)

a

bc

d

e

f

NonaxialUniaxialBiaxialMultiaxial

Page 7: Classification of Synovial Joints

Figure 8.7f

f Ball-and-socket joint (shoulder joint)

a

bc

d

e

f

NonaxialUniaxialBiaxialMultiaxial

Page 8: Classification of Synovial Joints

Knee JointKnee Joint Largest, most complex joint of body Three joints surrounded by a single

joint cavity: Femoropatellar joint:

Plane joint Allows gliding motion during knee

flexion Lateral and medial tibiofemoral joints

between the femoral condyles and the C-shaped lateral and medial menisci (semilunar cartilages) of the tibia Allow flexion, extension, and some

rotation when knee is partly flexedPLAYPLAY A&P Flix™: Movement at the knee joint

Page 9: Classification of Synovial Joints

Figure 8.8a

(a) Sagittal section through the right knee joint

Femur

Tendon ofquadricepsfemoris

SuprapatellarbursaPatellaSubcutaneousprepatellar bursaSynovial cavityLateral meniscus

Posteriorcruciateligament

Infrapatellarfat pad Deep infrapatellarbursaPatellar ligament

Articularcapsule

Lateralmeniscus

AnteriorcruciateligamentTibia

Page 10: Classification of Synovial Joints

Figure 8.8b

(b) Superior view of the right tibia in the knee joint, showing the menisci and cruciate ligaments

Medialmeniscus

Articularcartilageon medialtibialcondyle

Anterior

Anteriorcruciateligament

Articularcartilage onlateral tibialcondyle

Lateralmeniscus

Posteriorcruciateligament

Page 11: Classification of Synovial Joints

Knee JointKnee Joint At least 12 associated bursae

Capsule is reinforced by muscle tendons: E.g., quadriceps and semimembranosus

tendons

Joint capsule is thin and absent anteriorly

Anteriorly, the quadriceps tendon gives rise to: Patellar ligament

Page 12: Classification of Synovial Joints

Figure 8.8c

Quadricepsfemoris muscle

Tendon ofquadricepsfemoris muscle

Patella

Lateral patellarretinaculum

Medial patellarretinaculum

Tibial collateralligament

Tibia

Fibularcollateralligament

Fibula

(c) Anterior view of right knee

Patellar ligament

Page 13: Classification of Synovial Joints

Knee JointKnee Joint Capsular and extracapsular ligaments

Help prevent hyperextension

Intracapsular ligaments: Anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments Prevent anterior-posterior displacement Reside outside the synovial cavity

Page 14: Classification of Synovial Joints

Figure 8.8d

Articular capsule

Oblique poplitealligamentLateral head ofgastrocnemiusmuscle

Fibular collateralligament

Arcuate poplitealligament

Tibia

Femur

Medial head ofgastrocnemiusmuscle

Tendon ofsemimembranosusmuscle

(d) Posterior view of the joint capsule,including ligaments

Popliteusmuscle (cut)

Tendon ofadductor magnus

Bursa

Tibial collateralligament

Page 15: Classification of Synovial Joints

PLAYPLAY Animation: Rotatable kneeFigure 8.8e

Fibularcollateralligament

Posterior cruciateligament

Medial condyleTibial collateralligamentAnterior cruciateligament

Medial meniscus

Patellar ligament

Patella

Quadriceps tendon

Lateral condyleof femurLateralmeniscus

Fibula

Tibia

(e) Anterior view of flexed knee, showing the cruciateligaments (articular capsule removed, and quadricepstendon cut and reflected distally)

Page 16: Classification of Synovial Joints

Figure 8.9

Lateral Medial

Patella(outline)

Tibial collateralligament(torn)

Medialmeniscus (torn)

Anteriorcruciateligament (torn)

Hockey puck

Page 17: Classification of Synovial Joints

Shoulder Shoulder (Glenohumeral) Joint(Glenohumeral) Joint

Ball-and-socket joint: head of humerus and glenoid fossa of the scapula

Stability is sacrificed for greater freedom of movement

Page 18: Classification of Synovial Joints

Figure 8.10a

PLAYPLAY Animation: Rotatable shoulder

Acromionof scapula

Synovial membraneFibrous capsule

Hyalinecartilage

CoracoacromialligamentSubacromialbursa

Fibrousarticular capsuleTendonsheath

Tendon oflong headof bicepsbrachii muscle

Synovial cavityof the glenoidcavity containingsynovial fluid

Humerus

(a) Frontal section through right shoulder joint

Page 19: Classification of Synovial Joints

Shoulder JointShoulder Joint Reinforcing ligaments:

Coracohumeral ligament—helps support the weight of the upper limb

Three glenohumeral ligaments—somewhat weak anterior reinforcements

Page 20: Classification of Synovial Joints

Shoulder jointShoulder joint Reinforcing muscle tendons:

Tendon of the long head of biceps: Travels through the intertubercular groove Secures the humerus to the glenoid cavity

Four rotator cuff tendons encircle the shoulder joint: Subscapularis Supraspinatus Infraspinatus Teres minor

PLAYPLAY A&P Flix™: Rotator cuff muscles: An overview (a)

