Cisco Press DWDM Network Designs and Engineering Solutions

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Table of Contents Index DWDM Network Designs and Engineering Solutions By Ashwin Gumaste, Tony Antony Publisher: Cisco Press Pub Date: December 13, 2002 ISBN: 1-58705-074-9 Pages: 368 A comprehensive book on DWDM network design and implementation solutions. Study various optical communication principles as well as communication methodologies in an optical fiber Design and evaluate optical components in a DWDM network Learn about the effects of noise in signal propagation, especially from OSNR and BER perspectives Design optical amplifier-based links Learn how to design optical links based on power budget Design optical links based on OSNR Design a real DWDM network with impairment due to OSNR, dispersion, and gain tilt Classify and design DWDM networks based on size and performance Understand and design nodal architectures for different classification of DWDM networks Comprehend different protocols for transport of data over the DWDM layer Learn how to test and measure different parameters in DWDM networks and optical systems The demand for Internet bandwidth grows as new applications, new technologies, and increased reliance on the Internet continue to rise. Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) is one technology that allows networks to gain significant amounts of bandwidth to handle this growing need. DWDM Network Designs and Engineering Solutions shows you how to take advantage of the new technology to satisfy your network's bandwidth needs. It begins by providing an understanding of DWDM technology and then goes on to teach the design, implementation, and maintenance of DWDM in a network. You will gain an understanding of how to analyze designs prior to installation to measure the impact that the technology will have on your bandwidth and

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Transcript of Cisco Press DWDM Network Designs and Engineering Solutions

Table of Cont ent s I ndexDWDM Net w or k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i onsBy Ashwin Gumast e, Tony Ant ony

Publi sher: Ci sco PressPub Dat e: December 13, 2002I SBN: 1- 58705-074-9Pages: 368 A compr ehensi ve book on DWDM net wor k design and i mpl ement at i on solut i ons.St udy vari ous opt i cal communi cat ion pri nci pl es as wel l as communi cat i on met hodol ogi es inan opt i cal f iberDesign and eval uat e opt i cal component s i n a DWDM net workLear n about t he ef fect s of noi se i n si gnal pr opagat i on, especi al l y f rom OSNR and BERper spect i vesDesign opt i cal ampl i fi er- based l i nksLear n how t o design opt i cal l i nks based on power budgetDesign opt i cal l i nks based on OSNRDesign a r eal DWDM net wor k wi t h i mpair ment due t o OSNR, di spersi on, and gai n t i ltCl assif y and desi gn DWDM net wor ks based on si ze and per for manceUnder st and and desi gn nodal ar chi t ect ur es for di ffer ent cl assif i cat ion of DWDM net wor ksCompr ehend di f fer ent pr ot ocol s f or t r anspor t of dat a over t he DWDM l ayerLear n how t o t est and measure di ff er ent par amet er s i n DWDM net wor ks and opt i calsyst emsThe demand f or I nt er net bandwi dt h grows as new appli cat i ons, new t echnol ogi es, and increasedr el i ance on t he I nt ernet cont i nue t o r i se. Dense wavel engt h di vi si on mul t i pl exing ( DWDM) i s onet echnol ogy t hat all ows net wor ks t o gai n si gni fi cant amount s of bandwi dt h t o handl e t hi s gr owi ngneed. DWDM Net wor k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i ons shows y ou how t o t ake advant age oft he new t echnol ogy t o sat i sf y y our net wor k's bandwi dt h needs. I t begi ns by pr ovi di ng anunderst andi ng of DWDM t echnol ogy and t hen goes on t o t each t he desi gn, implement at i on, andmai nt enance of DWDM in a net work. You wi l l gai n an under st andi ng of how t o anal y ze designspr i or t o i nst al lat ion t o measur e t he i mpact t hat t he t echnol ogy wi l l have on y our bandwi dt h and Table of Cont ent s I ndexDWDM Net w or k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i onsBy Ashwin Gumast e, Tony Ant ony

Publi sher: Ci sco PressPub Dat e: December 13, 2002I SBN: 1- 58705-074-9Pages: 368 A compr ehensi ve book on DWDM net wor k design and i mpl ement at i on solut i ons.St udy vari ous opt i cal communi cat ion pri nci pl es as wel l as communi cat i on met hodol ogi es inan opt i cal f iberDesign and eval uat e opt i cal component s i n a DWDM net workLear n about t he ef fect s of noi se i n si gnal pr opagat i on, especi al l y f rom OSNR and BERper spect i vesDesign opt i cal ampl i fi er- based l i nksLear n how t o design opt i cal l i nks based on power budgetDesign opt i cal l i nks based on OSNRDesign a r eal DWDM net wor k wi t h i mpair ment due t o OSNR, di spersi on, and gai n t i ltCl assif y and desi gn DWDM net wor ks based on si ze and per for manceUnder st and and desi gn nodal ar chi t ect ur es for di ffer ent cl assif i cat ion of DWDM net wor ksCompr ehend di f fer ent pr ot ocol s f or t r anspor t of dat a over t he DWDM l ayerLear n how t o t est and measure di ff er ent par amet er s i n DWDM net wor ks and opt i calsyst emsThe demand f or I nt er net bandwi dt h grows as new appli cat i ons, new t echnol ogi es, and increasedr el i ance on t he I nt ernet cont i nue t o r i se. Dense wavel engt h di vi si on mul t i pl exing ( DWDM) i s onet echnol ogy t hat all ows net wor ks t o gai n si gni fi cant amount s of bandwi dt h t o handl e t hi s gr owi ngneed. DWDM Net wor k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i ons shows y ou how t o t ake advant age oft he new t echnol ogy t o sat i sf y y our net wor k's bandwi dt h needs. I t begi ns by pr ovi di ng anunderst andi ng of DWDM t echnol ogy and t hen goes on t o t each t he desi gn, implement at i on, andmai nt enance of DWDM in a net work. You wi l l gai n an under st andi ng of how t o anal y ze designspr i or t o i nst al lat ion t o measur e t he i mpact t hat t he t echnol ogy wi l l have on y our bandwi dt h andnet wor k eff ici ency. Thi s book br idges t he gap bet ween phy si cal l ayer and net wor k l ay ert echnol ogi es and hel ps cr eat e sol ut i ons t hat bui l d hi gher capaci t y and mor e r esi l i ent net wor ks. Table of Cont ent s I ndexDWDM Net w or k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i onsBy Ashwin Gumast e, Tony Ant ony

Publi sher: Ci sco PressPub Dat e: December 13, 2002I SBN: 1- 58705-074-9Pages: 368 A compr ehensi ve book on DWDM net wor k design and i mpl ement at i on solut i ons.St udy vari ous opt i cal communi cat ion pri nci pl es as wel l as communi cat i on met hodol ogi es inan opt i cal f iberDesign and eval uat e opt i cal component s i n a DWDM net workLear n about t he ef fect s of noi se i n si gnal pr opagat i on, especi al l y f rom OSNR and BERper spect i vesDesign opt i cal ampl i fi er- based l i nksLear n how t o design opt i cal l i nks based on power budgetDesign opt i cal l i nks based on OSNRDesign a r eal DWDM net wor k wi t h i mpair ment due t o OSNR, di spersi on, and gai n t i ltCl assif y and desi gn DWDM net wor ks based on si ze and per for manceUnder st and and desi gn nodal ar chi t ect ur es for di ffer ent cl assif i cat ion of DWDM net wor ksCompr ehend di f fer ent pr ot ocol s f or t r anspor t of dat a over t he DWDM l ayerLear n how t o t est and measure di ff er ent par amet er s i n DWDM net wor ks and opt i calsyst emsThe demand f or I nt er net bandwi dt h grows as new appli cat i ons, new t echnol ogi es, and increasedr el i ance on t he I nt ernet cont i nue t o r i se. Dense wavel engt h di vi si on mul t i pl exing ( DWDM) i s onet echnol ogy t hat all ows net wor ks t o gai n si gni fi cant amount s of bandwi dt h t o handl e t hi s gr owi ngneed. DWDM Net wor k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i ons shows y ou how t o t ake advant age oft he new t echnol ogy t o sat i sf y y our net wor k's bandwi dt h needs. I t begi ns by pr ovi di ng anunderst andi ng of DWDM t echnol ogy and t hen goes on t o t each t he desi gn, implement at i on, andmai nt enance of DWDM in a net work. You wi l l gai n an under st andi ng of how t o anal y ze designspr i or t o i nst al lat ion t o measur e t he i mpact t hat t he t echnol ogy wi l l have on y our bandwi dt h and Table of Cont ent s I ndexDWDM Net w or k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i onsBy Ashwin Gumast e, Tony Ant ony

Publi sher: Ci sco PressPub Dat e: December 13, 2002I SBN: 1- 58705-074-9Pages: 368 Copyri ght About the Aut hors About the Techni cal Revi ewer s Acknowl edgments I ntr oduct i on Goal s and Methods Who Should Read Thi s Book? How Thi s Book I s Organi zed Chapter 1. I nt roduct i on t o Opt i cal Net wor ki ng WDM Opt ics: An Updat e Fi ber Fi ber Losses Di spersi on i n Fi ber Nonl i neari t i es Wi ndow of Operat ions Fi ber Types Uni ts of Opt i cal Power Measurement : Deci bel A Poi nt -t o-Point WDM Net work Emergi ng Technol ogi es: WDM Ver sus TDM, OCDM, and SCM Summar y References Chapter 2. Net worki ng wi th DWDM - 1 Opt ical Transmit t ers: Lasers Modul at i on: Di rect and Ext ernal Opt ical Recei vers: Phot odet ect ers Couplers and Ci rcul at ors Cavi t ies and Fi lt er Compl ex Component s: Transponder s Swi tches Anal ysi s of the Node Table of Cont ent s I ndexDWDM Net w or k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i onsBy Ashwin Gumast e, Tony Ant ony

