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Transcript of Civil War Major Battles PowerPoint 2014 - Moore ... The History Channel: Civil War 150 Title Civil...

  • Civil War Battles & Major Events

  • Key

    Union States ¢ Border States ¢

    Confederate States ¢

    Civil War Sides

  • Army Organization

  • Fort Sumter Date Where Commanding Officers

    April 12-14, 1861

    Fort Sumter, South Carolina

    Union: Major Robert Anderson Confed: Brigadier General P.G.T. Beauregard

    Confed. Losses Union Losses Who won?

    0 0 Confederate Overview

    On April 10, Beauregard demanded surrender of the Union garrison of Fort Sumter. Anderson refused. On April 12, Confederate batteries opened fire; on April 13, Anderson surrendered and evacuated the fort. THIS STARTS THE CIVIL WAR!

  • First Battle of Bull Date Where Commanding Officers

    July 21,

    1861

    Manassas, Virginia

    Union: Brigadier General Irvin McDowell Confed: Brigadier General Joseph E. Johnston and General P.G.T. Beauregard

    Confed. Losses Union Losses Who won?

    2,000 3,000 Confederacy Outcome

    Both armies decided to attack the other’s left flank. However, Confederates learned this and built up enough troops on the Union right side to overrun that flank. This led to disorder and the Union Troops retreated. FIRST MAJOR BATTLE. PEOPLE FROM D.C. BROUGHT PICNIC BASKETS TO WATCH THE BATTLE! BEFORE THIS, PEOPLE THOUGHT THE WAR WAS SIMPLE - WITH LOSS OF SOLDIERS AND CIVILIANS, THE WAR WASN’T SIMPLE BUT REAL.

  • JUDITH HENRY’S HOUSE Judith Carter Henry, 84 or 85 years old and

    bedridden, refused to leave her upstairs bedroom as the First Battle of Bull Run was fought on the hill surrounding her home. Snipers used the house; Judith Henry was killed by a bullet meant for the snipers. She was the first civilian killed at First Bull Run, July 21, 1861. The Second Battle of Bull Run was also fought on this hill. (Also called the First and Second Battles of Manassas.)

  • U.S.S. Monitor vs. C.S.S.Virginia Date Where Commanding Officers

    March 8-9, 1862

    Hampton Roads, Virginia

    Union: Lieutenant John Worden Confed: Captain Franklin Buchanan and Lieutenant Catesby R. Jones

    Confed. Losses Union Losses Who won?

    24 409 Draw, but a strategic Union victory

    Overview

    March 8, Confederate ironclad Virginia sank the Cumberland. March 9, the Union ironclad Monitor initiated the FIRST ENGAGEMENT OF IRONCLADS IN

    HISTORY. The two ships fought each other to a standstill, but the Virginia withdrew.

  • Source: http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Image:Battle_between_Monitor_and_Merrimac_%28Hampton_Roads%29.png

  • Battle at Antietam Date Where Commanding Officers

    Sept. 16-18, 1862

    Sharpsburg, Maryland

    Union: Major General George B. McClellan Confed: General Robert E. Lee

    Confed. Losses Union Losses Who won?

    10,318 12,410 Union Overview

    Both armies confronted each other on Sept. 16th/. At dawn, Hooker’s army attacked Lee’s left flank - attacks and counter-attacks swept across the field. The union were able to pierce the center of the line, and then more Union troops attacked the right side of the Confederates, pushing Burnsides army back. The Confed. side was outnumbered 2-to-1, but Lee put in all of his troops, McClellan only put in less than 1/3rd of the army. Finally, Lee withdrew

    his troops during the night. THIS WAS THE SINGLE MOST BLOODIEST DAY OF THE WAR. IT FORCED LEE TO RETREAT BACK INTO VIRGINIA.

  • Battle at Antietam Date Where Commanding Officers

    Sept. 16-18, 1862

    Sharpsburg, Maryland

    Union: Major General George B. McClellan Confed: General Robert E. Lee

    Confed. Losses Union Losses Who won?

    10,318 12,410 Union Overview

    Both armies confronted each other on Sept. 16th/. At dawn, Hooker’s army attacked Lee’s left flank - attacks and counter-attacks swept across the field. The union were able to pierce the center of the line, and then more Union troops attacked the right side of the Confederates, pushing Burnsides army back. The Confed. side was outnumbered 2-to-1, but Lee put in all of his troops, McClellan only put in less than 1/3rd of the army. Finally, Lee withdrew

    his troops during the night. THIS WAS THE SINGLE MOST BLOODIEST DAY OF THE WAR. IT ALSO FORCED THE CONFEDERATE ARMY BACK TO THE SOUTHERN SIDE.