PLAYPLAY A&P Flix™: Rotator cuff muscles: An overview (b)

Page 21: Classification of Synovial Joints

Figure 8.10c

Acromion

CoracoacromialligamentSubacromialbursaCoracohumeralligament

Greatertubercleof humerusTransversehumeralligamentTendon sheath

Tendon of longhead of bicepsbrachii muscle

Articularcapsulereinforced byglenohumeralligaments

Subscapularbursa

Tendon of thesubscapularismuscle

Scapula

Coracoidprocess

(c) Anterior view of right shoulder joint capsule

Page 22: Classification of Synovial Joints

Elbow JointElbow Joint Radius and ulna articulate with the humerus

Hinge joint formed mainly by trochlear notch of ulna and trochlea of humerus

Flexion and extension only

Page 23: Classification of Synovial Joints

Figure 8.11a

Articularcapsule

Synovialmembrane

Synovial cavity

Articular cartilage

Coronoid process

Tendon ofbrachialis muscle

Ulna

Humerus

Fat pad

Tendon oftricepsmuscle

Bursa

Trochlea

Articular cartilageof the trochlearnotch

(a) Median sagittal section through right elbow (lateral view)

Page 24: Classification of Synovial Joints

Elbow JointElbow Joint Anular ligament—surrounds head of radius

Two capsular ligaments restrict side-to-side movement: Ulnar collateral ligament Radial collateral ligament

Page 25: Classification of Synovial Joints

Figure 8.11b

Humerus

Lateralepicondyle

Articularcapsule

Radialcollateralligament

Olecranonprocess

Anularligament

Radius

Ulna

(b) Lateral view of right elbow joint

Page 26: Classification of Synovial Joints

PLAYPLAY Animation: Rotatable elbowFigure 8.11d

Articularcapsule

Anularligament

Coronoidprocess

(d) Medial view of right elbow

Radius

Humerus

Medialepicondyle

Ulnarcollateralligament

Ulna

Page 27: Classification of Synovial Joints

Hip (Coxal) JointHip (Coxal) Joint Ball-and-socket joint

Head of the femur articulates with the acetabulum

Good range of motion, but limited by the deep socket

Acetabular labrum—enhances depth of socket

PLAYPLAY A&P Flix™: Movement at the hip joint: An overview

Page 28: Classification of Synovial Joints

Figure 8.12a

Articular cartilageCoxal (hip) bone

Ligament ofthe head of the femur (ligamentum teres)

Synovial cavity

Articular capsule

Acetabularlabrum

Femur

(a) Frontal section through the right hip joint

Page 29: Classification of Synovial Joints

Hip JointHip JointReinforcing ligaments:

Iliofemoral ligament

Pubofemoral ligament

Ischiofemoral ligament

Ligamentum teres

Page 30: Classification of Synovial Joints

Figure 8.12c

Ischium

IliofemoralligamentIschiofemoralligament

Greatertrochanterof femur

(c) Posterior view of right hip joint, capsule in place

Page 31: Classification of Synovial Joints

Figure 8.12d

Anterior inferioriliac spine

Iliofemoralligament

Pubofemoralligament

Greatertrochanter

(d) Anterior view of right hip joint, capsule in place

Page 32: Classification of Synovial Joints

Common Joint InjuriesCommon Joint Injuries Sprains

The ligaments are stretched or torn Partial tears slowly repair themselves Complete ruptures require prompt

surgical repair

Cartilage tears Due to compression and shear stress Fragments may cause joint to lock or

bind Cartilage rarely repairs itself Repaired with arthroscopic surgery

Page 33: Classification of Synovial Joints

Figure 8.14

Tornmeniscus

Page 34: Classification of Synovial Joints

Common Joint InjuriesCommon Joint Injuries Dislocations (luxations)

Occur when bones are forced out of alignment Accompanied by sprains, inflammation, and

joint immobilization Caused by serious falls or playing sports

Subluxation—partial dislocation of a joint

Page 35: Classification of Synovial Joints

Inflammatory and Inflammatory and Degenerative Degenerative

ConditionsConditions Bursitis

An inflammation of a bursa, usually caused by a blow or friction

Treated with rest and ice and, if severe, anti-inflammatory drugs

Tendonitis Inflammation of tendon sheaths typically

caused by overuse Symptoms and treatment similar to bursitis

Page 36: Classification of Synovial Joints

ArthritisArthritis >100 different types of inflammatory or

degenerative diseases that damage joints

Most widespread crippling disease in the U.S.

Symptoms; pain, stiffness, and swelling of a joint

Acute forms: caused by bacteria, treated with antibiotics

Chronic forms: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and gouty arthritis

Page 37: Classification of Synovial Joints

Developmental Developmental Aspects of JointsAspects of Joints

By embryonic week 8, synovial joints resemble adult joints

A joint’s size, shape, and flexibility are modified by use

Advancing years take their toll on joints: Ligaments and tendons shorten and weaken Intervertebral discs become more likely to

herniate Most people in their 70s have some degree

of OA

Exercise that coaxes joints through their full range of motion is key to postponing joint problems