Publi sher: Ci sco PressPub Dat e: December 13, 2002I SBN: 1- 58705-074-9Pages: 368 A compr ehensi ve book on DWDM net wor k design and i mpl ement at i on solut i ons.St udy vari ous opt i cal communi cat ion pri nci pl es as wel l as communi cat i on met hodol ogi es inan opt i cal f iberDesign and eval uat e opt i cal component s i n a DWDM net workLear n about t he ef fect s of noi se i n si gnal pr opagat i on, especi al l y f rom OSNR and BERper spect i vesDesign opt i cal ampl i fi er- based l i nksLear n how t o design opt i cal l i nks based on power budgetDesign opt i cal l i nks based on OSNRDesign a r eal DWDM net wor k wi t h i mpair ment due t o OSNR, di spersi on, and gai n t i ltCl assif y and desi gn DWDM net wor ks based on si ze and per for manceUnder st and and desi gn nodal ar chi t ect ur es for di ffer ent cl assif i cat ion of DWDM net wor ksCompr ehend di f fer ent pr ot ocol s f or t r anspor t of dat a over t he DWDM l ayerLear n how t o t est and measure di ff er ent par amet er s i n DWDM net wor ks and opt i calsyst emsThe demand f or I nt er net bandwi dt h grows as new appli cat i ons, new t echnol ogi es, and increasedr el i ance on t he I nt ernet cont i nue t o r i se. Dense wavel engt h di vi si on mul t i pl exing ( DWDM) i s onet echnol ogy t hat all ows net wor ks t o gai n si gni fi cant amount s of bandwi dt h t o handl e t hi s gr owi ngneed. DWDM Net wor k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i ons shows y ou how t o t ake advant age oft he new t echnol ogy t o sat i sf y y our net wor k's bandwi dt h needs. I t begi ns by pr ovi di ng anunderst andi ng of DWDM t echnol ogy and t hen goes on t o t each t he desi gn, implement at i on, andmai nt enance of DWDM in a net work. You wi l l gai n an under st andi ng of how t o anal y ze designspr i or t o i nst al lat ion t o measur e t he i mpact t hat t he t echnol ogy wi l l have on y our bandwi dt h and Summar y References Chapter 3. Net worki ng wi th DWDM - 2 A Typi cal Opt i cal Ampl i fi er Doped Fi ber Ampl i fi ers Raman Ampl i fi er SOASemi conduct or Opti cal Ampl i f iers Di spersi on Compensat i on Techni ques: Pre- and Post compensat i on Di spersi on Compensat i on Usi ng Fi ber s Pol ari zat i on Mode Disper si on and Compensat ion Techni ques Summar y References Chapter 4. WDM Net work Desi gn - 1 I ntr oduct i on t o Opt i cal Desi gn Fact ors That Af fect Syst em Desi gn Ef fect of Chromat i c Di spersi on on Transmi ssi on Lengt h and I nduced Power Penalt y Design of a Poi nt- t o-Poi nt Link Based on Q- Factor and OSNR Cal culat i on of Q-Fact or f rom OSNR Mar gi n Requi rement s Design Usi ng Chromat i c Di spersi on Compensat i on OSNR and Di spersi on-Based Desi gn Frequency Chi rp Ef fect s of FWM and XPM on Long- Haul Desi gn PMD in Long- Haul Desi gn Exampl es Summar y References Chapter 5. WDM Net work Desi gn - 2 WDM Pass-t hrough CaseVi rt ual or Logi cal Topol ogy Desi gn Cl assi f i cat ion of Opt i cal Net works Based on Geographi cal Si zes and Funct i onal i t y Met ro Access Net works Met ro Core Net works Long-Haul Net works Nodal Archi t ect ures and t he Opt i cal Servi ce Channel Nodal Archi t ect ures for Di ff er ent Net work Market s Opt ical Syst em Desi gn Access Network Design Met ropol i t an Area Net work (Met ro Core) Desi gn Long-Haul Syst em Design Forward Err or Cor recti on WDM Syst em Desi gn: Component s and Subsyst em Consi derat i on Quest i ons Summar y References Chapter 6. Net work Level St rat egi es i n WDM Networ k Desi gn: Rout i ng and Wavel engt h Assignment Routi ng and Wavel engt h Assi gnment : The Basi c Probl em Formul at i ng t he Wavel engt h Assignment Probl em Routi ng and Wavel engt h Assi gnment and I nt eger Li near Programmi ng Formul at i ons The Gr aph Col ori ng Approach t o t he Wavelength Assi gnment Probl em St ati c and Dynamic Light pat h Est abl i shment Table of Cont ent s I ndexDWDM Net w or k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i onsBy Ashwin Gumast e, Tony Ant ony

Publi sher: Ci sco PressPub Dat e: December 13, 2002I SBN: 1- 58705-074-9Pages: 368 A compr ehensi ve book on DWDM net wor k design and i mpl ement at i on solut i ons.St udy vari ous opt i cal communi cat ion pri nci pl es as wel l as communi cat i on met hodol ogi es inan opt i cal f iberDesign and eval uat e opt i cal component s i n a DWDM net workLear n about t he ef fect s of noi se i n si gnal pr opagat i on, especi al l y f rom OSNR and BERper spect i vesDesign opt i cal ampl i fi er- based l i nksLear n how t o design opt i cal l i nks based on power budgetDesign opt i cal l i nks based on OSNRDesign a r eal DWDM net wor k wi t h i mpair ment due t o OSNR, di spersi on, and gai n t i ltCl assif y and desi gn DWDM net wor ks based on si ze and per for manceUnder st and and desi gn nodal ar chi t ect ur es for di ffer ent cl assif i cat ion of DWDM net wor ksCompr ehend di f fer ent pr ot ocol s f or t r anspor t of dat a over t he DWDM l ayerLear n how t o t est and measure di ff er ent par amet er s i n DWDM net wor ks and opt i calsyst emsThe demand f or I nt er net bandwi dt h grows as new appli cat i ons, new t echnol ogi es, and increasedr el i ance on t he I nt ernet cont i nue t o r i se. Dense wavel engt h di vi si on mul t i pl exing ( DWDM) i s onet echnol ogy t hat all ows net wor ks t o gai n si gni fi cant amount s of bandwi dt h t o handl e t hi s gr owi ngneed. DWDM Net wor k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i ons shows y ou how t o t ake advant age oft he new t echnol ogy t o sat i sf y y our net wor k's bandwi dt h needs. I t begi ns by pr ovi di ng anunderst andi ng of DWDM t echnol ogy and t hen goes on t o t each t he desi gn, implement at i on, andmai nt enance of DWDM in a net work. You wi l l gai n an under st andi ng of how t o anal y ze designspr i or t o i nst al lat ion t o measur e t he i mpact t hat t he t echnol ogy wi l l have on y our bandwi dt h and Vi rt ual Topol ogy Desi gn Some Corol l ari es on Rout i ng and Wavel engt h Assi gnment Bl ocking Probabi l i ty Comput at i on in Opt i cal Networks Summar y References Chapter 7. X over DWDM Gi gabi t Et her net / 10Gi gabi t Et hernet (Opt ical Et her net ) Et her net Passi ve Opt i cal Networks ( EPON) SONET/ SDH Dynamic Packet Transport (DPT) / Resi l i ent Packet Ri ng ( RPR) I P over DWDM Summar y References Chapter 8. Fut ure WDM Net works and Technol ogi es Burst Swi t chi ng Burst - Swi t ched Net work Al gori t hms MPLS and Burst Swi tchi ng Photoni c Sl ot Rout i ng Contenti on Resol uti on Usi ng Del ay Li nes 40 Gbps Syst ems Resour ce Reservati on Pr ot ocol and Tr aff i c Engi neeri ng i n t he Opt i cal Layer Opt ical Cross-Connect Technol ogy HORNET: (Hybri d Opt o-El ectr oni c Ring Network) Burst - Mode Recei vers Vi si on of an Opt i cal I nt ernet Sel f -Si mil ar it y in I nt ernet Traff ic and I t s Ef fect on Opt i cal Net works Transparent Opt i cal Net works Summar y References Chapter 9. Test s and Measurement s Test and Measuri ng Devi ces Charact er i zat ion of a WDM Mul t i pl exer/ Demul t i pl exer and Opti cal Add/ Drop Unit EDFA Test i ng Opt ical Waveform Anal ysi s Compl et e WDM End-t o- End Test i ng Summar y References Chapter 10. Si mul at i ons of WDM Syst ems Need f or Si mul at i on I nsi de t he CD- ROM i n Thi s Book St andal one Versus Col l aborat i ve Desi gn Tool s VPI t ransmi ssi onMaker Si mul at i on Technol ogy Photoni c Component Desi gn Case St udies Summar y References Bi bl iography System Requir ement s and Recommendat i ons Har dware Requi r ement s Soft ware Requi rements Table of Cont ent s I ndexDWDM Net w or k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i onsBy Ashwin Gumast e, Tony Ant ony

Publi sher: Ci sco PressPub Dat e: December 13, 2002I SBN: 1- 58705-074-9Pages: 368 A compr ehensi ve book on DWDM net wor k design and i mpl ement at i on solut i ons.St udy vari ous opt i cal communi cat ion pri nci pl es as wel l as communi cat i on met hodol ogi es inan opt i cal f iberDesign and eval uat e opt i cal component s i n a DWDM net workLear n about t he ef fect s of noi se i n si gnal pr opagat i on, especi al l y f rom OSNR and BERper spect i vesDesign opt i cal ampl i fi er- based l i nksLear n how t o design opt i cal l i nks based on power budgetDesign opt i cal l i nks based on OSNRDesign a r eal DWDM net wor k wi t h i mpair ment due t o OSNR, di spersi on, and gai n t i ltCl assif y and desi gn DWDM net wor ks based on si ze and per for manceUnder st and and desi gn nodal ar chi t ect ur es for di ffer ent cl assif i cat ion of DWDM net wor ksCompr ehend di f fer ent pr ot ocol s f or t r anspor t of dat a over t he DWDM l ayerLear n how t o t est and measure di ff er ent par amet er s i n DWDM net wor ks and opt i calsyst emsThe demand f or I nt er net bandwi dt h grows as new appli cat i ons, new t echnol ogi es, and increasedr el i ance on t he I nt ernet cont i nue t o r i se. Dense wavel engt h di vi si on mul t i pl exing ( DWDM) i s onet echnol ogy t hat all ows net wor ks t o gai n si gni fi cant amount s of bandwi dt h t o handl e t hi s gr owi ngneed. DWDM Net wor k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i ons shows y ou how t o t ake advant age oft he new t echnol ogy t o sat i sf y y our net wor k's bandwi dt h needs. I t begi ns by pr ovi di ng anunderst andi ng of DWDM t echnol ogy and t hen goes on t o t each t he desi gn, implement at i on, andmai nt enance of DWDM in a net work. You wi l l gai n an under st andi ng of how t o anal y ze designspr i or t o i nst al lat ion t o measur e t he i mpact t hat t he t echnol ogy wi l l have on y our bandwi dt h and I ndex Table of Cont ent s I ndexDWDM Net w or k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i onsBy Ashwin Gumast e, Tony Ant ony