  • Emancipation Proclamation •  Lincoln saw the significance of the Battle of Antietam

    and issued a declaration: –  Lincoln would grant freedom of all slaves in any state

    of the Confederate States of America that didn’t return to Union control by January 1, 1863.

    –  Announced the acceptance of African American men into the Union Army and Navy

    •  Since no states left the C.S., he presented the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863: –  "all persons held as slaves within any States, or

    designated part of the State, the people whereof shall be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free.”

    •  This did not free ALL slaves, only slaves in Confederate states.

  • Emancipation Proclamation WHEN? • January 1, 1863 WHAT?

    • An official presidential policy statement SIGNIFICANCE?

    •  This declaration: –  ENDED SLAVERY IN CONFEDERATE STATES – ALLOWED AFRICAN AMERICAN SOLDIERS TO

    FIGHT FOR THE UNION –  TIED THE ISSUE OF SLAVERY DIRECTLY TO THE

    WAR

  • Emancipation Proclamation WHEN? • January 1, 1864 WHAT?

    • Declaration SIGNIFICANCE?

    •  This declaration: – ALLOWED AFRICAN AMERICAN

    SOLDIERS TO FIGHT FOR THE UNION – TIED THE ISSUE OF SLAVERY DIRECTLY

    TO THE WAR

    Freed former slaves coming into the Union lines at New Bern, North Carolina. Many slaves fled their owners whenever a northern army was nearby. The Emancipation Proclamation helped to clarify the legal position of fugitive

    slaves, and from the beginning of the war, African Americans, slave and free, took every opportunity they could to make it a war against slavery. Many free

    African Americans in the North attempted to volunteer for military service.

  • Battle at Fredericksburg Date Where Commanding Officers

    Dec. 11-15, 1862

    Fredericksburg, Virginia

    Union: Major General Ambrose E. Burnside Confed: Gen. Robert E. Lee

    Confed. Losses Union Losses Who won?

    4,201 12,653 Conferderate Overview

    Under Burnside, Union troops crossed the Rappahannock River and occupied Fredericksburg. Confederate troops withdrew and occupied the heights above the town. Because of the strategic positions above and south of the town, the Union troops could not break down the Confederates. Union troops had to withdraw. This was Burnsides first

    command (and last) after McClellan was relieved. THIS FAILED ASSAULT PREVENTED BURNSIDE FROM MOVING SOUTH TO ATTACK RICHMOND, THE CONFEDERATE CAPITOL.

  • Battle of Chancellorsville Date Where Commanding Officers

    April 30- May 6, 1863

    Chancellorsville,

    Virginia Union: Major General Joseph Hooker Confed: General Robert E. Lee, Major General Thomas J. Jackson

    Confed. Losses Union Losses Who won?

    11,400 18,400 Confederate Outcome

    Union Burnside was replaced by Hooker. This was LEE’S GREATEST BATTLE. After Fredericksburg, the Union Army crossed the river and settled near Chancellorsville. Lee divided his troops and put a lot of pressure on the Union army. JACKSON moved his men eleven miles undetected to attack Hooker’s rear position. Heavy fighting began on May 1; May 2, fighting was overwhelming and disorganized. That night, STONEWALL JACKSON WAS SHOT BY HIS OWN TROOPS. On May 5-6, Union troops withdrew.

  • Stonewall Jackson’s Jacket

    !Blood stain from Jackson’s wound

  • Battle of Gettysburg Legos Date Where Commanding Officers

    July 1-3, 1863

    Gettysburg, Pennsylvania

    Union: Major General George G. Meade Confed: General Robert E. Lee

    Confed. Losses Union Losses Who won?

    28,000 22,807 Union Overview

    Gen. Robert E. Lee concentrated his full strength against Meade’s Army of the Potomac at Gettysburg. On July 1, Confederate forces converged on the town driving Union defenders back through the streets to Cemetery Hill. During the night, reinforcements arrived for both sides. On July 2, Lee attempted to envelope the Union, first striking the Union left flank and then attacking the Union right. By evening, the Union retained Little Round Top and had drove away most of Ewell’s men. During the morning of July 3, the Confederate infantry were driven from their last toe-hold on Culp’s Hill. In the afternoon, after an early artillery bombardment, Lee attacked the Union center on Cemetery Ridge. The Pickett-Pettigrew assault (more popularly, Pickett’s Charge) momentarily pierced the Union line but was driven back with severe casualties. Stuart’s cavalry attempted to attack the Union rear but was driven back. On July 4, Lee began withdrawing his army toward Williamsport on the Potomac River. His train of wounded stretched more than fourteen miles. THIS LOSS DEMORALIZED THE SOUTH. LEE WILL NEVER TRY TO