Child Emergencies & First Aid
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Transcript of Child Emergencies & First Aid
Child Emergencies & First Aid
Child Emergencies & First AidUnit 5: Health and SafetyCall EMS (Emergency Services)Determine what and how much was ingestedKeep the child sitting up in case she vomitsDo not induce vomiting unless instructed to by a medical professionalPoisoningsCroup is a thick heavy breathingHave child breath moist air for 10 minutes (Put childs face over a hot bowl of water, lay a towel over the back of their head to trap the steam in)If there is no improvement take the child outside to breathe fresh cold airGive acetaminophen for feverCall the doctor if noisy breathing continuesCroupNever give a child aspirin, unless instructed to by a doctor, instead give them acetaminophenIf the childs fever is still about 103 degrees after 30 minutes, sponge with tepid water, if advised by doctorNever use rubbing alcoholStop treatment is child shiversChild should drink plenty of fluids
Fever ReviewA seizure usually lasts less than five minutesIf a child begins to have a seizure call 911Move furniture and objects away to avoid injuryPut nothing near the childs mouthDo not attempt to stop movementsLay child down on his or her left sideLoosen tight clothingIf child vomits, clear mouth and pull jaw forwardSeizuresInfants should drink a balanced electrolyte solution (Pedialite) in addition to regular formulaToddlers can drink both, flat soda, and other liquids at room temperatureAvoid full strength juices, carbonated soda, and sports drinks because they have too much sugar which can make it worseOlder children should eat the BRAT diet:B=Bananas R=Rice A=Applesauce T=ToastDiarrheaInfants under 6 months should be given 1 teaspoon of electrolyte solution every 10 15 minutes. The amount may be increased after 2 hours without vomitingToddlers can drink broth and flat sodaVomitingCommon objects small children choke on include small toy parts, deflated balloons, shiny objects such as coins, jacks, thumb tacks and marbles.Common foods small children choke on include hot dogs, nuts, seeds, gum, candy, raw vegetables, and popcorn.If a child is choking AND coughing do not interfere.Assist the child if the coughing is ineffective, soundless or the child looses consciousness.
ChokingLay infant face down on your forearm, supporting infants jaw in your hand.Rest your arm on your thigh or leg for support Keep infants head lower than his body.With the heel of your other hand, give five quick, but distinct blows to the infants back between the shoulder blades.Turn infant over with your other hand, support his or her head and neck.Using two fingers, give five quick downward chest compressions. One finger should be below the nipple line. Compress chest - 1 inch or 1/3 - the depth of chest.Continue repeating process until object is dislodged or help arrives.
Infant Airway Obstruction (under 1 year)If the child can not speak, make sound, or cough perform abdominal thrust.Stand or kneel behind the toddler with your arms place under his or hers. Toddlers legs should straddle your leg. Wrap your arms around their chestPosition your fist, thumb side in, above the toddlers naval and well below his sternum. Deliver five quick thrust inward and upward.
Toddler Airway ObstructionComfort child and check for other injuries.Rinse wound.If wound is bleeding, apply direct pressure with sterile gauze.If not, cleanse thoroughly and apply antibiotic.Watch for infection.If possible locate animal to check for rabies.
Animal BitesRinse sting site.Flick out stinger. DO NOT PULL.Apply cool pack.Give child antihistamine, if approved by doctor.
Insect StingsInfants under 6 months should not be exposed to direct sunlight.Apply PABA-free sunscreen with a SPF of 30 or higher, 30 minutes before sun exposure. Reapply frequently, especially if child is in water.Drink plenty of fluids.
Sunburn PreventionRemove child from heat.Loosen clothing.Cool quickly.Give fluids.Monitor condition.Heat ExhaustionIf a childs skin is white, but still soft they may have frost nip.DO NOT RUB THE SKIN. Gently warm the area by immersing in warm water.If not available, use your own body heat.If not attended to frost nip can become frostbite.Frostbite will appear white and waxy and skin will feel hard. Begin warming process and take for emergency treatment.
Frost BiteDO NOT MOVE. Call EMS.Calm child.Stabilize head.
Severe Trips and FallsCall EMS.Remove clothing from injury site.Control bleeding.Immobilize the limb.Apply cold pack.
Fractures (Broken Bones)Apply cold compress.Call doctor if swelling does not decrease.To control bleeding apply gentle direct pressure.Do not remove any dressing. Add new layers and maintain pressure.Be sure bandage is not tight enough to cut off circulation.If possible, elevate injured area.Minor cuts should be clean with soap and water and checked for infection.
Bumps & CutsCover child to keep warm.Elevate feet.Call EMS.ShockRinse area with cool water NOT ice or butter.Keep cold and wet. Apply cold pack.Apply antibiotic ointment.Cover with dry, sterile dressing.DO NOT break blisters. This may cause infection.1st degree burns are red. 2nd degree burns have blisters. 3rd degree burns are charred, white or grey in color and appear dry.Call EMS if the burn is larger than the childs hand.Call a doctor if the child has been burnt on the face, palms of the hand, soles of the feet, or on the genitalia.
BurnsDO NOT touch the child.Make sure power if OFF.Look for an entrance and exit burn.If not breathing and no pulse begin CPR and then call EMS. Continue CPR until help arrives.
Electric Burns & ShocksRinse with lukewarm water.If you can see the object, try to remove with a soft cloth.DO NOT ATTEMT to remove a large foreign object imbedded in the eye- Instead call EMS, immobilize with cotton dressing and tape in place.If chemicals are splashed in the eye, immediately flush with water for at least 20 minutes. Call poison control or EMS.
Eye InjuriesTry to remove matter or foreign object with a bulb aspirator.If that doesnt work, try using your finger.Use a saline solution to soften object unless it is organic, such as beans or seeds.To prevent nosebleeds, use a humidifier. To treat a nosebleed, not from an injury, lean child forward and pinch nose for 5 - 10 minutes.
Nose ProblemsInfant CPR