Publi sher: Ci sco PressPub Dat e: December 13, 2002I SBN: 1- 58705-074-9Pages: 368 A compr ehensi ve book on DWDM net wor k design and i mpl ement at i on solut i ons.St udy vari ous opt i cal communi cat ion pri nci pl es as wel l as communi cat i on met hodol ogi es inan opt i cal f iberDesign and eval uat e opt i cal component s i n a DWDM net workLear n about t he ef fect s of noi se i n si gnal pr opagat i on, especi al l y f rom OSNR and BERper spect i vesDesign opt i cal ampl i fi er- based l i nksLear n how t o design opt i cal l i nks based on power budgetDesign opt i cal l i nks based on OSNRDesign a r eal DWDM net wor k wi t h i mpair ment due t o OSNR, di spersi on, and gai n t i ltCl assif y and desi gn DWDM net wor ks based on si ze and per for manceUnder st and and desi gn nodal ar chi t ect ur es for di ffer ent cl assif i cat ion of DWDM net wor ksCompr ehend di f fer ent pr ot ocol s f or t r anspor t of dat a over t he DWDM l ayerLear n how t o t est and measure di ff er ent par amet er s i n DWDM net wor ks and opt i calsyst emsThe demand f or I nt er net bandwi dt h grows as new appli cat i ons, new t echnol ogi es, and increasedr el i ance on t he I nt ernet cont i nue t o r i se. Dense wavel engt h di vi si on mul t i pl exing ( DWDM) i s onet echnol ogy t hat all ows net wor ks t o gai n si gni fi cant amount s of bandwi dt h t o handl e t hi s gr owi ngneed. DWDM Net wor k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i ons shows y ou how t o t ake advant age oft he new t echnol ogy t o sat i sf y y our net wor k's bandwi dt h needs. I t begi ns by pr ovi di ng anunderst andi ng of DWDM t echnol ogy and t hen goes on t o t each t he desi gn, implement at i on, andmai nt enance of DWDM in a net work. You wi l l gai n an under st andi ng of how t o anal y ze designspr i or t o i nst al lat ion t o measur e t he i mpact t hat t he t echnol ogy wi l l have on y our bandwi dt h andCopyrightCopyr i ght 2003 Ci sco Sy st ems, I nc.Publi shed by :Ci scoPr ess201West 103rdSt r eetI ndi anapol i s, I N 46290 USAAl l r i ght s reserved. No par t of t hi s book may be repr oduced or t r ansmi t t ed in any for m or by anymeans, el ect r oni c or mechani cal, i ncludi ng phot ocopy ing and recor di ng, or by any i nfor mat i onst or age and r et r ieval syst em, wi t hout wr i t t en per mi ssi on fr om t he publ i sher , except for t hei ncl usi on of bri ef quot at i ons i n a r evi ew.Pr i nt ed in t he Uni t ed St at es of Ameri ca 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0Fi rst Pri nt ing December 2002Li brar y of Congr ess Cat al ogi ng- in- Publ i cat i on Number: 619472050743Warning and DisclaimerThi s book i s designed t o pr ovi de i nf or mat ion about DWDM net works. Ever y ef for t has been madet o make t hi s book as compl et e and as accur at e as possi bl e, but no war r ant y or f i t ness i s i mpl ied.The i nfor mat i on i s pr ovi ded on an " as i s" basi s. The aut hor s, Ci sco Pr ess, and Ci sco Sy st ems,I nc. shal l have nei t her li abil i t y nor r esponsibi li t y t o any person or ent i t y wi t h r espect t o any lossor damages ari si ng fr om t he i nf ormat i on cont ai ned i n t hi s book or fr om t he use of t he di scs orpr ogr ams t hat may accompany i t .The opi ni ons expr essed i n t hi s book bel ong t o t he aut hor s and ar e not necessari l y t hose of Ci scoSy st ems, I nc.Trademark AcknowledgmentsAl l t er ms ment ioned i n t hi s book t hat ar e known t o be t rademar ks or servi ce mar ks have beenappropri at el y capi t al i zed. Ci sco Pr ess or Ci sco Syst ems, I nc. cannot at t est t o t he accur acy of t hi si nf ormat i on. Use of a t er m in t his book shoul d not be regar ded as af fect ing t he val idi t y of anyt r ademark or ser vi ce mar k.Feedback InformationAt Ci sco Press, our goal i s t o cr eat e i n- dept h t echni cal books of t he highest qual it y and value.Each book i s cr aft ed wi t h car e and preci si on, under going r i gor ous devel opment t hat invol ves t heunique expert ise of member s of t he pr of essi onal t echni cal communi t y .Reader f eedback is a nat ur al cont i nuat i on of t hi s pr ocess. I f you have any comment s r egar di nghow we coul d i mpr ove t he qual i t y of t his book, or ot her wi se alt er i t t o bet t er sui t y our needs,y ou can cont act us t hr ough e- mai l at [email protected] scopr ess. com. Pl ease be sur e t o i nclude t hebook t it le and I SBN i n y our message. Table of Cont ent s I ndexDWDM Net w or k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i onsBy Ashwin Gumast e, Tony Ant ony

Publi sher: Ci sco PressPub Dat e: December 13, 2002I SBN: 1- 58705-074-9Pages: 368 A compr ehensi ve book on DWDM net wor k design and i mpl ement at i on solut i ons.St udy vari ous opt i cal communi cat ion pri nci pl es as wel l as communi cat i on met hodol ogi es inan opt i cal f iberDesign and eval uat e opt i cal component s i n a DWDM net workLear n about t he ef fect s of noi se i n si gnal pr opagat i on, especi al l y f rom OSNR and BERper spect i vesDesign opt i cal ampl i fi er- based l i nksLear n how t o design opt i cal l i nks based on power budgetDesign opt i cal l i nks based on OSNRDesign a r eal DWDM net wor k wi t h i mpair ment due t o OSNR, di spersi on, and gai n t i ltCl assif y and desi gn DWDM net wor ks based on si ze and per for manceUnder st and and desi gn nodal ar chi t ect ur es for di ffer ent cl assif i cat ion of DWDM net wor ksCompr ehend di f fer ent pr ot ocol s f or t r anspor t of dat a over t he DWDM l ayerLear n how t o t est and measure di ff er ent par amet er s i n DWDM net wor ks and opt i calsyst emsThe demand f or I nt er net bandwi dt h grows as new appli cat i ons, new t echnol ogi es, and increasedr el i ance on t he I nt ernet cont i nue t o r i se. Dense wavel engt h di vi si on mul t i pl exing ( DWDM) i s onet echnol ogy t hat all ows net wor ks t o gai n si gni fi cant amount s of bandwi dt h t o handl e t hi s gr owi ngneed. DWDM Net wor k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i ons shows y ou how t o t ake advant age oft he new t echnol ogy t o sat i sf y y our net wor k's bandwi dt h needs. I t begi ns by pr ovi di ng anunderst andi ng of DWDM t echnol ogy and t hen goes on t o t each t he desi gn, implement at i on, andmai nt enance of DWDM in a net work. You wi l l gai n an under st andi ng of how t o anal y ze designspr i or t o i nst al lat ion t o measur e t he i mpact t hat t he t echnol ogy wi l l have on y our bandwi dt h andWe great l y appr eci at e y our assi st ance.Publi sher John Wai tEdit or- I n- Chi ef John KaneCi sco Repr esent at i ve Ant hony Wol f endenCi sco Pr ess Pr ogr am Manager Soni a Torr es ChavezCi sco Mar ket i ng Communi cat ionsManagerTom Gei t nerCi sco Mar ket i ng Pr ogram Manager Edie Qui r ozAcqui si t i ons Edi t or Amy MossPr oduct i on Manager Pat r i ck KanouseDevel opment Edi t or Howar d JonesPr oj ect Edi t or San Dee Phi l l i psCopy Edi t or Kar en A. Gi llTechni cal Edit ors Ti m Benner , Way ne Hi ckey , Ar t hur Lower y, St eveWi sni ewskiTeam Coor di nat or Tammi RossBook Desi gner Gi na RexrodeCover Designer Loui sa Adai rComposi t i on Cont ent Wor ksI ndexer Ti m Wr i ghtCor por at e Headquar t er sCi scoSy st ems, I nc.170West Tasman Dr i veSan Jose, CA95134- 1706USAht t p: / / www. ci sco.comTel : 408526- 4000 800553- NETS( 6387)Fax: 408 526- 4100Eur opean Headq uar t er sCi scoSy st emsEur ope11Rue Cami l le Desmoul i ns92782I ssy- l es- Moul i neauxCedex9France Table of Cont ent s I ndexDWDM Net w or k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i onsBy Ashwin Gumast e, Tony Ant ony

Publi sher: Ci sco PressPub Dat e: December 13, 2002I SBN: 1- 58705-074-9Pages: 368 A compr ehensi ve book on DWDM net wor k design and i mpl ement at i on solut i ons.St udy vari ous opt i cal communi cat ion pri nci pl es as wel l as communi cat i on met hodol ogi es inan opt i cal f iberDesign and eval uat e opt i cal component s i n a DWDM net workLear n about t he ef fect s of noi se i n si gnal pr opagat i on, especi al l y f rom OSNR and BERper spect i vesDesign opt i cal ampl i fi er- based l i nksLear n how t o design opt i cal l i nks based on power budgetDesign opt i cal l i nks based on OSNRDesign a r eal DWDM net wor k wi t h i mpair ment due t o OSNR, di spersi on, and gai n t i ltCl assif y and desi gn DWDM net wor ks based on si ze and per for manceUnder st and and desi gn nodal ar chi t ect ur es for di ffer ent cl assif i cat ion of DWDM net wor ksCompr ehend di f fer ent pr ot ocol s f or t r anspor t of dat a over t he DWDM l ayerLear n how t o t est and measure di ff er ent par amet er s i n DWDM net wor ks and opt i calsyst emsThe demand f or I nt er net bandwi dt h grows as new appli cat i ons, new t echnol ogi es, and increasedr el i ance on t he I nt ernet cont i nue t o r i se. Dense wavel engt h di vi si on mul t i pl exing ( DWDM) i s onet echnol ogy t hat all ows net wor ks t o gai n si gni fi cant amount s of bandwi dt h t o handl e t hi s gr owi ngneed. DWDM Net wor k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i ons shows y ou how t o t ake advant age oft he new t echnol ogy t o sat i sf y y our net wor k's bandwi dt h needs. I t begi ns by pr ovi di ng anunderst andi ng of DWDM t echnol ogy and t hen goes on t o t each t he desi gn, implement at i on, andmai nt enance of DWDM in a net work. You wi l l gai n an under st andi ng of how t o anal y ze designspr i or t o i nst al lat ion t o measur e t he i mpact t hat t he t echnol ogy wi l l have on y our bandwi dt h andht t p: / / www- eur ope.ci sco. comTel : 33 158 04 60 00Fax: 33 15804 61 00Amer i cas Headq uar t er sCi scoSy st ems, I nc.170West Tasman Dr i veSan Jose, CA95134- 1706USAht t p: / / www. ci sco.comTel : 408526- 7660Fax: 408 527- 0883Asi a Paci f i c Headq uar t er sCi scoSyst emsAust r al i a,Pt y . , Lt dLevel 17, 99 Wal ker St r eetNor t h SydneyNSW2059Aust r al i aht t p: / / www. ci sco.comTel : + 612 8448 7100Fax: + 6129957 4350Ar gent i na Aust r al i a Aust r i a Bel gi um Br azi l Bul gar i a Canada Chi l e Chi na Col ombi a Cost a Ri ca Cr oat i a Czech Republ i c Denmar k Dubai , UAE Fi nl and Fr ance Germany Gr eece Hong Kong Hungar y I ndi a I ndonesi a I rel and I sr ael I t al y Japan Kor ea Luxembour g Mal aysi a Mexi co The Net her l ands New Zeal and Nor way Per u Phil i ppi nes Poland Por t ugal Puer t o Ri co Romani a Russi a Saudi Arabia Scot l and Si ngapore Sl ovaki a Sl oveni a Sout h Af r i ca Spain Sweden Swi t zer l and Tai wan Thai land Tur key Ukr aine Uni t ed Ki ngdom Uni t ed St at es Venezuel a Vi et nam Zi mbabweCopyr i ght 2000, Cisco Sy st ems, I nc. 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Publi sher: Ci sco PressPub Dat e: December 13, 2002I SBN: 1- 58705-074-9Pages: 368 A compr ehensi ve book on DWDM net wor k design and i mpl ement at i on solut i ons.St udy vari ous opt i cal communi cat ion pri nci pl es as wel l as communi cat i on met hodol ogi es inan opt i cal f iberDesign and eval uat e opt i cal component s i n a DWDM net workLear n about t he ef fect s of noi se i n si gnal pr opagat i on, especi al l y f rom OSNR and BERper spect i vesDesign opt i cal ampl i fi er- based l i nksLear n how t o design opt i cal l i nks based on power budgetDesign opt i cal l i nks based on OSNRDesign a r eal DWDM net wor k wi t h i mpair ment due t o OSNR, di spersi on, and gai n t i ltCl assif y and desi gn DWDM net wor ks based on si ze and per for manceUnder st and and desi gn nodal ar chi t ect ur es for di ffer ent cl assif i cat ion of DWDM net wor ksCompr ehend di f fer ent pr ot ocol s f or t r anspor t of dat a over t he DWDM l ayerLear n how t o t est and measure di ff er ent par amet er s i n DWDM net wor ks and opt i calsyst emsThe demand f or I nt er net bandwi dt h grows as new appli cat i ons, new t echnol ogi es, and increasedr el i ance on t he I nt ernet cont i nue t o r i se. Dense wavel engt h di vi si on mul t i pl exing ( DWDM) i s onet echnol ogy t hat all ows net wor ks t o gai n si gni fi cant amount s of bandwi dt h t o handl e t hi s gr owi ngneed. DWDM Net wor k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i ons shows y ou how t o t ake advant age oft he new t echnol ogy t o sat i sf y y our net wor k's bandwi dt h needs. I t begi ns by pr ovi di ng anunderst andi ng of DWDM t echnol ogy and t hen goes on t o t each t he desi gn, implement at i on, andmai nt enance of DWDM in a net work. You wi l l gai n an under st andi ng of how t o anal y ze designspr i or t o i nst al lat ion t o measur e t he i mpact t hat t he t echnol ogy wi l l have on y our bandwi dt h andDedicationsAshw i n Gumast e: I dedi cat e t hi s book t o my l at e fat her , Dr . Ani l H. Gumast e. I al so dedi cat et hi s book t o my t wo bel oved dogs, Johnny and Zanj eer . My ent ir e r esear ch car eer woul d nothave been possi ble wi t hout t he hel p of Si ddhivi nay ak Templ e i n Bombay, I ndi a.Tony Ant ony : I dedi cat e t hi s book t o my parent s, C. P. Ant ony and Ri t ha Ant ony; my wi fe,Sheela; and my daught er s, Chel sey and Melani e. Table of Cont ent s I ndexDWDM Net w or k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i onsBy Ashwin Gumast e, Tony Ant ony

