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NUTRITION

Transcript of Chapter016 recap

  • 1.NutritionLast Week at LWTC Last Day of this class Lets Recap Chapter 16 Copyright 2005 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2.

  • ___________are the components in food that supply the elements necessary to meet the bodies requirements for energy, growth, maintenance, and well-being.

Copyright 2005 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 3.

  • Nutrientsare the components in food that supply the elements necessary to meet the bodies requirements for energy, growth, maintenance, and well-being.

Copyright 2005 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 4. ________________________ (RDA)

  • The RDAs are reevaluated and reissued approximately every __________ years to keep up with emerging research.

Copyright 2005 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 5. Latest Food Pyramid

  • One size doesn't fit all. MyPyramid Plan can help you choose the foods and amounts that are right for you. For a quick estimate of what and how much you need to eat, enter your age, sex, and activity level in the MyPyramid Plan box.
  • Make smart choices from every food group.
  • Find your balance between food and physical activity, and
  • Get the most nutrition out of your calories.

6. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)

  • The RDAs are reevaluated and reissued approximately every__4__years to keep up with emerging research.

Copyright 2005 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 7. Copyright 2005 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 8. 9. Key Nutrients

  • C
  • P
  • L
  • W
  • V
  • M

Copyright 2005 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 10. Key Nutrients

  • Carbohydrates
  • Proteins
  • Lipids (fats)
  • Water
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals

Copyright 2005 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 11. Nutrients

  • Energy yielding nutrients~Energy measured as kcalories (kcal)
    • 1. Fat= _____ kcal/gram
    • 2. Protein= ______ kcal/gram
    • 3. Carbohydrate= _____ kcal/gram

12. Nutrients

  • Energy yielding nutrients~Energy measured as kcalories (kcal)
    • 1. Fat= 9 kcal/gram
    • 2. Protein= 4 kcal/gram
    • 3. Carbohydrate= 4 kcal/gram

13. ______________(Causing Decay)

  • A major factor in determining the cariogenicity ofa carbohydrate depends on _____________the food stays in the mouth.

Copyright 2005 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14. Cariogenic Foods (Causing Decay)

  • A major factor in determining the cariogenicity of a carbohydrate depends onhow longthe food stays in the mouth.

Copyright 2005 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 15.

  • Sugars + bacteria = ________

16.

  • Sugars +bacteria =acid

17. Proteins

  • Proteins are composed of _____________, which are materials our bodies use in the building and repair process.
  • There are _____ amino acids, of which _____ are essential in the adult for normal growth and maintenance of tissues.

Copyright 2005 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 18. Proteins

  • Proteins are composed ofamino acids , which are materials our bodies use in the building and repair process.
  • There are 20 amino acids, of which 8 are essential in the adult for normal growth and maintenance of tissues.
    • These 8 essential amino acids must come from food.
  • Acomplete proteinis one that contains a well-balanced mixture of all 8 essential amino acids.

Copyright 2005 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 19. Cholesterol

  • The fat in the body is divided into two categories:
    • Good fat is ______________
    • Bad fat is ______________

Copyright 2005 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 20. Cholesterol

  • Cholesterolis a fat commonly found in saturated fats (from animal sources).
  • The fat in the body is divided into two categories:
    • Good fat is high-density lipoprotein (HDL).
    • Bad fat is low-density lipoprotein (LDL).
  • The recommendation is that cholesterol be limited to less than 250 mg per day, which is the amount in one egg yolk.

Copyright 2005 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 21. Antioxidants

  • Theantioxidant vitamins , ____ and _____, and betacarotene can prevent cholesterol from oxidizing and damaging arteries.

Copyright 2005 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 22. Antioxidants

  • Theantioxidant vitamins , E and C, and betacarotene can prevent cholesterol from oxidizing and damaging arteries.

Copyright 2005 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 23. Vitamins

  • To date, _____ vitamins have been discovered.
    • _____ are fat soluble.
    • _____ are water soluble.

Copyright 2005 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 24. Vitamins

  • Vitamins are organic substances that occur in plant and animal tissues.
  • They are essential in minute amounts for the human body to maintain growth and good health.
  • Vitamins do not supply energy, but they are needed to release energy from the carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
  • To date, 13 vitamins have been discovered.
    • Four are fat soluble.
    • Nine are water soluble.

Copyright 2005 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 25. Minerals

  • There are ________ essential minerals.
  • The minerals present in the largest quantities include________, ____________, ________, chlorine, phosphorus,andmagnesium .

Copyright 2005 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 26. Minerals

  • Mineralsare inorganic substances that make up about 4% of the body weight.
  • There are 14 essential minerals.
  • The minerals present in the largest quantities includesodium, potassium, calcium, chlorine, phosphorus,andmagnesium .
  • Thetrace elementsinclude iron, zinc, copper, selenium, chromium, manganese, iodine, and fluorine.

Copyright 2005 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 27.

  • ____________Often called the forgotten nutrient.

Copyright 2005 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 28. Water

  • Approximately two thirds of the body weight iswater .
  • Often called the forgotten nutrient, water helps to:
    • Build tissue
    • Aids in regulating body temperature
    • Acts as a lubricant for joints and mucous membranes

Copyright 2005 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 29. Copyright 2005 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 30. Reading Food Labels

  • Every food label must contain the following information:
    • Individual serving size
    • Number of servings per container
    • Total calories
    • Calories derived from fat content
    • Percentage of daily value (% of RDA)

Copyright 2005 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 31. Fig. 16-4Nutritional facts label Copyright 2005 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 32. How to Understand and Use the Nutrition Facts Label

  • http://www.fda.gov/Food/LabelingNutrition/ConsumerInformation/ucm078889.htm

Copyright 2005 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 33. Nutrient Claims

  • Examples of nutrient claims include:
    • Low fat
    • High fiber
    • Reduced calories
    • Cholesterol free

Copyright 2005 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 34. Fig. 16-5Comparative versus absolute nutrient claims(From Kinn ME, Woods M: The medical assistant: administrative and clinical, ed 8, Philadelphia, 1999, Saunders.) Copyright 2005 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 35. Organic Foods

  • Foods with the organic label must havebeen grown without the use of any chemical pesticides, herbicides, or fertilizers.
  • The use of hormones in seed preparation is prohibited.
  • Organic milk must have no added vitaminsor chemicals and preparation is closely monitored.

Copyright 2005 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 36. Eating Disorders

  • Influences of the media, food industry, and society have led to a preoccupation with being thin. Such influences have contributed to a society of weight-conscious adolescents and adults and an increasein eating disorders.
  • Eating disorders have serious medical, oral, and psychological implications and can be life threatening.

Copyright 2005 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 37. Eating Disorders-contd.

  • Eating disorders commonly occur during adolescence and adul