Civil-military relations in European security institutions ... · PDF file Pascu Furnica...

Click here to load reader

  • date post

    01-Jan-2020
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    0
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Civil-military relations in European security institutions ... · PDF file Pascu Furnica...

  • Calhoun: The NPS Institutional Archive

    Theses and Dissertations Thesis Collection

    2007-03

    Civil-military relations in European security

    institutions -- challenges of multi-institutionality in

    peace operations

    Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School

    http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3537

  • NAVAL

    POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL

    MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA

    THESIS

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited

    CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS IN EUROPEAN SECURITY INSTITUTIONS – CHALLENGES OF MULTI-

    INSTITUTIONALITY IN PEACE OPERATIONS

    by

    Pascu Furnica

    March 2007

    Thesis Advisor: Thomas Bruneau Co-Advisor: Karen Guttieri

  • THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

  • i

    REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank)

    2. REPORT DATE March 2007

    3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis

    4. Title And Subtitle Civil-Military Relations in European Security institutions – Challenges of Multi-Institutionality in Peace Operations 6. AUTHOR PASCU FURNICA

    5. FUNDING NUMBERS

    7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000

    8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER

    9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) N/A

    10. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER

    11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. 12a. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited

    12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE

    13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) The thesis analyzes civil-military relations in European security institutions by analyzing the organization and

    institutional mechanisms to exercise democratic civilian control over the military elements adapted to or emerged as a need to conduct peace operations. The goal is to assess the importance of civil-military relations in planning and conducting peace operations.

    European security institutions have been involved in peace keeping operations in the Balkans for more then ten years. Their effectiveness is measured by the dramatic decrease of violence. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, the number of troops decreased from 60,000 in 1996, when NATO-led Implementation Force (IFOR) was deployed, to a planned 2,500 at the end of 2007. The number of military forces involved in providing security, a normal task for them, is even smaller.

    The thesis argues that one of the factors which influenced the improvement of the effectiveness of the peace-keeping forces in Balkans after NATO took over the mission in 1995 is that NATO and EU military forces received clear missions and comprehensive political guidance from their political decision-making bodies. Because civilian structures did not micro-manage the conduct of operations despite the complex environment in which they operated, their effectiveness increased.

    15. NUMBER OF PAGES

    111

    14. SUBJECT TERMS European security institutions, civil-military relations, European Union, CFSP, NATO, UN, peace keeping, peace operations, Bosnia and Herzegovina, multi-instituionality.

    16. PRICE CODE

    17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT

    Unclassified

    18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE

    Unclassified

    19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF ABSTRACT

    Unclassified

    20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

    UL NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239-18

  • ii

    THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

  • iii

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited

    CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS IN EUROPEAN SECURITY INSTITUTIONS – CHALLENGES OF MULTI-INSTITUTIONALITY IN PEACE OPERATIONS

    Pascu Furnica

    Colonel, Romanian Air Forces B.A., Romanian National Defense University, 1992

    Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

    MASTER OF ARTS IN SECURITY STUDIES (CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS)

    from the

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL March 2007

    Author: Pascu Furnica

    Approved by: Thomas Bruneau Thesis Advisor

    Karen Guttieri Co-Advisor

    Douglas Porch Chairman, Department of National Security Affairs

  • iv

    THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

  • v

    ABSTRACT

    The thesis analyzes civil-military relations in European security institutions by

    analyzing the organization and institutional mechanisms to exercise democratic civilian

    control over the military elements adapted to or emerged as a need to conduct peace

    operations. The goal is to assess the importance of civil-military relations in planning and

    conducting peace operations.

    European security institutions have been involved in peace keeping operations in

    the Balkans for more then ten years. Their effectiveness is measured by the dramatic

    decrease of violence. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, the number of troops decreased from

    60,000 in 1996, when NATO-led Implementation Force (IFOR) was deployed, to a

    planned 2,500 at the end of 2007. The number of military forces involved in providing

    security, a normal task for them, is even smaller.

    The thesis argues that one of the factors which influenced the improvement of the

    effectiveness of the peace-keeping forces in Balkans after NATO took over the mission

    in 1995 is that NATO and EU military forces received clear missions and comprehensive

    political guidance from their political decision-making bodies. Because civilian structures

    did not micro-manage the conduct of operations despite the complex environment in

    which they operated, their effectiveness increased.

  • vi

    THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

  • vii

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    I. INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 A. PURPOSE.........................................................................................................1 B. IMPORTANCE................................................................................................2 C. LITERATURE REVIEW. ..............................................................................4

    1. Prior Work Covering the Role of Institutions Role, Multi- Institutional Framework and Civil-Military Relations in Peace Operations ............................................................................................4

    2. Questions and Argument of the Thesis ..............................................9 D. METHODOLOGY AND SOURCES...........................................................10 E. THESIS OUTLINE........................................................................................11

    II. CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS IN EUROPEAN SECURITY INSTITUTIONS.........................................................................................................13 A. INTRODUCTION..........................................................................................13 B. CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS IN NATO: TRADITION,

    EXPERIENCE AND ADAPTABILITY. .....................................................16 C. CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION:

    ADAPTATION, DEVELOPMENT, INNOVATION.................................24 D. CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS IN REGIONAL SECURITY

    INSTITUTIONS: INFLUENCE AND DEMOCRATIZATION...............32 E. CONCLUSION ..............................................................................................37

    III. UNITED NATIONS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA....................................41 A. INTRODUCTION..........................................................................................41 B. UNPROFOR IN CROATIA..........................................................................43 C. UNPROFOR IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA .............................................48 D. CONCLUSION ..............................................................................................56

    IV. EUROPEAN SECURITY INSTITUTIONS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA .......................................................................................................61 A. NATO AS THE LEADING ORGANIZATION IN BOSNIA....................61 B. EUFOR – EUROPEAN EFFORTS TO MAINTAIN PEACE IN

    BOSNIA ..........................................................................................................73 C. CONCLUSION .........