Publi sher: Ci sco PressPub Dat e: December 13, 2002I SBN: 1- 58705-074-9Pages: 368 A compr ehensi ve book on DWDM net wor k design and i mpl ement at i on solut i ons.St udy vari ous opt i cal communi cat ion pri nci pl es as wel l as communi cat i on met hodol ogi es inan opt i cal f iberDesign and eval uat e opt i cal component s i n a DWDM net workLear n about t he ef fect s of noi se i n si gnal pr opagat i on, especi al l y f rom OSNR and BERper spect i vesDesign opt i cal ampl i fi er- based l i nksLear n how t o design opt i cal l i nks based on power budgetDesign opt i cal l i nks based on OSNRDesign a r eal DWDM net wor k wi t h i mpair ment due t o OSNR, di spersi on, and gai n t i ltCl assif y and desi gn DWDM net wor ks based on si ze and per for manceUnder st and and desi gn nodal ar chi t ect ur es for di ffer ent cl assif i cat ion of DWDM net wor ksCompr ehend di f fer ent pr ot ocol s f or t r anspor t of dat a over t he DWDM l ayerLear n how t o t est and measure di ff er ent par amet er s i n DWDM net wor ks and opt i calsyst emsThe demand f or I nt er net bandwi dt h grows as new appli cat i ons, new t echnol ogi es, and increasedr el i ance on t he I nt ernet cont i nue t o r i se. Dense wavel engt h di vi si on mul t i pl exing ( DWDM) i s onet echnol ogy t hat all ows net wor ks t o gai n si gni fi cant amount s of bandwi dt h t o handl e t hi s gr owi ngneed. DWDM Net wor k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i ons shows y ou how t o t ake advant age oft he new t echnol ogy t o sat i sf y y our net wor k's bandwi dt h needs. I t begi ns by pr ovi di ng anunderst andi ng of DWDM t echnol ogy and t hen goes on t o t each t he desi gn, implement at i on, andmai nt enance of DWDM in a net work. You wi l l gai n an under st andi ng of how t o anal y ze designspr i or t o i nst al lat ion t o measur e t he i mpact t hat t he t echnol ogy wi l l have on y our bandwi dt h andAbout the AuthorsAshw i n Gumast e r ecei ved a mast er 's degr ee in t el ecommuni cat i ons and is curr ent l y wi t h t heCent er f or Advanced Tel ecommuni cat i ons Syst ems and Servi ces ( CATSS) at t he Uni versi t y ofTexas at Dal l as wher e he is pur sui ng a Ph. D. i n el ect r ical engi neer i ng. He i s al so par t ofPhot oni cs Net wor king Labor at or y ( PNL) at Fuj i t su i n Ri char dson, Texas wher e hi s r esear chi ncl udes net wor k development and desi gn. He has previ ously wor ked wi t h Ci sco Sy st ems i n t heOpt i cal Net wor king Gr oup. He has numer ous paper s and pending U. S. pat ent s. He was awardedt he Nat ional Tal ent Sear ch Schol ar shi p i n I ndi a i n 1991. Hi s r esear ch i nt er est s i ncl ude opt i caland wi r el ess net worki ng and Sel f- Si mi l ar phenomenon i n soci al and net wor ki ng envi r onment s.He has also pr oposed t he fi r st ar chi t ect ur e t o i mpl ement opt i cal bur st swi t chi ng and formul t i cast i ng l i ght pat hs call ed Li ght - t r ail s.Tony Ant ony has mor e t han 11 y ear s of t el ecommunicat i ons/ dat a- net wor ki ng experi ence and i scur r ent l y worki ng at Ci sco Syst ems as a Techni cal Market i ng Engi neer i n t he Opt i cal Net wor ki ngGr oup. He r ecei ved a mast er' s degr ee i n t el ecommuni cat ions fr om SMU, Dal las and al so hol ds aCCNP and CCI P ( Opt ical ) along wi t h mul t i pl e ot her cer t i fi cat i ons. Tony' s pr evi ous exper i encei ncl udes engineer i ng posi t i ons at Texas I nst r ument s and KPMG. He has aut hored numer oust echni cal paper s at i nt er nat i onal confer ences i n t he net wor ki ng ar ea. Hi s r esear ch int erest si ncl ude opt i cal I nt ernet and net wor k si mul at i ons. Tony can be r eached at t ant [email protected] sco.com. Table of Cont ent s I ndexDWDM Net w or k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i onsBy Ashwin Gumast e, Tony Ant ony

Publi sher: Ci sco PressPub Dat e: December 13, 2002I SBN: 1- 58705-074-9Pages: 368 A compr ehensi ve book on DWDM net wor k design and i mpl ement at i on solut i ons.St udy vari ous opt i cal communi cat ion pri nci pl es as wel l as communi cat i on met hodol ogi es inan opt i cal f iberDesign and eval uat e opt i cal component s i n a DWDM net workLear n about t he ef fect s of noi se i n si gnal pr opagat i on, especi al l y f rom OSNR and BERper spect i vesDesign opt i cal ampl i fi er- based l i nksLear n how t o design opt i cal l i nks based on power budgetDesign opt i cal l i nks based on OSNRDesign a r eal DWDM net wor k wi t h i mpair ment due t o OSNR, di spersi on, and gai n t i ltCl assif y and desi gn DWDM net wor ks based on si ze and per for manceUnder st and and desi gn nodal ar chi t ect ur es for di ffer ent cl assif i cat ion of DWDM net wor ksCompr ehend di f fer ent pr ot ocol s f or t r anspor t of dat a over t he DWDM l ayerLear n how t o t est and measure di ff er ent par amet er s i n DWDM net wor ks and opt i calsyst emsThe demand f or I nt er net bandwi dt h grows as new appli cat i ons, new t echnol ogi es, and increasedr el i ance on t he I nt ernet cont i nue t o r i se. Dense wavel engt h di vi si on mul t i pl exing ( DWDM) i s onet echnol ogy t hat all ows net wor ks t o gai n si gni fi cant amount s of bandwi dt h t o handl e t hi s gr owi ngneed. DWDM Net wor k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i ons shows y ou how t o t ake advant age oft he new t echnol ogy t o sat i sf y y our net wor k's bandwi dt h needs. I t begi ns by pr ovi di ng anunderst andi ng of DWDM t echnol ogy and t hen goes on t o t each t he desi gn, implement at i on, andmai nt enance of DWDM in a net work. You wi l l gai n an under st andi ng of how t o anal y ze designspr i or t o i nst al lat ion t o measur e t he i mpact t hat t he t echnol ogy wi l l have on y our bandwi dt h andAbout the Technical ReviewersTi m Ben ner has been i n t he net worki ng t el ecommuni cat i ons i ndust r y and el ect r oni cs fi el d formor e t han 13 y ear s. Hi s f ir st t rai ning came whi l e he was i n ser vi ce as an el ect r oni cs t echni cian( communi cat i ons and r adar ) in t he Uni t ed St at es Navy . He has at t ai ned ever y maj ort el ecommuni cat i ons cert if i cat ion. Ti m has worked f or a Ci sco Si lver, Gol d, and sever al Ci scoPr ofessi onal Ser vi ces Par t ner s as a senior pr i ncipal net wor k consul t ant . He has desi gned,i mpl ement ed, and had exposure t o many di ff er ent t echnol ogi es, i ncl udi ng VoX t echnol ogi es,LAN/ WAN, and I nt ernet t echnol ogi es for ser vice provi der and ent er pr i se net works. He spendsmuch of hi s fr ee t i me r eadi ng i ndust r y books and doi ng r esearch i n hi s home l ab.Way ne Hi ck ey has mor e t han 20 y ear s of t el ecommunicat i ons, comput er , and dat a exper ience.He has pr oduct exper t i se in SONET, SDH, DWDM, I P, ATM, Frame, HFC, Voi ce, Vi deo, andWi r el ess. Wayne has hel d var ious posi t i ons wi t h Ci sco Sy st ems as a CSE, SEM, SSEM, and now apr oduct manager f or t he Opt i cal Techni cal Busi ness Uni t . Pr evi ousl y , he spent 19 y ears wor ki ngfor Al iant Tel ecom ( NBTel ) , t he t hi r d l argest t el ecommuni cat ions pr ovi der i n Canada, where hewas f ocused on t ransmi ssion net wor k desi gn and t he eval uat i on of emer gi ng access andt r ansmi ssi on t echnol ogi es. Wayne has co- aut hor ed and aut hor ed sever al paper s on PMD, l ong-haul t r ansmi ssi on sy st ems, and he has appl i ed f or several pat ent s on pri mar y and secondar ypr ot ect f or HFC.Dr . Ar t h ur Low er y ear ned a f i rst - cl ass honour' s degr ee i n appl i ed phy sics f r om Dur hamUni ver sit y, Engl and, i n 1983, and a Ph. D. fr om Not t i ngham Uni versi t y , wher e he wor ked as al ect urer i n el ect r i cal engi neeri ng. I n 1990, Ar t hur j oi ned t he Phot oni cs Resear ch Labor at or y att he Universi t y of Mel bourne, Aust r ali a as a seni or l ect ur er and l at er a r eader , wher e he l edpr oj ect s developi ng CAD t ool s for phot oni c devi ces and syst ems, opt i cal ampl i fi er appl icat i ons,and mode- l ocked l aser s. I n 1996, he cof ounded Vi r t ual Phot oni cs Pt y Lt d. t o commer ci al i zephot oni c desi gn aut omat i on t ool s, whi ch mer ged wi t h BneD ( Germany) i n 1998 t o becomeVPI sy st ems I nc. Si nce t hen, Ar t hur has been gr oup t echnology off i cer of Mel bourne' s Opt i calDesign Gr oup, whi ch devel ops design t ools for component s, li nks, and sy st ems. He has wri t t enmor e t han 160 papers on phot onics and si mul at i on.St ev e Wi sni ew ski , CCNP, has an M.S. degr ee in t el ecom engi neer i ng f rom St evens I nst i t ut e ofTechnol ogy . He has more t han 10 y ear s of net wor king exper ience and i s empl oy ed as a seni orengi neer f or Gr eenwi ch Technol ogy Par t ner s. He has aut hor ed t wo books on net wor ki ng f orPr ent i ce Hall and i s pr esent l y co- aut hor i ng a book for Ci sco Pr ess. He l ives i n East Br unswi ck,N. J. wi t h hi s wi fe, Ell en, and t hei r 16 dogs. Table of Cont ent s I ndexDWDM Net w or k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i onsBy Ashwin Gumast e, Tony Ant ony

