Childhood Obesity: Complications and Implications
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Childhood Obesity: Complications and ImplicationsAmanda Mendez, RN, MSN, FNP-CDaurice Ring, RN, MSN, CNP
Introduction to Obesity Obesity as defined by the CDCToday we will discuss complications of childhood obesity and implications for adulthood.We as school based health advocates have the obligation to be aware of these complications.
ObesityComplicationsPhysicalPsychologicalImplicationsDuring ChildhoodDuring Adulthood
Body Mass IndexBMIChildrens BMI is an age and sex specific percentile.Varies as they ageVaries between sexes
Body Mass IndexIt is the most widely accepted method for screening.It is relatively easy to obtain.It is non-invasive.It is NOT diagnostic because it is not a direct measure of body fatness.
Obesity Overweight>85% Body Mass Index (BMI) but 95% BMI
Obesity Among preschool-aged children, aged 25 years, the prevalence of obesity increased from 5.0% to 12.4%.Among school-aged children, aged 611 years, the prevalence of obesity increased from 4.0% to 17.0%.8, 46 Among school-aged adolescents, aged 1219 years, the prevalence of obesity increased from 6.1% to 17.6%.
ObesityThe prevalence rate of obesity was higher among Mexican-American boys (22.1%) and Non-Hispanic black girls (27.7%).
Contributing FactorsImbalance between calories consumed and calories used to support growth and developmentGeneticsBehavior/LifestyleEnvironment
Genetic FactorsSusceptibility to retain excess body weightRare genetic disordersPrader-Willi syndromeCannot be solely geneticThe genetics of our population have not changed significantly in the last 30 years, yet childhood obesity has tripled.
Behavior/Lifestyle FactorsEnergy intakeLarge portionsCalorie dense foodsPhysical ActivityDecreased 14% in 13 years in schoolsLess than 28% in high school meet minimum recommendations for physical activity.
Behavior/Lifestyle Factors (cont.)Sedentary BehaviorTelevisionVideo gamesMoviesComputersCell Phones
Environmental FactorsHomeChild careSchoolCommunity
Physical Complications of ObesityType 2 DiabetesMetabolic SyndromeHigh blood pressure Asthma and other respiratory problems Sleep disorders
Physical Complications of Obesity (cont.)Liver disease Early puberty or menarche Eating disorders Skin infections
Physical Complications of Obesity (cont.)Type 2 DiabetesGlucose intoleranceHyperinsulinemiaAcanthosis NigricansOvert DiabetesCardiovascular DiseaseKidney Failure
Physical Complications of Obesity (cont.)Metabolic SyndromeHigh blood glucoseHigh blood pressureAbdominal obesityLow HDL, elevated cholesterol and high triglycerides
Psychological Complications of ObesityDepression Behavior and learning problemsLow self-esteem and bullying
Psychological Complications of Obesity (cont.)Obese children and adolescents are targets of early and systematic social discrimination.This type of social stigmatization may hinder academic success, social functioning, and may impact adulthood.
Schools and ObesityFree and reduced mealsLower socioeconomic statusMay contribute more than 50% of caloric intakeAlternative foodsSnack barsStudent storesVending machines
Schools and Obesity (cont.)Programs to encourage physical activityRegardless of athletic abilitiesHealth related fitness classesPrograms regarding nutrition and weight controlHealthy food choicesPortion control
Schools and Obesity (cont.)Many factors outside of school influence obesity.The education system alone may not overcome obesity.Schools may be able to provide an opportunity for prevention.
SummaryObesity is 95% or greater BMIPhysical ImplicationsPsychological ImplicationsWhat we can do?
Where to Get More Informationhttp://www.cdc.gov/obesity/index.htmlhttp://www.who.int/topics/obesity/en/www.sparkpeople.com