Publi sher: Ci sco PressPub Dat e: December 13, 2002I SBN: 1- 58705-074-9Pages: 368 A compr ehensi ve book on DWDM net wor k design and i mpl ement at i on solut i ons.St udy vari ous opt i cal communi cat ion pri nci pl es as wel l as communi cat i on met hodol ogi es inan opt i cal f iberDesign and eval uat e opt i cal component s i n a DWDM net workLear n about t he ef fect s of noi se i n si gnal pr opagat i on, especi al l y f rom OSNR and BERper spect i vesDesign opt i cal ampl i fi er- based l i nksLear n how t o design opt i cal l i nks based on power budgetDesign opt i cal l i nks based on OSNRDesign a r eal DWDM net wor k wi t h i mpair ment due t o OSNR, di spersi on, and gai n t i ltCl assif y and desi gn DWDM net wor ks based on si ze and per for manceUnder st and and desi gn nodal ar chi t ect ur es for di ffer ent cl assif i cat ion of DWDM net wor ksCompr ehend di f fer ent pr ot ocol s f or t r anspor t of dat a over t he DWDM l ayerLear n how t o t est and measure di ff er ent par amet er s i n DWDM net wor ks and opt i calsyst emsThe demand f or I nt er net bandwi dt h grows as new appli cat i ons, new t echnol ogi es, and increasedr el i ance on t he I nt ernet cont i nue t o r i se. Dense wavel engt h di vi si on mul t i pl exing ( DWDM) i s onet echnol ogy t hat all ows net wor ks t o gai n si gni fi cant amount s of bandwi dt h t o handl e t hi s gr owi ngneed. DWDM Net wor k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i ons shows y ou how t o t ake advant age oft he new t echnol ogy t o sat i sf y y our net wor k's bandwi dt h needs. I t begi ns by pr ovi di ng anunderst andi ng of DWDM t echnol ogy and t hen goes on t o t each t he desi gn, implement at i on, andmai nt enance of DWDM in a net work. You wi l l gai n an under st andi ng of how t o anal y ze designspr i or t o i nst al lat ion t o measur e t he i mpact t hat t he t echnol ogy wi l l have on y our bandwi dt h andAcknowledgmentsAshw i n Gumast e: A ver y special t hanks t o my Ph. D. advisor and t he di st i ngui shed chai r i nt el ecommuni cat i ons, Dr . I mr i ch Chl amt ac, at t he Univer si t y of Texas at Dal las, f or t heencour agement he best owed upon me, as wel l as f or bei ng a st r ong sour ce of mot ivat i on i n t heopt i cal net wor ki ng fi el d. I would al so l i ke t o t hank Dr. Hideo Kuwahar a, seni or VP of Phot oni csNet worki ng Laborat ory at Fuj it su, for hi s const ant suppor t dur i ng t he wri t i ng of t hi s manuscri pt .I woul d l i ke t o t hank Dr . Geor ge Thomas at t he Uni ver si t y of Loui si ana, Lafay et t e f or showi ng met he int r icaci es in DWDM net worki ng. A special acknowl edgement t o t he effor t s of Amy Moss andHowar d Jones fr om Ci sco Pr ess, as wel l as t he t echni cal r evi ewer s Way ne, Ar t hur , St eve, andTi m. I woul d l i ke t o not e t he i ni t i at i ves of t he i nt er f aci ng members f r om VPI ( Ar t hur , El i zabet h,and Pet t er) and Agi l ent ( Sudhi r and Randy ) .Tony Ant ony : I woul d li ke t o t hank my par ent s and f ami l y f or support i ng me dur i ng t he ent i r epr ocess of t hi s book. A speci al t hanks t o my t eam members and manager s, especi all y Far azAl adi n, Dave Merr el l, and Russ Tar pey at Ci sco Sy st ems. I woul d al so l i ke t o t hank Ar t i e Thomasand al l my ot her col l eagues f or t he cont i nuous encouragement t hey of fer ed me. I ext end myt hanks t o Amy Moss f or coordi nat i ng t he ef for t s, Howar d Jones for devel opi ng t he book, andWay ne Hi ckey , Ar t hur Lowr y, Ti m Benner , and St eve Wi sniewski for t heir excel l ent comment s.Speci al t hanks t o Di di Fost er f or coordi nat i ng Agi l ent t est and measur ement i nf or mat i on, as wel las Sudhi r Peddir eddy and Randy Fost er . Fi nal l y, I woul d li ke t o t hank El i zabet h Mor gan, Ar t hurLowr y , and Pet t er Wi l l dhagan f r om VPI f or compil at i on of Chapt er 10, "Si mul at i ons of WDMSy st ems." Table of Cont ent s I ndexDWDM Net w or k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i onsBy Ashwin Gumast e, Tony Ant ony

Publi sher: Ci sco PressPub Dat e: December 13, 2002I SBN: 1- 58705-074-9Pages: 368 A compr ehensi ve book on DWDM net wor k design and i mpl ement at i on solut i ons.St udy vari ous opt i cal communi cat ion pri nci pl es as wel l as communi cat i on met hodol ogi es inan opt i cal f iberDesign and eval uat e opt i cal component s i n a DWDM net workLear n about t he ef fect s of noi se i n si gnal pr opagat i on, especi al l y f rom OSNR and BERper spect i vesDesign opt i cal ampl i fi er- based l i nksLear n how t o design opt i cal l i nks based on power budgetDesign opt i cal l i nks based on OSNRDesign a r eal DWDM net wor k wi t h i mpair ment due t o OSNR, di spersi on, and gai n t i ltCl assif y and desi gn DWDM net wor ks based on si ze and per for manceUnder st and and desi gn nodal ar chi t ect ur es for di ffer ent cl assif i cat ion of DWDM net wor ksCompr ehend di f fer ent pr ot ocol s f or t r anspor t of dat a over t he DWDM l ayerLear n how t o t est and measure di ff er ent par amet er s i n DWDM net wor ks and opt i calsyst emsThe demand f or I nt er net bandwi dt h grows as new appli cat i ons, new t echnol ogi es, and increasedr el i ance on t he I nt ernet cont i nue t o r i se. Dense wavel engt h di vi si on mul t i pl exing ( DWDM) i s onet echnol ogy t hat all ows net wor ks t o gai n si gni fi cant amount s of bandwi dt h t o handl e t hi s gr owi ngneed. DWDM Net wor k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i ons shows y ou how t o t ake advant age oft he new t echnol ogy t o sat i sf y y our net wor k's bandwi dt h needs. I t begi ns by pr ovi di ng anunderst andi ng of DWDM t echnol ogy and t hen goes on t o t each t he desi gn, implement at i on, andmai nt enance of DWDM in a net work. You wi l l gai n an under st andi ng of how t o anal y ze designspr i or t o i nst al lat ion t o measur e t he i mpact t hat t he t echnol ogy wi l l have on y our bandwi dt h andIntroductionThe massi ve growt h i n I nt er net t r af fi c has cr eat ed a sur ge of bandwi dt h r equi r ement i n t oday' snet wor ks. Wavel engt h di vi si on mul t i pl exi ng ( WDM) is one enabl i ng t echnol ogy t hat al levi at es t hebandwi dt h i ssue. Thi s book i s an at t empt t o di scuss t hi s nascent t echnol ogy fr om ani mpl ement at ion per spect i ve. I t i s desi gned f or l evels fr om t he novi ce t o t he exper t , keeping inmi nd t he pract i cal r elevance of depl oy ment . The obj ect i ve i s t o acquai nt t he r eader wi t h t heenabl i ng t echnol ogi es t hat af fect DWDM net wor ki ng and t o enabl e t he r eader t o desi gn( synt hesize) and anal y ze DWDM net wor ks, fr om a sy st ems perspect i ve. The book at t empt s t obr i dge t he gap bet ween phy sical lay er and net wor k l ay er t echnologi es and cr eat es a sol ut i on t hatabsor bs t he best of bot h wor l ds t o demonst r at e hi gher capacit y and more r esil i ent net wor ks f ort he fut ur e. Table of Cont ent s I ndexDWDM Net w or k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i onsBy Ashwin Gumast e, Tony Ant ony

Publi sher: Ci sco PressPub Dat e: December 13, 2002I SBN: 1- 58705-074-9Pages: 368 A compr ehensi ve book on DWDM net wor k design and i mpl ement at i on solut i ons.St udy vari ous opt i cal communi cat ion pri nci pl es as wel l as communi cat i on met hodol ogi es inan opt i cal f iberDesign and eval uat e opt i cal component s i n a DWDM net workLear n about t he ef fect s of noi se i n si gnal pr opagat i on, especi al l y f rom OSNR and BERper spect i vesDesign opt i cal ampl i fi er- based l i nksLear n how t o design opt i cal l i nks based on power budgetDesign opt i cal l i nks based on OSNRDesign a r eal DWDM net wor k wi t h i mpair ment due t o OSNR, di spersi on, and gai n t i ltCl assif y and desi gn DWDM net wor ks based on si ze and per for manceUnder st and and desi gn nodal ar chi t ect ur es for di ffer ent cl assif i cat ion of DWDM net wor ksCompr ehend di f fer ent pr ot ocol s f or t r anspor t of dat a over t he DWDM l ayerLear n how t o t est and measure di ff er ent par amet er s i n DWDM net wor ks and opt i calsyst emsThe demand f or I nt er net bandwi dt h grows as new appli cat i ons, new t echnol ogi es, and increasedr el i ance on t he I nt ernet cont i nue t o r i se. Dense wavel engt h di vi si on mul t i pl exing ( DWDM) i s onet echnol ogy t hat all ows net wor ks t o gai n si gni fi cant amount s of bandwi dt h t o handl e t hi s gr owi ngneed. DWDM Net wor k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i ons shows y ou how t o t ake advant age oft he new t echnol ogy t o sat i sf y y our net wor k's bandwi dt h needs. I t begi ns by pr ovi di ng anunderst andi ng of DWDM t echnol ogy and t hen goes on t o t each t he desi gn, implement at i on, andmai nt enance of DWDM in a net work. You wi l l gai n an under st andi ng of how t o anal y ze designspr i or t o i nst al lat ion t o measur e t he i mpact t hat t he t echnol ogy wi l l have on y our bandwi dt h andGoals and MethodsThi s book di scusses t he t echnol ogi cal i mpl ement at i ons of DWDM net wor ki ng f r om a sy st ems-l evel appr oach. DWDM as a t echnol ogy at t empt s t o coal esce t he opt i cal and net wor k l ay erst r at egi es i n cr eat i ng huge sur ges i n bandwi dt h t hat ar e avail able t o t he end user . Thi s bookdeal s wi t h di ff er ent facet s of DWDM net wor ki ng and creat es a r esour ce pool of net wor k- sy st emsknowl edge. I t can be r egar ded as a premi er source of i nf or mat ion t o cover a wide spect r um ofi ssues f r om component s t o syst em desi gn. The obj ect ive i s t o make t he r eader abl e t o desi gnand under st and DWDM net wor ks as wel l as t he under ly i ng opt i cal t echnol ogy.Some of t he most import ant det ai l s cover ed i nclude t he fol l owi ng:St udy vari ous opt i cal communi cat ion pri nci pl es as wel l as communi cat i on met hodol ogi es inan opt i cal f iber . Be abl e t o choose t he r i ght fi ber f or t he gi ven appl icat i on.Design and eval uat e opt i cal component s i n a DWDM net work.Lear n t he eff ect s of noi se in si gnal pr opagat ion i n WDM net wor ks, especi al l y f rom OSNRand BER per spect i ves.Design opt i cal ampl i fi ers.Design opt i cal l i nks based on power budget .Design opt i cal l i nks based on OSNR.Design a r eal DWDM net wor k wi t h i mpair ed fr om OSNR, di sper si on, and gai n t i l t .Cl assif y and desi gn DWDM net wor ks based on si ze and per for mance.Under st and and desi gn nodal ar chi t ect ur es for di ffer ent cl assif i cat ions of DWDM net wor ks.Under st and t he eff ect s of rout i ng and wavel engt h assignment i n DWDM net wor ks.Compr ehend t he di ff er ent pr ot ocols for t ransport of dat a over t he WDM l ay er .Lear n fut ur e t r ends i n WDM net wor ki ng.Test and measure di ff er ent par amet er s i n WDM net works and opt i cal syst ems.Eval uat e per f ormance of WDM net wor ks usi ng si mul at i ons. Table of Cont ent s I ndexDWDM Net w or k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i onsBy Ashwin Gumast e, Tony Ant ony

Publi sher: Ci sco PressPub Dat e: December 13, 2002I SBN: 1- 58705-074-9Pages: 368 A compr ehensi ve book on DWDM net wor k design and i mpl ement at i on solut i ons.St udy vari ous opt i cal communi cat ion pri nci pl es as wel l as communi cat i on met hodol ogi es inan opt i cal f iberDesign and eval uat e opt i cal component s i n a DWDM net workLear n about t he ef fect s of noi se i n si gnal pr opagat i on, especi al l y f rom OSNR and BERper spect i vesDesign opt i cal ampl i fi er- based l i nksLear n how t o design opt i cal l i nks based on power budgetDesign opt i cal l i nks based on OSNRDesign a r eal DWDM net wor k wi t h i mpair ment due t o OSNR, di spersi on, and gai n t i ltCl assif y and desi gn DWDM net wor ks based on si ze and per for manceUnder st and and desi gn nodal ar chi t ect ur es for di ffer ent cl assif i cat ion of DWDM net wor ksCompr ehend di f fer ent pr ot ocol s f or t r anspor t of dat a over t he DWDM l ayerLear n how t o t est and measure di ff er ent par amet er s i n DWDM net wor ks and opt i calsyst emsThe demand f or I nt er net bandwi dt h grows as new appli cat i ons, new t echnol ogi es, and increasedr el i ance on t he I nt ernet cont i nue t o r i se. Dense wavel engt h di vi si on mul t i pl exing ( DWDM) i s onet echnol ogy t hat all ows net wor ks t o gai n si gni fi cant amount s of bandwi dt h t o handl e t hi s gr owi ngneed. DWDM Net wor k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i ons shows y ou how t o t ake advant age oft he new t echnol ogy t o sat i sf y y our net wor k's bandwi dt h needs. I t begi ns by pr ovi di ng anunderst andi ng of DWDM t echnol ogy and t hen goes on t o t each t he desi gn, implement at i on, andmai nt enance of DWDM in a net work. You wi l l gai n an under st andi ng of how t o anal y ze designspr i or t o i nst al lat ion t o measur e t he i mpact t hat t he t echnol ogy wi l l have on y our bandwi dt h andWho Should Read This Book?Thi s book i s meant t o cover t he ent i r e spect r um of t echnol ogi es fr om physi cal l ay er t o net wor kl ay er and is desi gned t o benefi t a wi de r ange of peopl e i n t he net worki ng communi t y f rom novicet o resear cher . The obj ect i ve i s not j ust t o expl ain t he underl y i ng t echnol ogi es but al so t o maket he reader wel l ver sed r egar di ng desi gn aspect s. Thi s book can be consi der ed a st andal onet ut ori al f or DWDM net wor ki ng.I n general t er ms, net wor k engi neer s, net work ar chi t ect s, net work desi gn engineer s, cust omersupport engi neer s, sal espeopl e, sy st em engi neer s, and consul t ant s who desi gn, depl oy, operat e,and t r oubleshoot WDM net wor ks and who want t o pr ovi de new- worl d enabl i ng servi ces on t hei rnet wor ks shoul d read t hi s book.Academi ci ans who need t o under st and t hi s t echnol ogy model and t heor et i cal f r amewor k as par tof t hei r r esear ch wi l l al so f i nd t hi s book usef ul . Table of Cont ent s I ndexDWDM Net w or k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i onsBy Ashwin Gumast e, Tony Ant ony

Publi sher: Ci sco PressPub Dat e: December 13, 2002I SBN: 1- 58705-074-9Pages: 368 A compr ehensi ve book on DWDM net wor k design and i mpl ement at i on solut i ons.St udy vari ous opt i cal communi cat ion pri nci pl es as wel l as communi cat i on met hodol ogi es inan opt i cal f iberDesign and eval uat e opt i cal component s i n a DWDM net workLear n about t he ef fect s of noi se i n si gnal pr opagat i on, especi al l y f rom OSNR and BERper spect i vesDesign opt i cal ampl i fi er- based l i nksLear n how t o design opt i cal l i nks based on power budgetDesign opt i cal l i nks based on OSNRDesign a r eal DWDM net wor k wi t h i mpair ment due t o OSNR, di spersi on, and gai n t i ltCl assif y and desi gn DWDM net wor ks based on si ze and per for manceUnder st and and desi gn nodal ar chi t ect ur es for di ffer ent cl assif i cat ion of DWDM net wor ksCompr ehend di f fer ent pr ot ocol s f or t r anspor t of dat a over t he DWDM l ayerLear n how t o t est and measure di ff er ent par amet er s i n DWDM net wor ks and opt i calsyst emsThe demand f or I nt er net bandwi dt h grows as new appli cat i ons, new t echnol ogi es, and increasedr el i ance on t he I nt ernet cont i nue t o r i se. Dense wavel engt h di vi si on mul t i pl exing ( DWDM) i s onet echnol ogy t hat all ows net wor ks t o gai n si gni fi cant amount s of bandwi dt h t o handl e t hi s gr owi ngneed. DWDM Net wor k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i ons shows y ou how t o t ake advant age oft he new t echnol ogy t o sat i sf y y our net wor k's bandwi dt h needs. I t begi ns by pr ovi di ng anunderst andi ng of DWDM t echnol ogy and t hen goes on t o t each t he desi gn, implement at i on, andmai nt enance of DWDM in a net work. You wi l l gai n an under st andi ng of how t o anal y ze designspr i or t o i nst al lat ion t o measur e t he i mpact t hat t he t echnol ogy wi l l have on y our bandwi dt h andHow This Book Is OrganizedThe book i s par t i t i oned i nt o 10 chapt er s, and each chapt er deal s wi t h an i mpor t ant facet ofDWDM net wor ki ng. I t i s st ruct ur ed i n a way t hat t he r eader i s i ni t i al ly acquai nt ed t o premi eropt i cal t echnol ogies.DWDM net wor ki ng i s bui l t on t he st r ong fundament al s of enabl i ng opt i cal t echnol ogi es, andChapt ers 1 t hr ough 3 di scuss t hese t echnol ogies. Fol l owi ng an engi neer i ng- l evel under st andi ngon opt i cal net wor king, Chapt ers 4 and 5 det ail DWDM net wor k desi gn fr om opt ical as wel l ast opol ogical aspect s. Those chapt er s l ook at di f fer ent cl assi fi cat i ons of DWDM net works and hownet wor ks are desi gned and i mpl ement ed. A sy st em desi gn per spect i ve cr eat es a r esour ce pool ofknowl edge f or i ndust ry desi gner s.Chapt er 6 amal gamat es net wor k l ay er issues wi t h DWDM net wor ki ng, discussing rout i ng andwavel engt h assi gnment issues i n a DWDM net work. Fr om t he hi gher l ay er s of t he OSI model , awi de r ange of pr ot ocols are feasi ble alt er nat i ves for t ranspor t of dat a over WDM net works.Chapt er 7 t hr ows l ight on some of t hese pr ot ocol s. As DWDM t echnol ogy mat ur es, newert echnol ogi es appear t hat enabl e bet t er , more resi li ent , as wel l as hi gher - capaci t y DWDMnet wor ks. These t r ends of fut ur e DWDM net wor king are di scussed i n Chapt er 8.As i ndust r y begi ns t o depl oy DWDM net works i n a subst ant i al way , t hese net wor ks and t heassoci at ed net work gear need t o be t est ed and t he par amet ers measur ed. Chapt er 9 expl ai nssome generi c met hods for measur ement of opt i cal paramet ers, as wel l as val i dat i ng t echni quest o pr ove t he eff ect i veness of WDM net wor ks. To cor r ect l y channel i nvest ment s i n WDM net wor ks,t he desi gn needs t o be val i dat ed. Simulat ion exer ci ses ar e an excell ent met hod for suchval idat i on. Chapt er 10 di scusses si mul at i on st udi es of WDM net wor ks.The 10 chapt er s cover t he fol l owi ng t opi cs:Chapt er 1 , " I nt r oduct i on t o Opt i cal Net w or k i ng" Thi s chapt er i nt roduces basi cpr i nci pl es t hat govern opt ical communi cat i on such as r efl ect i on, r efr act i on, di sper sion, andpol ar i zat i on, as wel l as t he pr oper t i es of opt i cal f iber such as bi refr i ngence andnonli near i t y . Thi s chapt er furt her det ai ls t he met hods of communicat i on i n a f iber as wel l ast he var i ous i mpai r ment s t o si gnal f l ow i n a fi ber . I t al so hi ghli ght s proper t i es of DWDMnet wor ki ng f r om t he opt i cal communi cat i on poi nt of vi ew.Chapt er 2 , " Net w or k i n g wi t h DWDM - 1 " Thi s chapt er showcases some of t he DWDMcomponent s and t echnol ogi es. I t i nt r oduces opt ical t ransmi t t er s and vari ous for ms of l aser st hat ar e used i n DWDM t ransmi ssi on, as well as t hei r char act er i st i cs. I t al so di scussesopt i cal r ecei ver desi gn and i t s import ance t o sy st em desi gn based on noi se and bi t er r orr at e ( BER) . I n addi t i on, Chapt er 2 does some el ement ar y mat hemat i cal anal y si s of BER anddi scusses t he Q- f act or and signal - t o- noi se r at i o ( SNR) . The chapt er al so st udi escomponent s such as coupler s, cir cul at or s, vari ous for ms of fi l t er s, and opt i cal swi t ches.Fi nal l y, Chapt er 2 hel ps r eader s map t he component s and t hei r t echnol ogy i nt o a ful lypr ogr essed WDM net wor k.Chapt er 3 , " Net w or k i n g wi t h DWDM - 2 " Thi s chapt er di scusses an i mpor t anti nnvovat i onopt i cal ampl if ert hat af fect s DWDM net wor k desi gn. Al so exami ned aredoped f iber , Raman, and semi conduct or opt ical ampli f er s. Fi nal l y, t hi s chapt er expl ai nsdi sper si on- compensat i on t echni ques f or chr omat i c as wel l as pol ar i zat i on mode di sper si onfr om a syst ems l evel per spect i ve.Chapt er 4 , " WDM Net w or k Desi gn - 1" Thi s chapt er di scusses opt i cal net wor k syst em-l evel desi gn. I t i ni t i al l y consider s power budget - based desi gn and moves on t o more Table of Cont ent s I ndexDWDM Net w or k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i onsBy Ashwin Gumast e, Tony Ant ony

Publi sher: Ci sco PressPub Dat e: December 13, 2002I SBN: 1- 58705-074-9Pages: 368 A compr ehensi ve book on DWDM net wor k design and i mpl ement at i on solut i ons.St udy vari ous opt i cal communi cat ion pri nci pl es as wel l as communi cat i on met hodol ogi es inan opt i cal f iberDesign and eval uat e opt i cal component s i n a DWDM net workLear n about t he ef fect s of noi se i n si gnal pr opagat i on, especi al l y f rom OSNR and BERper spect i vesDesign opt i cal ampl i fi er- based l i nksLear n how t o design opt i cal l i nks based on power budgetDesign opt i cal l i nks based on OSNRDesign a r eal DWDM net wor k wi t h i mpair ment due t o OSNR, di spersi on, and gai n t i ltCl assif y and desi gn DWDM net wor ks based on si ze and per for manceUnder st and and desi gn nodal ar chi t ect ur es for di ffer ent cl assif i cat ion of DWDM net wor ksCompr ehend di f fer ent pr ot ocol s f or t r anspor t of dat a over t he DWDM l ayerLear n how t o t est and measure di ff er ent par amet er s i n DWDM net wor ks and opt i calsyst emsThe demand f or I nt er net bandwi dt h grows as new appli cat i ons, new t echnol ogi es, and increasedr el i ance on t he I nt ernet cont i nue t o r i se. Dense wavel engt h di vi si on mul t i pl exing ( DWDM) i s onet echnol ogy t hat all ows net wor ks t o gai n si gni fi cant amount s of bandwi dt h t o handl e t hi s gr owi ngneed. DWDM Net wor k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i ons shows y ou how t o t ake advant age oft he new t echnol ogy t o sat i sf y y our net wor k's bandwi dt h needs. I t begi ns by pr ovi di ng anunderst andi ng of DWDM t echnol ogy and t hen goes on t o t each t he desi gn, implement at i on, andmai nt enance of DWDM in a net work. You wi l l gai n an under st andi ng of how t o anal y ze designspr i or t o i nst al lat ion t o measur e t he i mpact t hat t he t echnol ogy wi l l have on y our bandwi dt h andcompl ex opt i cal signal - t o- noi se r at i o ( OSNR) - based desi gns. Chapt er 4 al so shows t hei mpor t ance of OSNR i n est i mat i ng BER and t he need for eval uat i on of t he Q- fact or as ani nt er mediat e st age i n BER cal cul at i on. I n addi t i on, i t di scusses di sper si on- based syst emsand penal t i es t hat ar e associ at ed wit h disper si on- l i mi t ed syst ems. Thi s chapt er l ooks athow di spersi on- l i mi t ed sy st ems can be compensat ed by usi ng gener ic schemes and showst he met hods of pr e- and post compensat i on as wel l as pl acement of such compensat i ngunit s. Fi nal l y, Chapt er 4 st udi es nonl i near eff ect s fr om a desi gn point of vi ew and vari ouspenal t i es and t hei r cur es fr om a pure sy st em desi gn per spect i ve.Chapt er 5 , " WDM Net w or k Desi gn - 2" Thi s chapt er di scusses phi l osophi es of opt i calnet wor k design fr om a t opol ogi cal poi nt of vi ew. I t classi fi es opt i cal net wor ks i nt o t hr eemai n ar eas: access, met ro, and l ong haul . Each net wor k t y pe has di f fer ent component s anddesi gn i ssues associ at ed wit h i t . Access net works have r el at i vel y l ess opt i cal i mpai rment sand can be i mpl ement ed usi ng l ow- cost t echnol ogi es. Access net works ar e mor e fl exibl eand pr ovi de a di r ect poi nt of at t achment t o end user s. Met r o net wor ks r equi r ecompar at i vel y more st r i ngent opt i cal requi rement s t han access net wor ks. Met r o net wor ksar e physi call y l ar ger t han access net wor ks and need more speci fi c t echnol ogies f ori mpl ement at ion. Long- haul net wor ks have t he maxi mum number of opt i cal i mpai r ment sassoci at ed. Long- haul net wor k desi gn i nvol ves many di ff er ent phi l osophi es andcomponent s. This chapt er expl ores how t o desi gn opt ical WDM net works and choose t her i ght equi pment for t he r i ght appli cat i on.Chapt er 6 , " Net w or k Lev el St r at egi es i n WDM Net w or k Desi g n: Rout i ng andWav el engt h Assi g nment " Thi s chapt er f ocuses on r out i ng and wavel engt h assi gnment( RWA) st r at egi es i n opt ical net wor ks. RWA anal y si s i s i mpor t ant f rom a net wor k pl anni ngand capaci t y pl anni ng obj ect i ve. Thi s chapt er discusses some al gor i t hms pr oposed byl eadi ng r esearcher s t hat consi der vari ous facet s of t he RWA probl em.Chapt er 7 , " X ov er DWDM" Thi s chapt er consi der s vari ous pr ot ocols over t he DWDMl ay er f or possi bl e i mpl ement at ions. I t l ooks at SONET/ SDH, Et her net , I P, and RPR as someof t he pr ot ocol s t hat can t r ansfer dat a over t he WDM lay er . SONET/ SDH seems t o be t hemost common way of sendi ng dat a, but i t comes at a hi gh pri ce. I n cont rast , Et her net has asi mpl e i mplement at i on and i s r api dl y growi ng i n popul ari t y . Et hernet i s wi del y consider edt o be t he fut ur e r eplacement of SONET/ SDH. RPR i s an eff ici ent pr ot ocol for ri ng net wor ks.I P dir ect l y over WDM seems t o be t he most promi sing pr ot ocol, but i t i s qui t e di f fi cul t t owi del y i mpl ement at t his t i me.Chapt er 8 , " Fut ur e WDM Net w or k s and Tech nol og i es" Thi s chapt er l ooks at some oft he fut ur e t r ends t hat wi l l af fect DWDM net wor ki ng. Bur st swi t chi ng, self - si mi l ar i t y i nnet wor k t r aff i c, 40 G communi cat i on, and I P over DWDM i mpl ement at i ons are di scussed.Chapt er 9 , " Test s and Measur emen t s" Thi s chapt er di scusses measur ement ofpar amet er s t hat af fect t he DWDM net wor k. I t al so highl i ght s t he t echnolgi es used i n t hemeasurement and t est i ng of t hese WDM par amet er s. I n addi t i on, t hi s chapt er expl ai nspr i nci pl es of oper at i on of t est equi pment such as opt i cal spect r um analy zer and opt icalpower met er .Chapt er 1 0, " Si mu l at i on s of WDM Syst ems" Thi s chapt er st udi es DWDM net wor ksi mul at ions and met hods. Usi ng t he soft war e ( VPI t r ansmi ssi onMaker ) i n t he encl osed CD,y ou can per for m net wor k si mul at i ons. The CD cont ains demos and case st udi es for WDMnet wor ki ng. This chapt er det ai l s met hods and requir ement s for conduct i ng good si mul at i onst udy . Table of Cont ent s I ndexDWDM Net w or k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i onsBy Ashwin Gumast e, Tony Ant ony

Publi sher: Ci sco PressPub Dat e: December 13, 2002I SBN: 1- 58705-074-9Pages: 368 A compr ehensi ve book on DWDM net wor k design and i mpl ement at i on solut i ons.St udy vari ous opt i cal communi cat ion pri nci pl es as wel l as communi cat i on met hodol ogi es inan opt i cal f iberDesign and eval uat e opt i cal component s i n a DWDM net workLear n about t he ef fect s of noi se i n si gnal pr opagat i on, especi al l y f rom OSNR and BERper spect i vesDesign opt i cal ampl i fi er- based l i nksLear n how t o design opt i cal l i nks based on power budgetDesign opt i cal l i nks based on OSNRDesign a r eal DWDM net wor k wi t h i mpair ment due t o OSNR, di spersi on, and gai n t i ltCl assif y and desi gn DWDM net wor ks based on si ze and per for manceUnder st and and desi gn nodal ar chi t ect ur es for di ffer ent cl assif i cat ion of DWDM net wor ksCompr ehend di f fer ent pr ot ocol s f or t r anspor t of dat a over t he DWDM l ayerLear n how t o t est and measure di ff er ent par amet er s i n DWDM net wor ks and opt i calsyst emsThe demand f or I nt er net bandwi dt h grows as new appli cat i ons, new t echnol ogi es, and increasedr el i ance on t he I nt ernet cont i nue t o r i se. Dense wavel engt h di vi si on mul t i pl exing ( DWDM) i s onet echnol ogy t hat all ows net wor ks t o gai n si gni fi cant amount s of bandwi dt h t o handl e t hi s gr owi ngneed. DWDM Net wor k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i ons shows y ou how t o t ake advant age oft he new t echnol ogy t o sat i sf y y our net wor k's bandwi dt h needs. I t begi ns by pr ovi di ng anunderst andi ng of DWDM t echnol ogy and t hen goes on t o t each t he desi gn, implement at i on, andmai nt enance of DWDM in a net work. You wi l l gai n an under st andi ng of how t o anal y ze designspr i or t o i nst al lat ion t o measur e t he i mpact t hat t he t echnol ogy wi l l have on y our bandwi dt h andChapter 1. Introduction to OpticalNetworkingCommunicat i on and communi cat ion sy st ems have evol ved t r emendousl y over t he past cent ur y .The t remendous gr owt h in demand f or bandwi dt h has l ed t o var ious pr emier t echnol ogies t hatfaci l i t at e mor e communi cat i on i n t oday 's net works.The need t o send mor e i nfor mat i on ( dat a) t hr ough a communi cat ion medi um ( channel ) i s one oft he mot ivat i ng f act or s f or cont i nuous r esear ch t o i nvent mor e eff i ci ent communi cat i on syst ems.I n t he past , bot h convent i onal copper and wi r el ess met hods wer e good means of t r anspor t i ngdat a. They had t he li mi t at i ons of a fi nit e bandwidt h and hi gh l osses t hat wer e pr opor t i onal wi t ht r ansmi t t i ng l engt h. Gl ass as a possi bl e means of communi cat i on was st udi ed andexper i ment al l y depl oy ed as ear l y as t he 1960s.I t was not unt i l t he mi d- 1980s t hat commer ci al depl oy ment of f i ber act ual l y occurr ed. Apar adi gm shi ft i n f i ber manuf act ur i ng t echnol ogi es and new devel opment s i n semi conduct orl aser s and det ect or s enhanced t he speed of t hi s depl oy ment . A gr adual shif t f r om t heconvent i onal mul t i mode t o t he more exot i c si ngl e mode f i ber caused a st eep i ncrease i ncommuni cat ion dat a- r at es. The heavy dependence of Sy nchr onous Opt i cal Net wor k( SONET) / Synchronous Digi t al Hi er ar chy ( SDH) as a st andar d t ranspor t gear f or dat a and voi cecoal esced wi t h t he demand f or hi gh bit r at es, ensuri ng massive deploy ment of fi ber r i ngs.Thr ee more t echnol ogi es t hat revol ut i oni zed t he opt i cal net worki ng segment i ncl uded t unabl el aser s, ar r ayed waveguides, and opt i cal ampl i fi ers. Tunabl e l asers could emi t l i ght at di ff er entwavel engt hs by using some phy si cal char act er i st i c of t he l asi ng medi a t hat f aci l i t at ed t he changei n emi t t ed wavel engt hs. Ar r ay ed wavegui des, al t hough int r oduced al most t wo decades aft ert unabl e l aser s, were import ant f or mul t i pl exi ng and demul t ipl exi ng wavel engt hs of l i ght s andfor mi ng a composi t e si gnal . Opt i cal ampl i fi er s wer e genui ne opt i cal equi val ent s of el ect ronicampl i fi er s, wi t h t he same gener i c f unct i onal i t y .Convent i onall y , l i ght pr opagat i on is an el ect r omagnet i c phenomenon, and i t s pr opagat i ont hr ough a f iber can be mat hemat ical l y st udi ed wit h Maxwel l' s equat ions.NOTEOpt i cs i s a compl icat ed fi el d; it s under st anding requir es sol id phy si cs concept s.One of t he key not i ons behi nd communi cat ion i n a f i ber i s t he t ot al i nt er nal r efl ect i on ( TI R) ofl i ght wi t hi n a t r ansmi ssi ve medi a. Thi s concept is det ai led i n t he f oll owi ng sect i on, " WDM, " and i tl eads t o t he basi c t heor y t hat suppor t s opt ical communi cat i on. Furt her , mult ipl exi ng, i n t i me andfr equency domains, i s qui t e pr omi nent l y depl oy ed i n var i ous f or ms of communicat i on syst ems.Thi s concept i s furt her ed t o t he fi el d of opt i cal communi cat i ons, whi ch gi ves bi r t h t o what i scommonly t er med wavel engt h di visi on mul t i pl exi ng ( WDM) . Lat er in t hi s chapt er , t he sect i ont i t l ed "Opt i cs: An Updat e" di scusses WDM i n mor e det ai l .An enor mous bandwi dt h and a l ow er r or r at e woul d seem t o pl ace t he opt i cal fi ber i n a cat egor yt hat i s super i or t o ot her convent i onal f orms of communi cat i on media. Theoret i cal ly , a singl est r and of fi ber as t hi n as a si ngl e human hai r coul d cr eat e bandwi dt h of 30000 Gbps ( 1 Gbps = Table of Cont ent s I ndexDWDM Net w or k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i onsBy Ashwin Gumast e, Tony Ant ony

Publi sher: Ci sco PressPub Dat e: December 13, 2002I SBN: 1- 58705-074-9Pages: 368 A compr ehensi ve book on DWDM net wor k design and i mpl ement at i on solut i ons.St udy vari ous opt i cal communi cat ion pri nci pl es as wel l as communi cat i on met hodol ogi es inan opt i cal f iberDesign and eval uat e opt i cal component s i n a DWDM net workLear n about t he ef fect s of noi se i n si gnal pr opagat i on, especi al l y f rom OSNR and BERper spect i vesDesign opt i cal ampl i fi er- based l i nksLear n how t o design opt i cal l i nks based on power budgetDesign opt i cal l i nks based on OSNRDesign a r eal DWDM net wor k wi t h i mpair ment due t o OSNR, di spersi on, and gai n t i ltCl assif y and desi gn DWDM net wor ks based on si ze and per for manceUnder st and and desi gn nodal ar chi t ect ur es for di ffer ent cl assif i cat ion of DWDM net wor ksCompr ehend di f fer ent pr ot ocol s f or t r anspor t of dat a over t he DWDM l ayerLear n how t o t est and measure di ff er ent par amet er s i n DWDM net wor ks and opt i calsyst emsThe demand f or I nt er net bandwi dt h grows as new appli cat i ons, new t echnol ogi es, and increasedr el i ance on t he I nt ernet cont i nue t o r i se. Dense wavel engt h di vi si on mul t i pl exing ( DWDM) i s onet echnol ogy t hat all ows net wor ks t o gai n si gni fi cant amount s of bandwi dt h t o handl e t hi s gr owi ngneed. DWDM Net wor k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i ons shows y ou how t o t ake advant age oft he new t echnol ogy t o sat i sf y y our net wor k's bandwi dt h needs. I t begi ns by pr ovi di ng anunderst andi ng of DWDM t echnol ogy and t hen goes on t o t each t he desi gn, implement at i on, andmai nt enance of DWDM in a net work. You wi l l gai n an under st andi ng of how t o anal y ze designspr i or t o i nst al lat ion t o measur e t he i mpact t hat t he t echnol ogy wi l l have on y our bandwi dt h and109bps) . However, si ngl e channel communi cat i on sy st ems t oday have not been abl e t o funct i onhi gher t han 40 Gbps due t o t he sever e opt o- el ect r oni c mi smat ch. What makes opt i calcommuni cat ion so at t ract i ve i s t hi s capabi l it y t o t r ansport huge dat a fi l es and connect opt i calci rcui t s or l ight p at hs acr oss l arge di st ances wi t h mi ni mal communi cat i on er r or s.The bui l di ng bl ocks of an opt i cal net wor k can be cat egori zed i nt o t hr ee gr oups:The communi cat i on media, whi ch i s t he fi ber .The passi ve and act i ve component s t hat i nt er face wi t h t hi s medi a, such as l aser s,det ect ors, ampli f i er s, wavegui des, and so on.The sof t ware- based net work management sy st em and t he pr ot ocol s t hat r un t hr ough t hechannel s of communi cat i on, cr eat i ng a conducive communi cat i on envi r onment .The f i ber i s a passi ve medi a t hat i s gover ned by l aws of opt i cal physi cs. Li ght pul ses propagat i ngt hr ough t he f i ber exper i ence opt i cal eff ect s such as r efl ect i on, r ef ract i on, bi r ef r ingence,at t enuat i on, di sper si on, and pol ar i zat i on t o name a few. For t hcomi ng sect i ons f ocus on t he basi cconcept s of each of t hese eff ect s. The mat hemat i cal anal ysi s of each eff ect i s bey ond t he scope oft hi s book, but t hey ar e descri bed qui t e exhaust ivel y i n r efer ences 1, 2, and 3 at t he end of t hi schapt er .The component s t hat i nt er act wi t h t he f i ber and ar e r esponsi ble for communi cat i on are gr oupedpr i mari l y i nt o passi ve and act i ve devi ces. Passive devi cessuch as fi ber coupler s, t aps,ci rcul at or s, and grat i ngs mux/ demuxar e key WDM component s and ar e st udi ed i n t he fi r st halfof Chapt er 2, "Net wor ki ng wi t h DWDM - 1." Act i ve devi cessuch as l aser s, phot o- det ect ors,ampl i fi er s, and swi t chesar e descr i bed in Chapt ers 2 and 3, "Net wor ki ng wi t h DWDM - 2."Chapt er 4, "WDM Net wor k Design - 1, " and Chapt er 5, "WDM Net wor k Design - 2, " descr i bes t heact ual net wor k desi gn i ssues, and Chapt er 6, "Net wor k Level St rat egies i n WDM Net work Desi gn:Rout i ng and Wavel engt h Assi gnment , " descr i bes how t o handl e net wor k- rel at ed probl ems.Chapt er 7, "X over DWDM, " di scusses var i ous pr ot ocols over t he WDM l ayer , and Chapt er 8,"Fut ure WDM Net wor ks and Technol ogi es, " descr i bes vari ous new t echnol ogi es and f ocus on newar eas of WDM net worki ng wi t h t he predomi nant I P l ay er i mbi bed ont o t he opt i cal l ay er. Chapt er9, "Test s and Measur ement s, " deals wi t h t est i ng WDM syst ems as well as measur i ng WDMsyst em paramet ers. Chapt er 10, " Si mul at i ons of WDM Sy st ems, " expl ains si mul at ion t echni quesand met hodol ogies of WDM net wor ks. Table of Cont ent s I ndexDWDM Net w or k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i onsBy Ashwin Gumast e, Tony Ant ony

Publi sher: Ci sco PressPub Dat e: December 13, 2002I SBN: 1- 58705-074-9Pages: 368 A compr ehensi ve book on DWDM net wor k design and i mpl ement at i on solut i ons.St udy vari ous opt i cal communi cat ion pri nci pl es as wel l as communi cat i on met hodol ogi es inan opt i cal f iberDesign and eval uat e opt i cal component s i n a DWDM net workLear n about t he ef fect s of noi se i n si gnal pr opagat i on, especi al l y f rom OSNR and BERper spect i vesDesign opt i cal ampl i fi er- based l i nksLear n how t o design opt i cal l i nks based on power budgetDesign opt i cal l i nks based on OSNRDesign a r eal DWDM net wor k wi t h i mpair ment due t o OSNR, di spersi on, and gai n t i ltCl assif y and desi gn DWDM net wor ks based on si ze and per for manceUnder st and and desi gn nodal ar chi t ect ur es for di ffer ent cl assif i cat ion of DWDM net wor ksCompr ehend di f fer ent pr ot ocol s f or t r anspor t of dat a over t he DWDM l ayerLear n how t o t est and measure di ff er ent par amet er s i n DWDM net wor ks and opt i calsyst emsThe demand f or I nt er net bandwi dt h grows as new appli cat i ons, new t echnol ogi es, and increasedr el i ance on t he I nt ernet cont i nue t o r i se. Dense wavel engt h di vi si on mul t i pl exing ( DWDM) i s onet echnol ogy t hat all ows net wor ks t o gai n si gni fi cant amount s of bandwi dt h t o handl e t hi s gr owi ngneed. DWDM Net wor k Desi gns and Engi neer i ng Sol ut i ons shows y ou how t o t ake advant age oft he new t echnol ogy t o sat i sf y y our net wor k's bandwi dt h needs. I t begi ns by pr ovi di ng anunderst andi ng of DWDM t echnol ogy and t hen goes on t o t each t he desi gn, implement at i on, andmai nt enance of DWDM in a net work. You wi l l gai n an under st andi ng of how t o anal y ze designspr i or t o i nst al lat ion t o measur e t he i mpact t hat t he t echnol ogy wi l l have on y our bandwi dt h andWDMWDM i s t he abbr evi at i on f or wavel engt h di vi si on mul t i pl exinga t er m t hat has r i sen t opr omi nence over t he past decade. Char l es Br acket t 's semi nal paper13 on wavelengt h di vi si onmul t i pl exi ng i n 1990 set t he t one for t he r ecent advances i n t hi s sect or of net worki ng. Opt i calcommuni cat ion can be envi saged as t ransmi t t i ng i nf or mat ion opt i cal l y by modul at i ng a car r ierfr equency t hat i s emi t t ed by an opt i cal gener at or such as a laser and det ect i ng i t at t he f ar endof an opt i cal f iber wit h a phot o- di ode. The laser emi t s li ght t hat is charact er i zed by it s opt i calfr equency and hence i t s wavel engt h. ( Wavelengt h- f r equency pr oduct i s a const ant and gives t hevel oci t y of l i ght . ) For opt i cal communi cat i on t o occur, t hi s f requency must be subj ect ed t o t hel owest possi ble at t enuat i on.Tr adi t i onal l y , t hr ee l ow at t enuat i on wi ndows ar e avai l abl e f or communi cat i on t hat i s locat edar ound t he 980 nm, 1310 nm, and 1550 nm bands. By t r ansmi t t i ng di f fer ent dat a st r eams ondi f fer ent wavel engt hs ( f r equencies) and mult ipl exi ng t hese di f ferent f requenci es as a composi t esi gnal , we can i ncr ease t he cumul at i ve dat a r at e of t he ent i r e fi ber . This mul t i pl exi ng scheme i scommonly t er med WDM.The t ransmi t t er end of t he communicat i on channel has a fi ni t e l i mi t t o t he maxi mum dat a t hatcan be modul